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BABIN / HARRIS
CB
PART 3
CHAPTER 8
Consumer Culture
©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Learning Outcomes
1. Understand how culture provides the true
meaning of objects and activities.
2. Use the key dimensions of core societal
values to understand the concept of cultural
distance.
3. Define acculturation and enculturation.
4. List fundamental elements of verbal and
nonverbal communication.
5. Discuss current emerging consumer markets
and scan for opportunities.
8-2
©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
What Is Culture?
• Consumer culture—commonly held
societal beliefs that define what is socially
gratifying.
• Culture is everywhere and ultimately
explains the habits and idiosyncrasies of all
groups of consumers.
• Culture is hierarchical.
• Subculture—refers to a culture existing at a
lower level than overall culture.
LO1
8-3
©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Culture, Meaning, and Value
• Culture shapes the value of consumer
activities by:
• Giving meaning to objects
• Giving meaning to activities
• Facilitating communication
LO1
8-4
©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Cultural Norms
• Refers to rules that specify the appropriate
behavior in a given situation within a
specific culture.
• Mostly unwritten and simply understood
by members of a cultural group.
LO1
8-5
©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Cultural Sanctions
• Penalties associated with performing a
non-gratifying or culturally inconsistent
behavior.
• Popular culture captures cultural trends
and also shapes norms and sanctions
within society.
• Sex-roles refer to the societal expectations
for men and women among members of a
cultural group.
LO1
8-6
©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Where Does Culture
Come From?
• Ecological factors—physical characteristics
that describe the physical environment
and habitat of a particular place.
• Tradition—customs and accepted ways of
structuring society.
LO2
8-7
©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Core Societal Values
• Core societal values (CSV) or cultural
values—represent a commonly agreed
upon consensus about the most preferable
ways of living within a society.
LO2
8-8
©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Dimensions of Cultural Values
•
•
•
•
•
Individualism/collectivism
Masculinity/femininity
Power distance
Uncertainty avoidance
Long-term orientation
LO2
8-9
©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Cultural Distance
• How should a company decide where they
should expand internationally?
• Geographic distance—look to neighboring
countries.
• Cultural distance—represents how disparate
one nation is from another in terms of their
CSVs.
LO2
8-10
©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
How Is Culture Learned?
• Socialization—involves learning through
observation of and the active processing of
information about lived, everyday experience.
• Enculturation—represents the way a person
learns his/her native culture.
• Acculturation—the process by which
consumers come to learn a culture other than
their natural, native culture.
•
•
LO3
Ethnic identification
Consumer ethnocentrism
8-11
©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
How Is Culture Learned?
• Quartet of Institutions—responsible for
communicating the CSVs through both
formal and informal processes from one
generation to another:
•
•
•
•
LO3
Family
School
Church
Media
8-12
©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
How Is Culture Learned?
• Modeling—a process of imitating others’
behavior.
• Shaping—consumers’ behaviors slowly
adapt to a culture through a series of
rewards and sanctions.
LO3
8-13
©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Verbal Communication
• Verbal communication is the transfer of
information through either the literal
spoken or written word.
LO4
8-14
©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Verbal Communication
• Translational equivalence—exists when
two phrases share the same precise
meaning in two different cultures.
• Metric equivalence—the state in which
consumers are shown to use numbers to
represent quantities the same way across
cultures.
LO4
8-15
©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Nonverbal Communication
• Nonverbal communication is information
passed through some nonverbal act, such
as body language.
LO4
8-16
©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Nonverbal Communication
• Elements of nonverbal communication:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
LO4
Time
Body language
Space
Etiquette/manners
Relationships
Agreement
Symbols
8-17
©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Emerging Cultures
• BRIC—Brazil, Russia, India, and China—
economies that are growing rapidly.
• Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)—gives an idea
of the total size of the consumer market in
each country in terms of total buying power.
• Chindia—refers to the combined market and
business potential of China and India.
• Glocalization—marketing strategy may be
global, but the implementation of that
strategy at the marketing tactics level should
be local.
LO5
8-18
©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.