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After the Big Bang
• The infant Universe was searingly HOT!
• It was full of energy of intense radiation.
• Albert Einstein’s equation E=mc2 says that
mass and energy are interchangeable.
– so one can be turned into the other.
• So in the early Universe Energy was converted
into matter (stuff with mass)
the atom
• Basic unit of matter = atom
• Consists of:
– Central Nucleus
• Contains protons and neutrons
– Cloud of Electrons
• Bound to nucleus via electromagnetic force
subatomic particles
• Three main Subatomic Particles:
– protons (p+)
– neutrons (n0)
– electrons (e-)
Expansion & Cooling
• After the Big Bang the Universe expanded
• As it expanded it cooled.
• As it cooled, matter began attracted to each
other and the four forces of the Universe
were born.
Four Forces of the Universe
1. Gravity: Mass is attracted to Mass
2. Strong Force: the force between the protons
and neutrons of the nucleus of atoms. It holds
the nucleus together.
3. Weak Force: An attraction between hydrogen
atoms. Causes nuclear fusion between hydrogen
atoms, it is the reason the sun burns.
4. Electromagnetism: Attraction between charged
particles (e.g.protons & electrons). It is the
force that holds atoms together.
Birth of the simple Elements of the
periodic table
The first elements
• Hydrogen formed: As the Universe cooled the
strong force pulled a proton and neutron
together to form hydrogen nuclei.
• Helium forms -- Eventually two protons and
two neutrons were attracted to each other via
strong force and helium nuclei were formed.
• Lithium forms: Three protons & three
neutrons come together become lithium
Galaxies Form
• Clumps of dark matter attract Hydrogen and
Helium gas through the force of gravity
• These clouds form huge clouds will eventually
become galaxies.
Stars Form
• A star is formed when a large amount of
hydrogen gas starts to collapse on itself due
to gravity.
• As the atoms collide the release a lot of heat
• Eventually colliding nuclei hydrogen will fuse
and form helium. This nuclear fusion causes a
huge release of energy like a nuclear bomb.
This nuclear fusion is what causes stars to
Nuclear Fusion – Formation of stars
V.4 Formation of Stars Video
Stephen Hawking
Stars Die, Heavier Elements form
• Eventually stars run out of hydrogen gas and this
causes the stars to contract and heat up more.
• This increase in heat and pressure causes helium
atoms to fusion with other helium and hydrogen
• This forms heavier elements such as carbon,
• Sometimes large stars will explode when they
run out of hydrogen gas becoming supernovas,
this explosion causes the formation of even
heavier elements.
V.5 Formation of Elements
of Stars and supernovas in Stephen
Hawking Video
V.6 Formation of our Solar System
Stephen Hawking