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Air rises at the equator and sinks at the poles • The equator receives more direct sun than other areas so the air is less dense and rises to create low pressure. • This warm air flows to the poles then cools and sinks creating high pressure. • The air is constantly in motion with this pattern called convection. Pressure Belts • Pressure Belts are found at every 30degrees on the globe. • Air travels in the large circular patterns called convection cells. • These cells are separated by areas of high and low pressure called pressure belts. Coriolis Effect • Because the earth is rotating and curves, winds do not travel in straight lines. • The curving of the wind due to the Earth’s rotation and curve is called the Coriolis effect • The Coriolis effect causes winds to curve instead of flowing in straight lines. Polar Easterlies • Wind belts that extend from the poles to about 60degrees North and South • In the northern Hemisphere the polar easterlies carry cold artic air over the united states producing snow and freezing weather. Westerlies • The wind belts found between 30 and 60 degrees latitude in both hemispheres are called Westerlies • These flow TO the poles from west to east. • These bring moist air to the United States and create rain and snow. Trade Winds • Winds that blow from 30 degrees latitude to the equator are called trade winds. • The Coriolis effect causes trade winds to curve to the west in both hemispheres. • These winds used to help carry ships from Europe to the America’s to help with trading goods, that’s why they are called trade winds. Doldrums • The area where the trade winds meet are called the doldrums. • This area has very little wind because the warm rising air creates a large area of low pressure. Horse Latitudes • These are at 30 degrees North and South • The warm air that rose from the equator is now sinking in this area and creating an area of high pressure. • Winds in this area are very weak. • Most of the worlds deserts are located in this area because the sinking air is very dry.