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Monday 6/6/16
• DO NOW: For each civilization or scientist, identify their contribution to
• Ancient Babylon: clay fingerprints
Archimedes: density an buoyancy for identification
Erastratus: lie detector
Sun Tzu: entomology: fly larvae grow on blood. Id a murderer
Mathieu Orifila: toxicology
Alphonse Bertillion: anthropometry
Francis Galton: Fingerprinting
Leone Lattes: used blood typing in csi
• Karl Landsteiner: Id 4 types of human blood
Calvin goddard: ballistics: compared striations on bullets
Albert Osborn: questioned documents
Walter McCroone: microscopy and crystallography
Edmond Locard : 1st forensic science lab in Lyon france
– Exchange principle: Every contact leaves a trace
» Primary and secondary
Forensic science lab
LAPD: had the first lab
FBI has the largest (DEA, ATF, USPS)
Federal: State: County : Municipal
Parts of Forensic Lab:
– Physical Science
Polygraph (pulse,
respiration, galvanic skin response)
– Biology
Evidence collection unit(druggist fold,
blood stains porous container, arson material-air tight)
– Toxicology
Photography Unit
– Firearms
Latent fingerprint unit
– Voiceprint analysis unit
Questioned document
Tuesday 6/7/16
What determines blood type?
What is the antigen-antibody response?
How many alleles code for blood type?
Specifically what does the allele code for?
Forensic specialties
• Forensic pathologist: other names: coroner/ medical
– What is an autopsy?dissection of human body
– 5 types of death: accidental, homicide, suicide, undetermined,
– How determine time of death?
• Rigor mortis, algor mortis, liver mortis
• Larvae development, skin discoloration and cornea cloud
Forensic entomologist: bugs
Forensic odontologist: teeth
Forensic anthropologist: bones
Forensic psychologist: mental pathways
Judge vs jury
• Jury: listens to the evidence to determine if a
person is guilty or not
• Judge makes sure rights are not violated and
determines sentence
• Forensic scientist: Not for the prosecution or
the defense but is for the TRUTH.
– Gives expert opinion
– unbiased
Locards exchange principle
• Every contact leaves a trace
• Primary exchange: direct
• Secondary exchange: indirect
Crime Scene
• Primary crime scene: where the actual crime
takes place
• Secondary crime scene: anywhere that has
something to do with the crime
• Staged crime scene faking a crime. Ex making
a murder look like a suicide
• Modus operandi: the motive or calling card of
the criminal.
• Victimology: how the victim responds
Evidence collection
• What is the chain of custody?
• Why do you have to maintain a chain of custody?
• How do you package small amounts of trace
evidence like a powder found on the desk of a
• A blood soaked t-shirt should be packaged in
____ because _____.
• A piece of evidence taken from a burned building
is packaged in _____ because _____.
• Types of law: Civil, statuatory, , criminal, case,
• Types of punishment: violation, misdemeanor,
Blood: serology: study of blood
Blood is a tissue
3 alleles that code for the 4 blood types
2 dominant for A and B and 1 recessive for O
The allele codes for an antigen protien found
on the surface of the RBC
• With the antigen comes the antibody in the
plasma to defend against ANY foreign antigens
Parts of blood
• List the 4 parts of blood
• What is the function?
• What is its forensic importance?
Blood cont.
• RBC: erythrocyte: hemoglobin: carries oxygen,
carbon monoxide and dioxide
– Class evidence blood type
– Asphyxiation
• WBC: leukocytes: DNA: DNA profile
– Individual evidence
• Plasma: dissolves ALL metabolites: mostly made
up of water: carries antibodies
– Toxicology
• Platelets: thrombocytes: cell fragments: clotting
Analysis of blood
• What factors effect the shape and size of a blood
droplet and a spatter pattern?
• What shape does blood fall as?
• How do you calculate the angle of impact?
• What is the area of convergence and how is it
• What does a blood pool tell the CSI about the crime?
• What is the difference between low,medium and high
velocity spatter?
• Gunshot: drawback and forward spatter
• Root:shaft:tip
• Root growth: Anagen:Catagen:telogen
– Follicular tag; DNA tells you forceful removal of hair
– Post mortem band: after death bacteria form a ban around
the hair
• Shaft; cuticle-species types
– Cortex: coloring,processing
– Medulla; species in humans ethnicity
• Fragmented, missing or continuous in humans
• Animals pattern and is more than ½ the width of hair
– Phenomelanin and eumelanin
• Tip: cut, razored,burnt or split
Dactyloscopy; study of fingerprints
• Arch: loop; whorl
– Tented arch: ulnar vs radial loop: plain vs other whorls
• Develop in utero due to the pressure of amniotic
• What is a fingerprint?
• Difference between latent and visible prints
• How to develop latent fingerprints: Fuming or
– Iodine fuming: ninhydrin: cyanoacrylate: silver nitrate
• 75% of evidence in the US crime lab is drug
• 4 categories of drugs and where do they come
• Papaver somniferium
• Cannabis sativa
• Psilocybin
• What are the presumptive and confirmatory tests
for drugs?
• What is the heroin highway in Long island?