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„
Machine Learning with
WEKA
„
WEKA: A Machine
Learning Toolkit
The Explorer
•
•
Eibe Frank
•
•
Department of Computer Science,
University of Waikato, New Zealand
•
„
„
„
Classification and
Regression
Clustering
Association Rules
Attribute Selection
Data Visualization
The Experimenter
The Knowledge
Flow GUI
Conclusions
WEKA: the bird
Copyright: Martin Kramer (mkramer@wxs.nl)
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WEKA: the software
„
„
„
„
Machine learning/data mining software written in
Java (distributed under the GNU Public License)
Used for research, education, and applications
Complements “Data Mining” by Witten & Frank
Main features:
Comprehensive set of data pre-processing
pre processing tools,
learning algorithms and evaluation methods
‹ Graphical user interfaces (incl. data visualization)
‹ Environment for comparing learning algorithms
‹
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WEKA: versions
„
There are several versions of WEKA:
WEKA 3.0: “book version” compatible with
description in data mining book
‹ WEKA 3.2: “GUI version” adds graphical user
interfaces (book version is command-line only)
‹ WEKA 3.3: “development version” with lots of
i
improvements
t
‹
„
This talk is based on the latest snapshot of WEKA
3.3 (soon to be WEKA 3.4)
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WEKA only deals with “flat” files
@relation heart-disease-simplified
@ tt ib t age numeric
@attribute
i
@attribute sex { female, male}
@attribute chest_pain_type { typ_angina, asympt, non_anginal, atyp_angina}
@attribute cholesterol numeric
@attribute exercise_induced_angina { no, yes}
@attribute class { present, not_present}
@
@data
63,male,typ_angina,233,no,not_present
67,male,asympt,286,yes,present
67,male,asympt,229,yes,present
38,female,non_anginal,?,no,not_present
...
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WEKA only deals with “flat” files
@relation heart-disease-simplified
@ tt ib t age numeric
@attribute
i
@attribute sex { female, male}
@attribute chest_pain_type { typ_angina, asympt, non_anginal, atyp_angina}
@attribute cholesterol numeric
@attribute exercise_induced_angina { no, yes}
@attribute class { present, not_present}
@
@data
63,male,typ_angina,233,no,not_present
67,male,asympt,286,yes,present
67,male,asympt,229,yes,present
38,female,non_anginal,?,no,not_present
...
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Explorer: pre-processing the data
„
„
„
„
Data can be imported from a file in various
formats: ARFF, CSV, C4.5, binary
Data can also be read from a URL or from an SQL
database (using JDBC)
Pre-processing tools in WEKA are called “filters”
WEKA contains filters for:
‹
Discretization, normalization, resampling, attribute
selection, transforming and combining attributes, …
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Explorer: building “classifiers”
„
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Classifiers in WEKA are models for predicting
nominal or numeric quantities
Implemented learning schemes include:
‹
„
Decision trees and lists, instance-based classifiers,
support vector machines, multi-layer perceptrons,
logistic regression, Bayes’ nets, …
“Meta”-classifiers include:
‹
Bagging, boosting, stacking, error-correcting output
codes, locally weighted learning, …
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QuickTime™ and a TIFF (LZW) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
QuickTime™ and a TIFF (LZW) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
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Explorer: clustering data
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WEKA contains “clusterers” for finding groups of
similar instances in a dataset
Implemented schemes are:
‹
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k-Means, EM, Cobweb, X-means, FarthestFirst
Clusters can be visualized and compared to “true”
clusters ((if given)
g
)
Evaluation based on loglikelihood if clustering
scheme produces a probability distribution
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Explorer: finding associations
„
WEKA contains an implementation of the Apriori
algorithm for learning association rules
‹
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Can identify statistical dependencies between
groups of attributes:
‹
„
Works only with discrete data
milk, butter ⇒ bread, eggs (with confidence 0.9 and
support 2000)
Apriori can compute all rules that have a given
minimum support and exceed a given confidence
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Explorer: attribute selection
„
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Panel that can be used to investigate which
(subsets of) attributes are the most predictive ones
Attribute selection methods contain two parts:
A search method: best-first, forward selection,
random, exhaustive, genetic algorithm, ranking
‹ An evaluation method: correlation-based, wrapper,
information gain, chi-squared, …
‹
„
Very flexible: WEKA allows (almost) arbitrary
combinations of these two
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Explorer: data visualization
„
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Visualization very useful in practice: e.g. helps to
determine difficulty of the learning problem
WEKA can visualize single attributes (1-d) and
pairs of attributes (2-d)
‹
„
„
„
To do: rotating 3-d visualizations (Xgobi-style)
Color-coded class values
“Jitter” option to deal with nominal attributes (and
to detect “hidden” data points)
“Zoom-in” function
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Performing experiments
„
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Experimenter makes it easy to compare the
performance of different learning schemes
For classification and regression problems
Results can be written into file or database
Evaluation options: cross-validation, learning
curve,, hold-out
Can also iterate over different parameter settings
Significance-testing built in!
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The Knowledge Flow GUI
„
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„
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New graphical user interface for WEKA
Java-Beans-based interface for setting up and
running machine learning experiments
Data sources, classifiers, etc. are beans and can
be connected graphically
Data “flows” through
g components:
p
e.g.,
g,
“data source” -> “filter” -> “classifier” -> “evaluator”
Layouts can be saved and loaded again later
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Conclusion: try it yourself!
„
ƒ
ƒ
WEKA is available at
http://www.cs.waikato.ac.nz/ml/weka
Also has a list of projects based on WEKA
WEKA contributors:
Abdelaziz Mahoui, Alexander K. Seewald, Ashraf M. Kibriya, Bernhard
Pfahringer
g , Brent Martin, Peter Flach, Eibe Frank ,Gabi Schmidberger
g
,Ian H. Witten , J. Lindgren, Janice Boughton, Jason Wells, Len Trigg,
Lucio de Souza Coelho, Malcolm Ware, Mark Hall ,Remco Bouckaert ,
Richard Kirkby, Shane Butler, Shane Legg, Stuart Inglis, Sylvain Roy,
Tony Voyle, Xin Xu, Yong Wang, Zhihai Wang
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