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Transcript
IDENTITY
Unit I
English I
Mrs. Holt
COMING OF AGE

Coming of age is a young person's transition from
childhood to adulthood. The age at which this transition
takes place varies in society, as does the nature of the
transition.[1] It can be a simple legal convention or can be
part of a ritual, as practiced by many societies. In the past,
and in some societies today, such a change is associated
with the age of sexual maturity (early adolescence); in
others, it is associated with an age of religious
responsibility. Particularly in western societies, modern
legal conventions which stipulate points in late adolescence
or early adulthood (most commonly 16-21 when adolescents
are generally no longer considered minors and are granted
the full rights of an adult) are the focus of the transition. In
either case, many cultures retain ceremonies to confirm the
coming of age, and significant benefits come with the
change. (See also rite of passage.) Coming of age is often a
topic of fiction. In literature, a novel which deals with
coming of age is called a bildungsroman. Similar stories
told in film are called coming-of-age films.
IDENTITY

Identity: The set of behavioral or personal
characteristics by which an individual is
recognizable as a member of a group
VOCABULARY









Concedes: admitted as true or valid, acknowledged
Amicably: in a friendly manner
Meticulously: very carefully and precisely
Balmy: having the qualities of balm; soothing, mild
pleasant
Ominous: threatening
Unpalatable: distasteful, displeasing
Bilingual: using two languages
Hyphenated: to join by a hyphen
Colloquial: used in or characteristic of familiar and
informal conversation; also : unacceptably informal
PROSE & POETRY

Prose: Prose is the ordinary form of written
language. Most writing that is not poetry, drama,
or song is considered prose. Prose is one of the
major genres of literature and occurs in two
forms: fiction and non fiction.
PROSE & POETRY

Poetry: Poetry is one of the three major types of
literature, the others being prose and drama.
Most poems make use of highly concise, musical,
and emotionally charged language. Many also
make use of imagery, figurative language, and
special devices of sound such as rhyme. Poems
are often divided into lines and stanzas and often
employ regular rhythmical patterns, or meters.
However, some poems are written out just like
prose, while other are written in free verse.
THEME

Theme: A theme is a central message or insight
into life revealed through a literary work.
A theme of a literary work may be stated directly
or implied. When the theme of a work is implied,
readers think about what the work suggests
about people or life.
THEME
How do we determine the main idea or essential
message?
 Inferring: deduce or conclude (information) from
evidence and reasoning rather than from explicit
statements.
 Paraphrasing: express the meaning of (the
writer or speaker or something written or
spoken) using different words, esp. to achieve
greater clarity.
 Summarizing: give a brief statement of the
main points of (something).
 Identifying relevant details
VOICE

Voice: Voice is a writer’s distinctive “sound” or
way of speaking on the page. It is related to such
elements as word choice, sentence structure,
and tone. It is similar to an individual’s speech
style and can be described in the same way –
fast, slow, blunt, meandering, breathless, and so
on.
Voice resembles style, an author’s typical way or
writing, but style usually refers to a quality that
can be found throughout an author’s body of
work, while an author’s voice may sometimes
vary from work to work.
VOICE

Diction: Diction refers to an author’s choice of
words, especially with regard to range of
vocabulary, use of slang, and colloquial language,
and level of formality.
VOICE

Tone: The tone of a literary work is the writer’s
attitude toward his or her audience and subject.
The tone can often be described by a single
adjective such as formal, informal, serious,
playful, bitter or ironic.
FIGURATIVE VS. LITERAL LANGUAGE

Figurative Language: Writing or speech not
meant to be interpreted literally. It is often used
to create vivid impressions by setting up
comparisons between dissimilar things.


Metaphors, similes, personification, hyperbole
Literal Language: Literal language uses words
in their ordinary sense. This means it really did
happen in real life.
FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE

Analogy: An analogy makes a comparison
between two or more things that are similar in
some way but otherwise unalike. (Typically
longer.)

"Writing a book of poetry is like dropping a rose petal
down the Grand Canyon and waiting for the echo.“
(Don Marquis)
FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE

Simile: A simile is a figure of speech in which
the words like or as are used to compare two
apparently dissimilar items.
Love pricks like a thorn.
 She is as mad as a hornet.
 Death lies upon her like an untimely frost.

FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE

Metaphor: A metaphor is a figure of speech in
which one thing is spoken of as though it were
something else. Unlike a simile, which compares
two things using like or as , a metaphor implies
a comparison between them.



But soft! What light through yonder window breaks?
It is the east, and Juliet is the sun.
Her home was a gilded cage.
His bedroom is a disaster area!
FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE

Personification: a type of figurative language in
which a nonhuman subject is given human
characteristics.
The leaves danced in the wind.
 The moon walked across the sky as we watched from
the window.

FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE

Hyperbole: A hyperbole is a deliberate
exaggeration or overstatement.
If I do not get to buy that car, I will just DIE!
 Oh my goodness, when is lunch? I am STARVING!
 That teacher is the MEANEST teacher EVER!

FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE

Imagery: Imagery is the descriptive of figurative
language used in literature to create word
pictures for the reader. These pictures, or
images, are created by details of sight, sound,
taste, touch, smell and movement.
The crimson liquid spilled from the neck of the white
dove, staining and matting its pure, white feathers.
 The clay oozed between Jeremy's fingers as he let out
a squeal of pure glee.“
 "Tumbling through the ocean water after being
overtaken by the monstrous wave, Mark
unintentionally took a gulp of the briny, bitter mass,
causing him to cough and gag

FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE

Connotation: an idea or feeling that a word
invokes in addition to its literal or primary
meaning
Man
 Woman
 Teenager

RHETORIC &ARISTOTLE
RHETORIC

Rhetoric: the art of effective or persuasive
speaking or writing, esp. the use of figures of
speech and other compositional techniques.

Rhetoric is the art of discourse, an art that aims to
improve the capability of writers or speakers that
attempt to inform, persuade, or motivate
particular audiences in specific situations.
A GENERAL SUMMARY OF ARISTOTLE'S
APPEALS . .

The goal of argumentative writing is to persuade
your audience that your ideas are valid, or more
valid than someone else's. The Greek
philosopher Aristotle divided the means of
persuasion, appeals, into three categories-Ethos, Pathos, Logos.
Ethos: the source's credibility, the speaker's/author's
authority
 Logos: the logic used to support a claim (induction
and deduction); can also be the facts and statistics
used to help support the argument.
 Pathos: the emotional or motivational appeals; vivid
language, emotional language and numerous sensory
details.

ETHOS, LOGOS, & PATHOS
ETHOS (CREDIBILITY)
Convinced of something
based on the character
of the author. We tend
to believe people whom
we respect.
ETHOS


Ethos (Credibility), or ethical appeal, means
convincing by the character of the author. We tend to
believe people whom we respect. One of the central
problems of argumentation is to project an impression to
the reader that you are someone worth listening to, in
other words making yourself as author into an authority on
the subject of the paper, as well as someone who is likable
and worthy of respect.
Ethos (Greek for 'character') refers to the
trustworthiness or credibility of the writer or speaker.
Ethos is often conveyed through tone and style of the
message and through the way the writer or speaker refers
to differing views. It can also be affected by the writer's
reputation as it exists independently from the message--his
or her expertise in the field, his or her previous record or
integrity, and so forth. The impact of ethos is often called
the argument's 'ethical appeal' or the 'appeal from
credibility.'
EXAMPLE OF ETHOS
Michael Jordan
became the
spokesperson for Nike
- it was an ethical
appeal because it
implied that if a
person wore that
sneaker, they could be
as good an athlete as
Michael Jordan.
https://www.youtube.com/wat
ch?v=3NxF3ipUEHE
EXAMPLE OF ETHOS
9 out of 10 dentists
recommend using
Blah Blah Blah
brand of toothpaste.
https://www.youtube.co
m/watch?v=99TiGcii8U
EXAMPLE OF ETHOS
ETHOS IN WRITING
"My three decades of experience in public service, my
tireless commitment to the people of this community,
and my willingness to reach across the aisle and
cooperate with the opposition, make me the ideal
candidate for your mayor."
 "The veterinarian says that an Australian shepherd
will be the perfect match for our active lifestyle."
 "If his years as a Marine taught him anything, it’s that
caution is the best policy in this sort of situation."
 "You know me – I’ve taught Sunday School at your
church for years, babysat your children, and served
as a playground director for many summers."

LOGOS (LOGIC)
Persuading by the use of
reasoning, facts, and
statistics
LOGOS
Logos (Logical) means persuading by the use of
reasoning. This will be the most important
technique we will study, and Aristotle's favorite.
We will discuss what makes an effective,
persuasive reason to back up your claims. Giving
reasons is the heart of argumentation, and
cannot be emphasized enough.
 Logos (Greek for 'word') refers to the internal
consistency of the message--the clarity of the
claim, the logic of its reasons, and the
effectiveness of its supporting evidence. The
impact of logos on an audience is sometimes
called the argument's logical appeal.

EXAMPLES OF LOGO

http://www.cnn.com/2013/08/15/health/amoeb
a-case-florida-warning/index.html
EXAMPLE OF LOGOS

Toyota Hybrid


http://www.ispot.tv/ad/
7VLR/toyota-fuelefficient-hybrid-cars
Water Conservation

http://www.youtube.co
m/watch?v=lYBLA5cD
Hu8
LOGOS IN WRITING
"The data is perfectly clear: this investment has
consistently turned a profit year-over-year, even in
spite of market declines in other areas."
 "Ladies and gentlemen of the jury: we have not only
the fingerprints, the lack of an alibi, a clear motive,
and an expressed desire to commit the robbery… We
also have video of the suspect breaking in. The case
could not be more open and shut."
 Research compiled by analysts from NASA, as well
as organizations from five other nations with space
programs, suggests that a moon colony is viable with
international support."

PATHOS (EMOTION)
When an author
persuades the reader by
appealing to our
emotions (makes us sad,
makes us laugh, etc.)
PATHOS


Pathos (Emotional) means persuading by appealing to the reader's
emotions. We can look at texts ranging from classic essays to
contemporary advertisements to see how pathos, emotional appeals,
are used to persuade. Language choice affects the audience's
emotional response, and emotional appeal can effectively be used to
enhance an argument.
Pathos (Greek for 'suffering' or 'experience') is often associated
with emotional appeal. But a better equivalent might be 'appeal to
the audience's sympathies and imagination.' An appeal to pathos
causes an audience not just to respond emotionally but to identify
with the writer's point of view--to feel what the writer feels. In this
sense, pathos evokes a meaning implicit in the verb 'to suffer'--to feel
pain imaginatively.... Perhaps the most common way of conveying a
pathetic appeal is through narrative or story, which can turn the
abstractions of logic into something palpable and present. The values,
beliefs, and understandings of the writer are implicit in the story and
conveyed imaginatively to the reader. Pathos thus refers to both the
emotional and the imaginative impact of the message on an audience,
the power with which the writer's message moves the audience to
decision or action.
EXAMPLES OF PATHOS
• SPCA
Commercials
• http://www.youtub
e.com/watch?v=lE
OOZDbMrgE
• Coffee
Commercials
(son coming
home for
Christmas)
EXAMPLES OF PATHOS

EXAMPLE OF PATHOS
http://www.
youtube.co
m/watch?v
=ymmHvlK
zTX8
PATHOS IN WRITING
"You will never be satisfied in life if you don’t seize
this opportunity. Do you want to live the rest of your
years yearning to know what would have happened if
you just jumped when you had the chance?“
 There’s no price that can be placed on peace of mind.
Our advanced security systems will protect the wellbeing of your family so that you can sleep soundly at
night."
 "Better men than us have fought and died to preserve
this great nation. Now is our turn to return the favor.
For God and country, gentlemen!“
 St Crispin Day



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=luqr-UX_oSM
Braveheart

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lEOOZDbMrgE
PUTTING THEM TOGETHER…
Seldom is any one statement an example of only
one appeal.
"As your doctor, I have to tell you that if
you
don't stop smoking, you're going to die.“
This statement combines all three appeals.
 Logos – reasoning/logic…smoking causes
serious health issues
 Ethos – credibility…a doctor
 Pathos – emotions…people don’t want to die
I HAVE A DREAM SPEECH


Follow along in the handout provided. On a
sheet of paper, list examples of Logos, Pathos,
and Ethos.
http://dailycaller.com/2013/08/28/watch-martinluther-king-jr-s-i-have-a-dream-speech-video/
PARTS OF SPEECH
NOUN
a person, place, thing or idea

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qk4N5kkifGQ
 Common
Noun: The name of a person,
place, thing or idea. Common nouns are
not capitalized. (Examples: country,
supermarket, car, river)
 Proper Noun: The name of a particular
person, place, thing or idea. Proper nouns
are always capitalized. (Examples:
England, Publix, Honda, Mississippi
River)
VERB
a word that expresses action or
shows mere existence

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cftcj9IYa1U
VERBS



An action verb expresses action. It tells what a
person or a thing does. (Examples: Muskrats
swim in marshes. We built a fantastic
sandcastle.)
A linking verb links the subject of the sentence
with information about it. Sometimes linking
verbs are called "state-of-being” verbs.
(Examples: Jeremy is tired. The apple was
sweet.)
An auxiliary verb goes with another verb. Also
called "helping verbs" because they introduce or
"help out" the main verb. (Example: We should
dig for buried treasure.)
PRONOUN
A word that takes the place of
a noun

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eu1ciVFbecw
PRONOUN/ANTECEDENT
An antecedent is a noun to which the pronoun
refers. (Examples: Even though the party was
fun, it was crowded. IT=pronoun PARTY=
antecedent)
RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS


reciprocal (adj.): given or done in return; [grammar]
expressing mutual action
We use reciprocal pronouns when each of two or more
subjects is acting in the same way towards the other.
For example, A is talking to B, and B is talking to A.
So we say:



A and B are talking to each other.
The action is "reciprocated". John talks to Mary and
Mary talks to John. I give you a present and you give
me a present. The dog bites the cat and the cat bites
the dog.
There are only two reciprocal pronouns, and they are
both two words:


each other
one another
RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS

When we use these reciprocal pronouns:
there must be two or more people, things or groups
involved (so we cannot use reciprocal pronouns with
I, you [singular], he/she/it), and
 they must be doing the same thing


Look at these examples:






John and Mary love each other.
Peter and David hate each other.
The ten prisoners were all blaming one another.
Both teams played hard against each other.
We gave each other gifts.
Why don't you believe each other?
PREPOSITION
A word that links nouns,
pronouns, and phrases to
other words in a sentence



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S9wYW7b3PzE
Anywhere a bird can fly
(Examples: over, around, under, into, after, before, off,
toward)
ADJECTIVE
A word that describes a noun
or a pronoun

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NkuuZEey_bs
Answers 3 Questions
WHICH ONE?
WHAT KIND?
HOW MANY?
ADVERB
A word that modifies a verb,
adjective, or another adverb

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MyLMQLXeTvg
Answer 5 Questions:
 WHERE (did it happen)?
 WHEN (did it happen)?
 HOW (did it happen)?
 TO WHAT DEGREE (did it happen)?
 UNDER WHAT CONDITION (did it happen)?
INTERJECTIONS

A word that helps express emotion



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YkAX7Vk3JEw
Set apart in a sentence by an exclamation point
or a comma
Examples: Ugh! Oh, Wow!
CONJUNCTIONS

A word or words that connects words, phrases or
clauses


Coordinating Conjuctions:


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4AyjKgz9tKg
Far, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So
Subordinating Conjunctions (these are only a
few):

After, Although, As, As If, As Long, Because, Before,
As long as, Even If, Even Though, If, Once, Provided,
Since, So That, That, Though, Till, Unless, Until,
What, When, Whenever, Wherever, Whether, While
PREFIX, SUFFIX, ROOT WORD

Prefix & Suffix:
Prefixes and suffixes are grammatical and lingual
"affixes." Prefixes are affixed before and suffixes after a
root word or word stem to add information. For
example, with the word "prehistoric," the prefix is
"pre-" meaning "before," the base word is "history"
meaning "recorded events and knowledge", and the
suffix is "-ic" meaning "relating to the science of.“

Root word: A root word is the most basic form of
a word that is able to convey a particular
description, thought or meaning.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9EU4DtsJBY0