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The Sensory System
I. ________________ Receptors
- Sensory receptors found in the ________, visceral organs, muscles & joints.
A. Skin
1. Sensory receptors receptive to _____________________________
a. ________________ corpuscle
b. ________________ disc
c. ________________ end bulb
2. Sensory receptors receptive to ______________________________
a. ________________ corpuscles
b. ________________ endings
3. Sensory receptors receptive to ______________________________
a. ________________ nerve endings
1) More __________ receptors than __________ receptors
B. _______________ Organs
1. Receptors attached to _________ organs found in body __________
a. Ex: heart, ______________, lungs, bladder
2. Nerves maintain ___________________ (constancy of conditions)
a. Stretch receptors in _______________
b. Nerves detect oxygen levels in blood & _________
C. Muscle & Joints
1. _______________________
a. Sense position & ___________________ of limbs
1) Work with the _________________________
b. Found in joints, ligaments & __________________
c. Respond to ____________________, pressure & pain
d. Ex: ___________________ reflex arc
II. ______________ RECEPTORS
- Receptors found in the mouth & nose (_________________________), eyes
(____________________________), & ears (__________________________).
A. Chemoreceptors
1. Sensitive to chemical substances in ___________ & ___________
a. Mouth
1) ___________________ buds on tongue
a) Pockets of taste cells along the walls of
_________________ (small elevations on the tongue)
b) Regions
- Bitter, ____________, salty & ____________
b. Nose
1) _______________ cells located at the top of the nasal cavity
a) At least ______ different types of cells which pick
up different ___________________
- Different aromas cause different
combinations of cells to be used
b) ______________ on cell collects aroma the sensory
nerve attached to that cell takes the impulse to the
olfactory bulb (cranial nerve #1) which takes
it to the ________________ to be processed
B. _________________________
1. Nerves in the eyes which receive _________ & send impulses to the
_________________ nerve (cranial nerve #2). It is then taken to the
___________________ lobe to be processed
2. The Eye
a. __________________ Muscles - controlled by 3 pair of cranial
nerves - #3,4 & 6
1) Superior rectus - rolls eye ____________________
Inferior rectus - rolls eye _____________________
2) Lateral rectus - turns eye _____________________
Medial rectus - turns eye _____________________
3) Superior _____________ - rotates eye _________________
Inferior _____________ - rotates eye__________________
b. Structures of the Eye
1) ________________ - white outer layer - for protection
a) ____________ - transparent outer layer - refracts light
2) ________________ - middle layer - absorbs stray light
a) __________________ - holds lens in place & controls
its shape
b) _____________ - regulates light entrance by controlling
the size of the hole (______________) that light enters
3) _________________ - attached to ciliary body by ligaments refracts & focuses light
a) Separates eye into 2 _______________:
- Anterior cavity - contains _____________ humor
- Posterior cavity - contains ____________ humor
• Humors refract light
4) ____________ - inner layer - contains photoreceptors
a) ___________________________ - depression in the
macula lutea where vision is most acute
- ____________ - receptors located primarily in FC
that function in bright light to detect fine detail &
__________________
• 3 kinds: blue, green, & ___________
• Color ___________________
b) _____________ - receptors of dim/faint light making
_____________, gray, & white vision possible
- They do detect _____________________
- They do _____________ detect color
___________________ VISION
- Each eye sends information to _________ sides of the brain
• The ________ half of each eye will send information to the _______
half of the cerebrum
• The ________ half of each eye will send information to the _______
half of the cerebrum
• The ____ halves then communicate to interpret the vision
LENS ___________________________
- Looking into the __________________
• Ciliary muscle ________________ (moves __________ from lens)
• Causing the ligaments to ________________
• Causing lens to ______________ (____________________)
- Look _______________ - (more tiring)
• Ciliary muscle _________________ (moves ______________ the lens)
• Causing the ligaments to _________________
• Causing the lens to be _______________
VISUAL PROBLEMS?
- Nearsighted (__________________) - can see ___________, not far (so far, no good)
• Cause: Eyeball is too ____________ causing rays to focus in front of retina
• Solution: Wear _____________________ lenses to diverge rays
- Farsighted (__________________) - can see ____________, not near (so far, so good)
• Cause: Eyeball is too ____________ causing rays to focus in behind retina
• Solution: Wear convex lenses to converge rays
C. ___________________________
1. Function
a. ______________________ (balance)
b. ______________________
2. ________________________ (Outer) Ear
a. __________________ - external flap that funnels in sound
b. ______________ canal - has small hairs & secretes ear wax to filter air
3. Middle Ear
a. ___________________ membrane (eardrum)- amplifies sound waves
b. ____________________ (Eustachian) tube
1) Equalizes internal pressure with atmospheric pressure
a) Connected to ________________________
c. _______________________
1) ______________ (hammer) - attached to tympanic membrane
2) ______________ (anvil) - middle ossicle
3) ______________ (stirrup) - moves in & out of the oval window
4. ___________________ Ear
a. ___________________ canals - helps maintain ___________________
b. ___________________ - helps maintain ________________________
c. ___________________ - (snail shell) - for _______________________
1) Contains the organ of _____________ which send impulses to
cranial nerve VIII (________________________ nerve) which
connects to the ___________________________
5. Hear We Go - The Hearing Pathway
a. Sound waves (like ripples across a pond) enter the auditory _________
b. Waves hit ________________ and vibrate the ____________________
c. The ossicles transmit the vibrations to the ______________ window
1) The vibrations have now been amplified _______x.
d. The oval window vibrations create waves in the fluid of the
____________________
e. The waves move ______________ cells (organ of Corti) in the cochlea.
f. The bending of the hair initiates nerve ______________________
1) Impulse travels to the ___________ via the vestibulocochlear
nerve (VIII)
2) From there it is taken to the ___________________ lobe of the
cerebrum to be interpreted as sound