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Transcript
Worksheet 13
Multiple choice
1. Which of these statements is false?
a. A fish’s circulatory system differs from ours in that the blood doesn’t
pass through the heart on its way from the respiratory center to the
rest of the body
b. Arteries carry blood away from the heart and have the highest oxygen
concentrations in fetuses
c. Many hormones in the blood need transporter molecules
d. Platelets are cells that help in clotting
e. More than one of the above
2. What is the correct sequence of events after a vessel is damaged?
i. Fibrin forms a clot
ii. Clotting factors congregate around damage
iii. Fibrinogen is converted to fibrin
iv. An enzyme cascade transforms prothrombin to thrombin
v. Plasmin breaks up clots
b. III, IV, II, I, V
c. II, III, IV, I, V
d. II, IV, III, I, V
e. III, II, IV, I,V
f. None of the above
3. Which of the following white blood cell is incorrectly paired with its function
or frequency?
a. Eosinophils are related to parasites and allergic reaction
b. Basophils have histamine, involved in inflammation
c. Neutrophils are the most common
d. B lymphocytes make antibodies
e. None of the above
4. Describe the hearts of fish and reptiles.
Fish heart- 2 chambers isnt a problem because their gills are in the same line
of veins as their bodies
• Reptiles mix oxygenated and deoxy blood, but it aint no big deal because they
have cutaneous oxygen exchange
• We have 4 chambers to separate oxygen and deox blood
(fig 42.4 amd 42.5)
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5. What are some of the characteristics of fetal circulation? What structures are
unique to the fetal circulation?
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Umbilical arteries carry deoxygenated blood, while umbilical veins carry
oxygenated blood
Foramen ovalum- opening between fetal atria
Ductus arteriosus- connects pulmonary artery to aorta
These two structures bypass the lungs basically
Ductus venosus- shunts majority of blood away from capillaries of the liver
When child is born, all of these are closed
First breath reverses the flow of blood through a child’s heart- flap closes
foramen ovalum, ductus arteriosus
Umbilicle chord is cut, ductus venosus closes off
6. Describe the process by which blood absorbs and releases CO2 and O2 in the
tissues and the lungs.
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98% of Oxygen from the alveoli is carried by hemoglobin in red blood cells
At the lungs, O2 comes in, diffuses through pulmonary capillary wall, into red
blood cell’s cytoplasm
O2 binds to Hb. This binding releases H+ from hemoglobin.
H+ then reacts with the bicarbonate in red blood cell to form carbonic
anhydrase, which then dissociates to H2O and CO2 which are both removed
from the cell (CO2 is respired out)
Hemoglobin bonded to CO2 also dissociates here and the CO2 exits the cell
and body
At the tissue, CO2 diffuses into the hemoglobin. CO2 then binds with either
water to form carbonic anhydride or hemoglobin. If it forms carbonic
anhydride, it dissociates to bicarbonate and an H+ ion. This H+ ion then goes
and makes hemoglobin dump it’s oxygen (allosteric inhibition- Bohr effect).
70% of CO2 is bound to hemoglobin, 23% as bicarbonate in hemoglobin, and
7% as bicarb and CO2 in the blood
7. What is the process needed to form clots?
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When there is damage to a vessel, collagen gets exposed
Platelets come in with Calcium, vitamin k
A cascade of enzymes changes prothrombin to thrombin
Thrombin creates fibrin, then creates more fibrin
Fibrin makes the actual clot
Plasmin will come in and break up clot
8. Describe the various blood types.
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Blood type A or B is determined by the sugar type hanging on the cell that
acts as the antigen
Type A makes B antibodies and have type A antigens
Type B makes A antibodies and have type B antigens,
Type AB makes no antibodies and A and B antigens
Type O has A and B antibodies and no antigens
Universal donor, O, universal recipient, AB
9. How does erythroblastosis fatalis arise?
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If you’re Rh positive, you have the antigen, no antibodies
Negative= no antigen, antibodies
Causes a problem in pregnancy when mom is rH negative and dad is rH
positive
Mother has a child, its rH positive, no real problem
When mother is exposed to babies’ rh positive blood during birth, she makes
antibodies
Another positive child is conceived, and the mothers antibodies attack
Known as erythroblastosis fatalis