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Possible DARPA IPTO Grand Challenge:
“WAIS Robot”
(WAIS+ Robot?)
Presented by: Dr. Selmer Bringsjord
with Bettina Schimanski
The Challenge:
WAIS Robot
Autonomous artificially intelligent robots will
display mastery of the Wechsler Adult
Intelligence Scale (WAIS).
… + tests of creativity and mechanical ability…?
Intelligence Tests: Narrow vs. Broad
Spearman’s
view of intelligence
Thurstone’s view of
intelligence
Narrow Test:
RPM
=========== start of search ===========
given clause #1: (wt=2) 10 [] R1(a11).
given clause #2: (wt=2) 11 [] R1(a12).
given clause #3: (wt=2) 12 [] R1(a13).
...
given clause #4: (wt=2) 13 [] R2(a21).
given clause #278: (wt=16) 287
[para_into,64.3.1,3.3.1] R2(x)| -R3(a23)|
-EmptyBar(y)| -R3(x)| -EmptyBar(x)| -T(a23)| R3(y)| -T(y).
given clause #279: (wt=16) 288
[para_into,65.3.1,8.3.1] R2(x)| -R3(a23)|
-StripedBar(y)| -R3(x)| -StripedBar(x)| EmptyBar(a23)| -R3(y)|
-EmptyBar(y).
Search stopped by max_seconds option.
============ end of search ============
Broad Test: WAIS
Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale
WAIS includes many sub-tests
Broad Test: WAIS
Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale
Broad Test: WAIS
Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale
Broad Test: WAIS
Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale
Comprehension sub-test
The Comprehension sub-test is so difficult it
could be a motivator for the original CYC dream
-Deals with ordinary conversation
Examples:
“Why is copper often used in making
electrical wires?”
“What is the advantage of keeping
money in a bank account?”
Broad Test: WAIS
Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale
Block Design sub-test
-Arrange blocks to
match a given sample
(Blocks courtesy of Binary Arts Corporation)
Broad Test: WAIS
Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale
Object Assembly sub-test
- Presented with several 2D puzzle-like pieces
Object Assembly
Sample provided by Psychological Corporation (© 2004)
Broad Test: WAIS
Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale
Picture Arrangement sub-test
- Deals with many mental facets
Picture Arrangement
WAIS Challenge Decidedly
Non - Ad Hoc


Integrated intelligence via Alan Newell’s third paradigm
“You Can’t Play 20 Questions with Nature and Win”
(1973)





“We never seem in the experimental literature to put the
results of all the experiments together”
First Paradigm: Complete Processing Models
Second Paradigm: Analyze a Complex Task
Third Paradigm: One Program for Many Tasks
The same observation can be made today about
systems engineered in AI (Building Block Approach)

The idea is to use different subtests from certain chosen tests of
mental and/or physical ability to create a composite artificial
agent for a specific application.
The Proposed Rules


The artificial agent must operate without any prior
knowledge of actual test course (must handle any
case in the general space)
The artificial agent will be administered the test as a
human subject would:






Must physically manipulate objects (of many different shapes
and sizes but weighing less than 4 lbs. each)
Must be able to take spoken directions
Must be able to respond to questions of varied topics
Must have a vision component
Must be subject to the same time limitations
The artificial agent operates autonomously once the
test has started until completion
Training & Test Materials

Some homegrown test samples/examples
Milestones

Year 1: Feasibility demonstration

Complete individual sub-tests at different year cutoffs:






Year 2: Digit Symbol, Digit Span, Vocabulary, Arithmetic, Similarities
Year 3: Block Design, Object Assembly
Year 5: Picture Completion
Year 7: Information. Comprehension
Year 9: Picture Arrangement
Year 10: Complete all sub-tests within time limit given for
humans (in terms of physical manipulation, language parsing,
visual deciphering, etc.)
Milestones: Permutation 1

Year 1: Feasibility demonstration

Complete individual sub-tests at different year cutoffs:






Year 2: Digit Symbol, Digit Span, Vocabulary, Arithmetic, Similarities
Year 3: Block Design, Object Assembly
Year 5: Picture Completion
Year 7: Picture Arrangement
Year 9: Information, Comprehension
Year 10: Complete all sub-tests within time limit given for
humans (in terms of physical manipulation, language
parsing, visual deciphering, etc.)
Limitations


The WAIS does not test
generative ability much

Short Short Story Game (S3G)

S. Bringsjord (1998). "Chess is Too Easy",
Technology Review, 101, 2, 23-28.
What about locomotion etc.?
Background References

S. Bringsjord and B. Schimanski (2003). "What
is Artificial Intelligence? Psychometric AI as an
Answer", Proceedings of the 18th International
Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence
(IJCAI-03), Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco,
CA, 887-893.

S. Bringsjord and B. Schimanski (2004).
"Pulling It All Together via Psychometric AI",
Achieving Human-Level Intelligence Through
Integrated Systems and Research: Technical
Report FS-04-01, AAAI Press, Menlo Park, CA,
9-16.