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QUESTIONS FOR STATE EXAMINATION ON PEDIATRICS WITH
CHILDREN INFECTIONS AND PHTISIOLOGY
1.
Newborn, mature and premature signs. Meconium.
2.
Signs of newborn maturity. Primary evaluation of newborn condition. Apgar
score.
3.
Conditions borderline with pathology during neonatal period.
4.
Embryo and fetopathy. Noxious factors influencing on fetus.
5.
Hemolytic newborn disease. Etiology. Pathogenesis.
complications, laboratory diagnostics. Treatment.
6.
Determining and characteristic criteria of evaluation of newborn health condition.
7.
Infancy period. Characteristics. Significance for pathology.
8.
Colostrum. Transitional and mature breast milk. Biological properties of breast
milk.
9.
Hypogalactia, causes, prophylaxis and treatment. Dietetics of nursing mother.
Clinical
form,
10. Infant nutrition during neonatal period. Principles of nutritional allowances.
Breast feeding started soon after birth. Techniques of breast feeding. Features of
premature newborn feeding.
11. Breast feeding. Requirement of basic nutritional ingredients. Introduction terms
of corrective additives and supplementary feeding.
12. Mixed feeding. Introduction rules of supplementary feeding and corrective
additives. Baby formula used mixed feeding of healthy newborn.
13. Artificial feeding. Indication and contraindication to breast feeding. Introduction
rules of supplementary feeding and corrective additives.
14. Classification of baby food used for healthy infant feeding. Nutrition supplement.
15. Medical nutrition in different diseases. Dietary adjustment. Characteristics of
diet.
16. Features of digestions in early infancy. Bowels flora in different types of feeding,
stool volume, stool pH, coprogram.
17. Anatomico-physiological age features of skin and subcutaneous fat. Skin care of
а child.
18. Anatomico-physiological features of bone and muscular systems. Terms of
fontanel closure and cranial suture fusion.
19. Anatomico-physiological features of child oral cavity. Tooth eruption and second
dentition. Oral moniliasis. Stomatitis. Treatment and prophylaxis.
20. Height and weight of children of different age groups. Evaluation methods of
children physical development.
21. Anatomic-physiological features of children nervous system. Evaluation of infant
psycho-motor development. Stages of speech development.
1
22. Central and peripheral immunity organs. Age features of immune system.
23. Anatomico-physiological features of children endocrine system. Diagnosis of
congenital hypothyrosis. Evaluation of children sexual maturity.
24. Anatomico-physiological features of children respiratory system.
25. Anatomico-physiological features of children cardiovascular system.
26. Differential diagnosis of functional and organic disorders of children (heart
murmur, disturbances of rhythm and conduction).
27. Anatomico-physiological features of children gastrointestinal tract. Gastric juice,
methods of receiving, evaluation. Evaluation methods of liver function.
28. Anatomico-physiological features of children urinary system. Kidney functional
tests.
29. Age features of hematosis in healthy children of different age.
30. Exudative-catarrhal diathesis. Manifestations in different age. Prophylaxis.
Significance in pathology.
31. Gouty diathesis. Manifestations in different age. Prophylaxis. Significance in
pathology. Acetonomic vomiting.
32. Lymphohypoplastic diathesis. Manifestations. Prophylaxis. Significance in
pathology. Cot death.
33. Rickets. Etiology. Pathogenesis. Classification and clinical picture.
34. Prophylaxis and treatment of rickets.
35. Hepervitaminosis D. Causes. Clinical picture. Treatment.
36. Spasmophilia. Etiology. Pathogenesis. Clinical picture. Differential diagnosis.
Treatment.
37. Mucoviscidosis, clinical forms. Diagnosis. Treatment.
38. Celiac diseases. Clinical picture. Differential diagnosis. Treatment.
39. Lactase deficiency and cow’s milk protein allergy. Clinical picture. Diagnosis.
Treatment.
40. Pylorospasm, pylorostenosis. Differential diagnosis. Treatment.
41. Chronic nutritional disorders in children. Etiology. Pathogenesis.
42. Classification of chronic nutritional disorders in children. Clinical picture.
43. Dietetics principles in hypotrophy in early infancy depending on etiology and
severity of diseases. Parenteral feeding. Drug treatment of chronic nutritional
disorders. Prophylaxis of hypotrophy.
44. Etiology and pathogenesis of pneumonia in contemporary stage. Classification of
acute pneumonia in children.
45. Staphylococcal pneumonia. Features of clinical picture. Complications.
Treatment.
46. Pulmonary complications of pneumonia in children, prophylaxis and treatment.
2
47. Extrapulmonary complications of pneumonia in children, prophylaxis and
treatment.
48. Systemic Inflammation Response Syndrome in children. Etiology. Pathogenesis.
Classification. Clinical picture. Diagnosis. Treatment.
49. Treatment of pneumonia in infancy (diet, regimen, antibacterial, symptomatic).
50. Pneumonia clinical cause features in newborns, children with rachitis,
hypotrophy, exudative catarrhal diathesis. Therapy.
51. Acute pneumonias in older children. Clinical pattern, diagnosis, basic therapy.
52. Causes of bronchopulmonary diseases in children. Methods of examination.
53. Treatment principles of chronic nonspecific pulmonary diseases, caused by
drainage bronchi function.
54. Treatment principles of chronic nonspecific pulmonary diseases caused by
immunodeficiency.
55. Treatment principles of chronic nonspecific pulmonary diseases caused by II, III,
IV hypersensibility reaction types, pulmonary eosinophilia.
56. Bronchial asthma. Etiology, pathogenesis, classification.
57. Clinical pattern of bronchial asthma in older children. Immunodiagnosis
principles and allergic diseases immunotherapy.
58. Status asthmaticus, causes, emergency help.
59. Bronchial asthma stage therapy in children.
60. Differential diagnosis of obstructive syndrome in infants. Treatment principles.
61. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic allergic diseases in children (atopic
dermatilis, allergic rhinitis).
62. Congenital heart diseases in children. Classification and diagnosis. Conservative
treatment Therapeutic approach.
63. Congenital heart diseases (coartation of aorta).
64. Congenital heart diseases (opened Botallo’s duct, interatrial, interventricular
septum nonclosure).
65. Congenital heart diseases with cyanosis (Fallot disease, great vessels
transposition). Clinical pattern. Diagnosis. Emergency in cyanotic – dyspnotic
attacks.
66. Nonrheumatic carditis. Etiology. Classification.
67. Congenital carditis, clinical pattern. Treatment.
68. Clinical pattern of nonrheumatic carditis in older children. Treatment.
Complications. Outcomes.
69. Taking blood pressure rules in children. Differential diagnosis of hypertension in
children.
70. Vegetative dysfunction. Clinical pattern, diagnosis, therapy method.
71. Rheumatic fever. Etiology. Pathogenesis. Classification.
3
72. Clinical pattern of rheumatic fever. Clinical cause features in children.
73. Rheumatic fever stage treatment children, prophylaxis. Local sanatories usage.
74. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Etiology. Pathogenesis. Clinical pattern. Treatment.
Differential diagnosis.
75. Systemic lupus erythematosus. Clinical pattern, diagnosis, treatment.
76. Dermatomyositis.
Treatment.
Sclerodermia.
Clinical
pattern.
Differential
diagnosis.
77. Gastritis. Etiology. Pathogenesis. Sidney classification.
78. Chronic gastritis. Clinical pattern. Diagnosis. Treatment. Dispensary.
79. Gastric and duodenal ulcer. Clinical pattern. Diagnosis. Treatment. Diet.
Emergency in case of gastrointestinal bleedings.
80. Chronic pancreatitis in children. Clinical pattern, treatment, prophylaxis.
81. Cholangitis and cholecystitis in older children. Diagnosis. Treatment.
82. Biliary dyskinesia. Causes. Clinical pattern and diagnosis. Treatment and
prophylaxis.
83. Ascariasis. Ways of contamination. Clinical pattern. Treatment. Prophylaxis.
84. Enterobiasis. Ways of contamination. Clinical pattern. Treatment. Prophylaxis.
85. Trichocephalosis.
prophylaxis.
Ways
of
contamination.
Clinical
pattern.
Treatment,
86. Acute pyelonephritis. Etiology. Pathogenesis. Clinical pattern in infants.
Treatment.
87. Acute pyelonephritis in older children. Clinical pattern. Diagnosis, treatment.
88. Nephritic syndrome. Etiology. Pathologenesis. Clinical pattern.
89. Nephrotic syndrome. Etiology. Pathogenesis. Clinical pattern.
90. Nephrotic syndrome treatment and prophylaxis.
91. Nephritic syndrome, treatment and prophylaxis.
92. Chronic pyelonephritis. Etiopathogenesis, clinical pattern, diagnosis, prophylaxis.
93. Acute and chronic renal failure. Causes, diagnosis, treatment, prophylaxis.
94. Hemolytic–uremic syndrome. Etiology. Pathogenesis. Clinical manifestation.
Peripheral blood indexes hemostasis. Treatment.
95. Abdominal pains. Differential diagnosis of abdominal pains in children
(therapeutic approach in suspicious to acute surgical pathology).
96. Atopic dermatitis in children. Causes, classification. Clinical pattern. Diagnosis,
treatment.
97. Fever in children. Hyperthermic syndrome. Causes. Emergency.
98. Differential diagnosis of convulsive condition in children. Emergency in children
convulsive syndrome.
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99. Heart rhythm disturbances. Etiology. Clinical pattern. ECG manifestations.
Emergency paroxysmal tachycardia. Therapeutic approach in extrasystole.
100. Heart failure. Causes of heart failure, clinical implications. Therapy approaches.
101. Circulatory collapse (syncope, collapse, shock). Reasons in childhood,
diagnostics. Treatment.
102. Present-day conceptions about protection of organism from infections.
Immunodeficiencies caused by infectious agents, implications, diagnostics,
treatment.
103. Primary immunodeficient conditions in children. Clinical implications.
Diagnostics. Treatment.
104. Induced forms of secondary immunodeficiencies (caused by medicines,
malnutrition, ecological factors, surgical procedures, other pathologic
conditions), implications, diagnostics, treatment.
105. Mechanisms for the induction of autoimmune processes. Immunologic
mechanisms of autoimmune disorders. General approaches of autoimmune
pathology treatment.
106. Iodine deficiency disorders in children. Etiology, pathogenesis, clinical
implications, mass and individual prophylaxis.
107. Acute allegic reactions in children. Clinical picture. Emergency action.
108. General approaches of medicamental allegy treatment and prophylaxis.
Emergency action in anaphylactic shock.
109. Anemia in children. Classification. Diagnostics.
110. Deficiency anemia in children. Differential diagnosis. Treatment.
111. Hereditary and acquired hemolytic anemia. Differential diagnosis. Prophylaxis
and treatment.
112. Trombocytopenic purpura. Differential diagnosis. Treatment.
113. Purpura rheumatica, clinical forms, differential diagnosis, treatment.
114. Hemophilia. Clinical picture, diagnostics, treatment.
115. Acute leukemia. Clinical syndromes. Differential diagnosis. Treatment approach.
116. Organization of prophylactic immunization. Indications and contraindications to
vaccinations . Immunizations schedule, immunization room, medical records.
117. Immunity at tuberculosis.
118. Tuberculinization Tuberculin characteristics, its types, tuberculin action in the
organism, conversion of tubercular tests. Purposes and methods of tests
performances.
119. Early and chronic tuberculous intoxication. Pathogenesis, clinical picture,
differential diagnosis, treatment.
120. Tuberculous primary complex. Clinical picture, differential diagnosis.
121. Tuberculous bronchoadenitis. Clinical picture, differential diagnosis.
5
122. Focal pulmonary tuberculosis. Clinical picture, differential diagnosis.
123. Infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. Clinical picture, differential diagnosis.
124. Miliary and disseminative tuberculosis in children. Clinical picture, differential
diagnostics.
125. Peripheric tuberculosis of lymphatic nodes. Mesenteric
Pathogenesis, clinical picture, differential diagnosis.
lymphadenitis.
126. Tuberculous pleurisy. Clinical picture, differential diagnosis.
127. General approaches of antibacterial tuberculous therapy.
128. Prophylaxis of tuberculosis (social and sanitary).
129. Roentgenofluoregraphy as the method of early tuberculosis detection.
130. Bacteriological diagnostics as the method of early detection of tuberculosis.
131. Early tuberculosis detection in children and adolescents.
132. Bacterioscopy of sputum as the method of early detection of tuberculosis.
133. Antituberculous immunization and reimmunization. Difference between post
immunization (BCG) and infectious allergy.
134. Sanitary arrangements during the outbreak of tuberculosis among children:
indications, methods.
135. Responsibilities of pediatric health care in antituberculous arrangements.
136. Tuberculosis main epidemiological evidences and their dynamics.
137. Scarlet fever.
138. Measles.
139. Rubella.
140. Chicken pox.
141. Diphtheria.
142. Pertussis.
143. Meningococcosis.
144. Influenza.
145. Adenoviral infection.
146. Enterovirus infection
147. Croup.
148. Infectious mononucleosis.
149. Herpes simplex infection.
150. Parotitis infection.
151. Dysentery.
152. Yersiniosis.
153. Intestinal toxemia and exicosis.
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154. Colibacillosis.
155. Salmonellesis.
156. Poliomyelitis.
157. Viral hepatitis (enteral).
158. Virul hepatitis (parenteral).
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