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Monday 6/6/16 • DO NOW: For each civilization or scientist, identify their contribution to Forensics • Ancient Babylon: clay fingerprints • Archimedes: density an buoyancy for identification • Erastratus: lie detector • Sun Tzu: entomology: fly larvae grow on blood. Id a murderer • Mathieu Orifila: toxicology • Alphonse Bertillion: anthropometry • Francis Galton: Fingerprinting • Leone Lattes: used blood typing in csi • Karl Landsteiner: Id 4 types of human blood • Calvin goddard: ballistics: compared striations on bullets • Albert Osborn: questioned documents • Walter McCroone: microscopy and crystallography • Edmond Locard : 1st forensic science lab in Lyon france – Exchange principle: Every contact leaves a trace » Primary and secondary Forensic science lab • • • • LAPD: had the first lab FBI has the largest (DEA, ATF, USPS) Federal: State: County : Municipal Parts of Forensic Lab: – Physical Science Polygraph (pulse, respiration, galvanic skin response) – Biology Evidence collection unit(druggist fold, blood stains porous container, arson material-air tight) – Toxicology Photography Unit – Firearms Latent fingerprint unit – Voiceprint analysis unit Questioned document Tuesday 6/7/16 • • • • What determines blood type? What is the antigen-antibody response? How many alleles code for blood type? Specifically what does the allele code for? Forensic specialties • Forensic pathologist: other names: coroner/ medical examiner – What is an autopsy?dissection of human body – 5 types of death: accidental, homicide, suicide, undetermined, natural – How determine time of death? • Rigor mortis, algor mortis, liver mortis • Larvae development, skin discoloration and cornea cloud • • • • Forensic entomologist: bugs Forensic odontologist: teeth Forensic anthropologist: bones Forensic psychologist: mental pathways Judge vs jury • Jury: listens to the evidence to determine if a person is guilty or not • Judge makes sure rights are not violated and determines sentence • Forensic scientist: Not for the prosecution or the defense but is for the TRUTH. – Gives expert opinion – unbiased Locards exchange principle • Every contact leaves a trace • Primary exchange: direct • Secondary exchange: indirect Crime Scene • Primary crime scene: where the actual crime takes place • Secondary crime scene: anywhere that has something to do with the crime • Staged crime scene faking a crime. Ex making a murder look like a suicide • Modus operandi: the motive or calling card of the criminal. • Victimology: how the victim responds Evidence collection • What is the chain of custody? • Why do you have to maintain a chain of custody? • How do you package small amounts of trace evidence like a powder found on the desk of a victim? • A blood soaked t-shirt should be packaged in ____ because _____. • A piece of evidence taken from a burned building is packaged in _____ because _____. Law • Types of law: Civil, statuatory, , criminal, case, administrative • Types of punishment: violation, misdemeanor, felony Blood: serology: study of blood • • • • Blood is a tissue 3 alleles that code for the 4 blood types 2 dominant for A and B and 1 recessive for O The allele codes for an antigen protien found on the surface of the RBC • With the antigen comes the antibody in the plasma to defend against ANY foreign antigens Parts of blood • List the 4 parts of blood • What is the function? • What is its forensic importance? Blood cont. • RBC: erythrocyte: hemoglobin: carries oxygen, carbon monoxide and dioxide – Class evidence blood type – Asphyxiation • WBC: leukocytes: DNA: DNA profile – Individual evidence • Plasma: dissolves ALL metabolites: mostly made up of water: carries antibodies – Toxicology • Platelets: thrombocytes: cell fragments: clotting Analysis of blood • What factors effect the shape and size of a blood droplet and a spatter pattern? • What shape does blood fall as? • How do you calculate the angle of impact? • What is the area of convergence and how is it determined? • What does a blood pool tell the CSI about the crime? • What is the difference between low,medium and high velocity spatter? • Gunshot: drawback and forward spatter HAIR • Root:shaft:tip • Root growth: Anagen:Catagen:telogen – Follicular tag; DNA tells you forceful removal of hair – Post mortem band: after death bacteria form a ban around the hair • Shaft; cuticle-species types – Cortex: coloring,processing – Medulla; species in humans ethnicity • Fragmented, missing or continuous in humans • Animals pattern and is more than ½ the width of hair – Phenomelanin and eumelanin • Tip: cut, razored,burnt or split Dactyloscopy; study of fingerprints • Arch: loop; whorl – Tented arch: ulnar vs radial loop: plain vs other whorls • Develop in utero due to the pressure of amniotic fluid • What is a fingerprint? • Difference between latent and visible prints • How to develop latent fingerprints: Fuming or dusting – Iodine fuming: ninhydrin: cyanoacrylate: silver nitrate Drugs • 75% of evidence in the US crime lab is drug related. • 4 categories of drugs and where do they come from. • Papaver somniferium • Cannabis sativa • Psilocybin • What are the presumptive and confirmatory tests for drugs? • What is the heroin highway in Long island?