1970’s The Stalemated Seventies Economy As the 1960’s came to a close and the 1970’s started, the post-war economic boom started to slow to a trickle. 25 years after WWII, in 50’s and 60’s productivity rates more than doubled the standard of living However, around 1970, productivity gains almost vanished. For the whole decade, the productivity rates increased the equivalent to one year in the previous two decades. At that rate, it would take 500 years to see another doubling of the standard of living. In addition, median income stagnated from roughly 1970-1990, and only reason for the absence of a decline is dual income families (wives working too) Median Family Income, 1970–2001 During the long post-World War II economic boom (from about 1950 to 1970), family incomes increased dramatically, but after 1970 “real,” or inflation-adjusted, incomes stagnated. Prosperity in the late 1990s led to a slight upward trend, though adjusted median family income began to decline in the early years of the twenty-first century. Sources: U.S. Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2003, and John J. McCusker, “Comparing the Purchasing Power of Money in the United States (or Colonies) from 1665 to 2003,” Economic History Services, 2004. Economy Why a slump in productivity? Not clear, but author suggests the following reasons: • Increase of women and teenage workers, who did not have long-term jobs and did not learn skills to increase productivity • Declining investment in new machinery • Heavy costs of government regulation • Shift from manufacturing to services (tougher to improve productivity with services) • Vietnam War and its costs to the government (opportunity costs of investment in education, R + D, science) • Vietnam War and Welfare spending leads to crazy inflation • Gas Prices rising Economy Huge culprit was inflation: Too many dollars chasing too few goods, means inflation. With Defense Spending and Welfare, more dollars in more Americans hands at same time productivity fails to increase. 1968-1980, cost of living tripled. Longest period of inflation and steepest in nation’s history. The Nixon Wave During Richard Nixon’s presidency, Americans experienced the first serious inflation since the immediate postWorld War II years. The inflationary surge grew to tidal-wave proportions by the late 1970s, when the consumer price index rose at an annual rate of more than 10 percent. New York Daily World Economy Other issues: After World War II, few to any competitors for American steel, manufacturing, automobiles, and electronics. Little to no need to modernize or improve, people bought your stuff without improving or modernizing technology or management. But in the 1970’s German and Japanese products proved to be superior in quality because they had modernized their technology and management techniques Nixon on Vietnam Nixon’s 1968 Campaign promised an end to the war: Peace with Honor Vietnamization Slowly withdraw 540,00 American troops and pass responsibility of their defense to South Vietnamese (with American financial and military Nixon Doctrine Basically, U.S would honor current commitments, but in future wars Asians and others would have to fight their own wars without the support of large bodies of US ground troops President Richard M. Nixon Reversing Kennedy’s inaugural plea to “bear any burden,” Nixon told Congress in February 1970, “America cannot--and will not--conceive all the plans, design all the programs, execute all the decisions and undertake all the defense of the free nations of the world.” Constantine Manos/ Magnum Photos Vietnam By 1970 Draft policies exempted college students and men with critical civilian skills Longest conflict in American history 40,000 killed 250,000 wounded So, troops were disproportionately poor and blacks served disproportionately. Drug abuse, alcoholism, mutiny, and sabotage created low morale amongst soldiers. Not knowing their enemy, trudging through the jungle and swamps all took their toll My Lai Massacre U.S. troops massacred women and children in the village of My Lai 9evidence of the demoralizing nature of the conflict) Cold War? Not for Some This poignant cartoon reminds its audience that while the rhetoric of the day might have been about a "Cold War," as America pursued its anticommunist policies around the world, some Americans were paying a very real price. The War at Home Antiwar students clash with police in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in 1970. Portland Oregonian Cambodia Cambodia was used by Vietcong and North Vietnamese as a springboard for troops, weapons, and supplies April 29, 1970, Nixon ordered US troops to clean Cambodia of the Vietcong and North Vietnamese. Most importantly, he did this without consulting Congress. Many respond in protest to eh escalation of the war into Cambodia, especially without congressional approval Kent State (4 shot dead) and Jackson State (2 killed) occur “Pentagon Papers,” 1971 Former defense analyst Daniel Ellsberg leaked govt. docs. regarding war efforts during Johnson’s administration to the New York Times. Docs. Govt. misled Congress & Amer. People regarding its intentions in Vietnam during mid-1960s. Primary reason for fighting not to eliminate communism, but to avoid humiliating defeat. New York Times v. United States (1971) * Also, Congress repealed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution to curtail Nixon’s power Balancing Act China and Soviet Union had a contentious relationship. Nixon played them off each other to cool Cold War tension and get peace in Vietnam Ranan R. Lurie/ Cartoonnews International Some Chicken, Some Egg, 1975 This cartoon pokes fun at Henry Kissinger as a global statesman. Serving first as President Nixon’s national security adviser and then as secretary of state in the Nixon and Ford administrations, the German-born Kissinger brought with him to Washington a sophisticated--some said cynical--view of the world honed during his nearly two decades as a political science professor The Economist at Harvard. Nixon and Detente In 1972, Nixon was the first president to visit Communist China. Capped visit with the Shanghai Communique, in which both nations agreed to normalize their relations. U.S. also accepted One-China policy Next Nixon went to Moscow and played the China card. Also knew that the Soviets needed food supplies. US agreed to sell 750 million in wheat, corn, and other cereals. SALT Treaty US and USSR agreed to treaties on anti-ballistic missile defense systems and also armsreductions negotiations (SALT-Strategic Arms Limitation Talks). Goal was to freeze long range nuclear missiles for 5 years. Important in curtailing the arms race, but even though defensive systems forbidden, US still wnet ahead with development of MIRV’s. (designed to overcome any defense system by overwhelming it) Thus, Soviets did the same and built MIRV’s By 1980’s, 16,000 Nuclear Warheads on each side. Changes on the Bench Warren Court Chief Justice Earl Warren, following his appointment in 1953, presided over a preiod of judicial activism that ruled on cases that drastically affected sexual freedom, the rights of criminals, the practice of religion, civil rights, and the structure of political representation. His Court’s decisions reflected deep concern for the individual Warren Cases Griswold Struck down state law that prohibited use of contraceptives Gideon v. Connecticut (1965): v Wainwright (1963) All defendants in serious criminal cases had right to counsel, regardless if they were poor or not. Escobedo (1964) and Miranda Right of the accused to remain silent and enjoy other protections to the accused. Warren Case New York Times v Sullivan (1964) Public figures can sue for libel only if they can prove that malice motivated their defamers (hard to do). Opens the door for criticism of public f\officials and their private lives. Engel v Vitale (1962) and Abington v Schempp (1963) Eliminate prayer and Bible readings at school. Invoking First Amendment and separation of Church and State Warren Cases Reynolds v Sims (1964) Ruled against unfair representation in state representatives. Used one man one vote theory and cows do not count (basically, voting power in some rural areas was 1000 times more than in underrepresented urban settings.) Nixon looked to change the make-up of the bench and have a less meddlesome and activist Supreme Court. By 1971, Nixon appointed 4 conservative justices. But Chief Justice Burger not as conservative as he hoped (Roe v Wade) Nixon and Domestic Policy Nixon surprisingly expanded welfare and entitlements programs: Food Stamps, Medicaid, and Aid to Families with Dependent Children all got more appropriations In 1972, agreed to automatic Social Security cost-ofliving increases Philadelphia Plan • Construction unions to establish goals and timetables for the hiring of black apprentices • Later extended to all federal contractors, essentially establishes a quota system for minorities and extends Johnson’s affirmative action • Griggs v Duke also eliminated intelligence tests. Basically, Nixon and the court made it a requirement to hire minority workers Nixon and Domestic Policy Two new agencies developed too: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OHSA) • Both a by-product of the increased concern in protecting the environment 1950 in LA air pollution control office established 1962: Silent Spring written by Rachel Carson, exposed the poisonous effect of pesticides on nation. • Clean Air Act of 1970 and Endangered Species Act of 1973 Nixon and Domestic Policy In 1971, in instituted a wage freeze and price freeze for 90 days. He also took the US off the Gold Standard, effectively ending the agreement at Breton Woods to stabilizing international currencies. Southern Strategy To gain Southern votes, Nixon appointed conservative Justices, soft pedaled civil rights, and opposed school busing to achieve racial balance. 1972 Election Nixon v George McGovern (South Dakota Senator) Vietnam was escalating in 72, despite Nixon promising peace in 68. McGovern promises to pull troops out Nixon promises to draw back troops from 540,000 to 30,000. Kissinger announces peace is at hand 12 days before election The Ceasefire, 1973 Peace is at hand Kissinger, 1972 North Vietnam attacks South Most Massive U.S. bombing commences 1973: Ceasefire signed between U.S., South Vietnam, & North Vietnam Peace with honor (President Nixon) Presidential Election of 1972 (with electoral vote by state) Nixon buried McGovern in this election, but when his administration soon thereafter began to sink in a swamp of scandals, bumper stickers appeared in Boston proclaiming, “Don’t blame me, I’m from Massachusetts.” Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved. Cambodia and War Powers Act U.S. Air Force conducted 3500 aerial raids in Cambodia This shocked many Americans and they also questioned the constitutionality of the act. Especially since many of these bombings occurred before official incursion in May 1970. President and Congress confirmed Cambodia neutrality the whole time, even though they were bombing them. Many Americans questioned what type of representative government they had if war was occurring without their knowledge. Cambodia and War Powers Act Even after the cease-fire, Nixon continued bombing of communist forces in Cambodia.