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ATOMIC
STRUCTURE
A guide for GCSE students
2010
KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING
SPECIFICATIONS
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
INTRODUCTION
This Powerpoint show is one of several produced to help students
understand selected GCSE Chemistry topics. It is based on the requirements
of the AQA specification but is suitable for other examination boards.
Individual students may use the material at home for revision purposes and
it can also prove useful for classroom teaching with an interactive white
board.
Accompanying notes on this, and the full range of AS and A2 Chemistry
topics, are available from the KNOCKHARDY SCIENCE WEBSITE at...
www.knockhardy.org.uk/gcse.htm
All diagrams and animations in this Powerpoint are original and
created by Jonathan Hopton. Permission must be obtained for their
use in any commercial work.
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
CONTENTS
• Rutherford’s experiment
• Structure of atoms
• Mass number and atomic number
• Atoms and ions
• Isotopes
• Electronic structures of the first 20 elements
THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS
Atoms have a small central nucleus, which is
made up of protons and neutrons.
Around the nucleus are the electrons.
Because electrons weigh very much less than
protons and neutrons, most of the mass of an
atom is concentrated in its nucleus.
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
RUTHERFORD’S EXPERIMENT
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
RUTHERFORD’S EXPERIMENT
Many scientists thought atoms were solid like a ‘plum pudding’.
Ernest Rutherford wanted to find out what atoms were like.
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
RUTHERFORD’S EXPERIMENT
ALPHA ()
PARTICLES
GOLD
ATOMS
Many scientists thought atoms were solid like a ‘plum pudding’.
Ernest Rutherford wanted to find out what atoms were like.
He fired positively charged ALPHA PARTICLES (helium nuclei) at a
very thin sheet of gold and detected what happened to their path.
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
RUTHERFORD’S EXPERIMENT
ALPHA ()
PARTICLES
MOST WENT STRAIGHT THROUGH
MOST WENT
STRAIGHT
THROUGH
MOST OF AN ATOM IS SPACE
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
RUTHERFORD’S EXPERIMENT
ALPHA ()
PARTICLES
SOME WERE
DEFLECTED
SOME WERE DEFLECTED
NUCLEUS IS POSITIVELY CHARGED
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
RUTHERFORD’S EXPERIMENT
ALPHA ()
PARTICLES
VERY FEW
BOUNCED
STRAIGHT
BACK
VERY FEW BOUNCED STRAIGHT BACK
NUCLEUS IS RELATIVELY SMALL
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
RUTHERFORD’S EXPERIMENT
ALPHA ()
PARTICLES
VERY FEW
BOUNCED
STRAIGHT
BACK
MOST WENT
STRAIGHT
THROUGH
SOME WERE
DEFLECTED
SUMMARY
MOST WENT STRAIGHT THROUGH
MOST OF AN ATOM IS SPACE
SOME WERE DEFLECTED
NUCLEUS IS POSITIVELY CHARGED
VERY FEW BOUNCED STRAIGHT BACK
NUCLEUS IS RELATIVELY SMALL
THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS
The three important particles found in atoms are…
Particle
Where it is found
Relative
mass
Relative
charge
PROTON
NEUTRON
ELECTRON
Atoms have a small central nucleus, which is made up of protons
and neutrons and around which there are electrons.
THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS
The three important particles found in atoms are…
Particle
PROTON
NEUTRON
ELECTRON
Where it is found
Relative
mass
Relative
charge
THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS
The three important particles found in atoms are…
Particle
PROTON
Where it is found
NUCLEUS
Relative
mass
Relative
charge
1
+1
THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS
The three important particles found in atoms are…
Particle
Where it is found
Relative
mass
Relative
charge
PROTON
NUCLEUS
1
+1
NEUTRON
NUCLEUS
1
0
THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS
The three important particles found in atoms are…
Particle
Where it is found
Relative
mass
Relative
charge
PROTON
NUCLEUS
1
+1
NEUTRON
NUCLEUS
1
0
Negligble
-1
ELECTRON
IN SHELLS
AROUND THE
NUCLEUS
‘Very small’
THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS - Summary
The three important particles found in atoms are…
Particle
Where it is found
Relative
mass
Relative
charge
PROTON
NUCLEUS
1
+1
NEUTRON
NUCLEUS
1
0
Negligble
-1
ELECTRON
IN SHELLS
AROUND THE
NUCLEUS
‘Very small’
MASS NUMBER AND ATOMIC NUMBER
Atomic Number (Z)
Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Mass Number (A)
Sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus
MASS NUMBER AND ATOMIC NUMBER
Atomic Number (Z)
Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Mass Number (A)
Sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus
Symbol
Atoms of an element are given a symbol
Some have one capital letter
H, N, O, P, K
Some have two letters, the first
one being a capital
He, Na, Mg Cu
Recently discovered high atomic
number elements have been given
symbols with three letters
Unh
MASS NUMBER AND ATOMIC NUMBER
Atomic Number (Z)
Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Mass Number (A)
Sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus
Symbol
Atoms of an element are given a symbol
Some have one capital letter
H, N, O, P, K
Some have two letters, the first
one being a capital
He, Na, Mg Cu
Recently discovered high atomic
number elements have been given
symbols with three letters
When necessary, the atomic number and the
mass number can be written alongside the symbol
Unh
MASS NUMBER AND ATOMIC NUMBER
Atomic Number (Z)
Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Mass Number (A)
Sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus
23
Na
11
When necessary, the atomic number and the
mass number can be written alongside the symbol
MASS NUMBER AND ATOMIC NUMBER
Atomic Number (Z)
Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Mass Number (A)
Sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus
Mass Number (A)
PROTONS + NEUTRONS
23
Na
11
Atomic Number (Z)
PROTONS
MASS NUMBER AND ATOMIC NUMBER
Atomic Number (Z)
Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Mass Number (A)
Sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus
Mass Number (A)
PROTONS + NEUTRONS
23
Na
11
Atomic Number (Z)
PROTONS
THESE ALWAYS GO
TOGETHER – ANYTHING
WITH 11 PROTONS MUST
BE SODIUM
MASS NUMBER AND ATOMIC NUMBER
Atomic Number (Z)
Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Mass Number (A)
Sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus
Mass Number (A)
PROTONS + NEUTRONS
23
Na
11
Atomic Number (Z)
PROTONS
MASS NUMBER AND ATOMIC NUMBER
Atomic Number (Z)
Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Mass Number (A)
Sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus
THERE WILL BE 12 NEUTRONS
IN THE NUCLEUS
Mass Number (A)
PROTONS + NEUTRONS
23
Na
11
Atomic Number (Z)
PROTONS
23 – 11 = 12
MASS NUMBER AND ATOMIC NUMBER
Atomic Number (Z)
Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Mass Number (A)
Sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus
Mass Number (A)
PROTONS + NEUTRONS
23
Na
11
Atomic Number (Z)
PROTONS
ATOMS AND IONS
ATOMS AND IONS
ATOMS
SAME NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AS PROTONS
IONS
DIFFERENT NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AND PROTONS
ATOMS AND IONS
ATOMS
SAME NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AS PROTONS
IONS
DIFFERENT NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AND PROTONS
PROTONS
ELECTRONS
ATOM or ION?
6
6
11
10
16
16
17
18
20
18
ATOMS AND IONS
ATOMS
SAME NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AS PROTONS
IONS
DIFFERENT NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AND PROTONS
PROTONS
ELECTRONS
ATOM or ION?
6
6
11
10
16
16
17
18
20
18
ATOM
ION
ATOM
ION
ION
ATOMS AND IONS
ATOMS
SAME NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AS PROTONS
IONS
DIFFERENT NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AND PROTONS
THE CHARGE ON AN ION DEPENDS ON THE RELATIVE
NUMBERS OF PROTONS AND ELECTRONS
ATOMS AND IONS
ATOMS
SAME NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AS PROTONS
IONS
DIFFERENT NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AND PROTONS
THE CHARGE ON AN ION DEPENDS ON THE RELATIVE
NUMBERS OF PROTONS AND ELECTRONS
MORE ELECTRONS THAN PROTONS
FEWER ELECTRONS THAN PROTONS
NEGATIVE
POSITIVE
ATOMS AND IONS
ATOMS
SAME NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AS PROTONS
IONS
DIFFERENT NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AND PROTONS
THE CHARGE ON AN ION DEPENDS ON THE RELATIVE
NUMBERS OF PROTONS AND ELECTRONS
MORE ELECTRONS THAN PROTONS
FEWER ELECTRONS THAN PROTONS
NEGATIVE
POSITIVE
ATOMS AND IONS
ATOMS
SAME NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AS PROTONS
IONS
DIFFERENT NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AND PROTONS
THE CHARGE ON AN ION DEPENDS ON THE RELATIVE
NUMBERS OF PROTONS AND ELECTRONS
MORE ELECTRONS THAN PROTONS
FEWER ELECTRONS THAN PROTONS
PROTONS
ELECTRONS
ATOM or ION?
CHARGE
NEGATIVE
POSITIVE
6
6
11
10
16
16
17
18
20
18
ATOM
ION
ATOM
ION
ION
ATOMS AND IONS
ATOMS
SAME NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AS PROTONS
IONS
DIFFERENT NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AND PROTONS
THE CHARGE ON AN ION DEPENDS ON THE RELATIVE
NUMBERS OF PROTONS AND ELECTRONS
MORE ELECTRONS THAN PROTONS
FEWER ELECTRONS THAN PROTONS
NEGATIVE
POSITIVE
6
6
11
10
16
16
17
18
20
18
ATOM or ION?
ATOM
ION
ATOM
ION
ION
CHARGE
Neutral
+
PROTONS
ELECTRONS
Neutral
-
2+
MASS NUMBER AND ATOMIC NUMBER
Protons
Neutrons
Electrons
A
19
21
19
B
20
+
D
6
E
92
F
6
H
Atomic
Number
0
C
G
Charge
6
Mass
Number
Symbol
40
11
23
0
0
235
13
16
2-
16
27Al3+
MASS NUMBER AND ATOMIC NUMBER
Protons
Neutrons
Electrons
Charge
Atomic
Number
Mass
Number
Symbol
A
19
21
19
0
19
40
40K
B
20
20
20
0
20
40
40Ca
C
11
12
10
+
11
23
23Na+
D
6
6
6
0
6
12
12C
E
92
143
92
0
92
235
235U
F
6
7
6
0
6
13
13C
G
16
16
18
2-
16
32
32S2-
H
13
14
10
3+
13
27
27Al3+
ISOTOPES
ISOTOPES
Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons.
These atoms are called ISOTOPES of that element.
ISOTOPES
Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons.
These atoms are called ISOTOPES of that element.
Isotopes of an element have
SAME NUMBER OF PROTONS
DIFFERENT NUMBER OF NEUTRONS
ISOTOPES
Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons.
These atoms are called ISOTOPES of that element.
Isotopes of an element have
or put another way
SAME NUMBER OF PROTONS
DIFFERENT NUMBER OF NEUTRONS
SAME ATOMIC NUMBER
DIFFERENT MASS NUMBER
ISOTOPES
Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons.
These atoms are called ISOTOPES of that element.
Isotopes of an element have
or put another way
SAME NUMBER OF PROTONS
DIFFERENT NUMBER OF NEUTRONS
SAME ATOMIC NUMBER
DIFFERENT MASS NUMBER
ISOTOPES HAVE SIMILAR CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
ISOTOPES
ISOTOPES OF HYDROGEN
1
H
1
2
H
1
ISOTOPES
ISOTOPES OF HYDROGEN
1
H
1
ATOMIC NUMBER
2
H
1
ISOTOPES
ISOTOPES OF HYDROGEN
1
H
1
ATOMIC NUMBER
1
2
H
1
1
ISOTOPES
ISOTOPES OF HYDROGEN
1
H
1
ATOMIC NUMBER
MASS NUMBER
1
2
H
1
1
ISOTOPES
ISOTOPES OF HYDROGEN
1
H
1
ATOMIC NUMBER
MASS NUMBER
PROTONS
1
1
2
H
1
1
2
ISOTOPES
ISOTOPES OF HYDROGEN
1
H
1
ATOMIC NUMBER
MASS NUMBER
PROTONS
NEUTRONS
1
1
1
2
H
1
1
2
1
ISOTOPES
ISOTOPES OF HYDROGEN
1
H
1
ATOMIC NUMBER
MASS NUMBER
PROTONS
NEUTRONS
1
1
1
0
2
H
1
1
2
1
1
ISOTOPES
ISOTOPES OF CHLORINE
35
Cl
17
ATOMIC NUMBER
MASS NUMBER
PROTONS
NEUTRONS
37
Cl
17
ISOTOPES
ISOTOPES OF CHLORINE
35
Cl
17
ATOMIC NUMBER
MASS NUMBER
PROTONS
NEUTRONS
17
35
17
18
37
Cl
17
17
37
17
20
ISOTOPES
ISOTOPES OF CHLORINE
35
Cl
17
ATOMIC NUMBER
MASS NUMBER
PROTONS
NEUTRONS
ABUNDANCE
17
35
17
18
37
Cl
17
17
37
17
20
ISOTOPES
ISOTOPES OF CHLORINE
35
Cl
17
37
Cl
17
ATOMIC NUMBER
MASS NUMBER
PROTONS
NEUTRONS
17
35
17
18
17
37
17
20
ABUNDANCE
75%
25%
ISOTOPES
ISOTOPES OF CHLORINE
35
Cl
17
37
Cl
17
ATOMIC NUMBER
MASS NUMBER
PROTONS
NEUTRONS
17
35
17
18
17
37
17
20
ABUNDANCE
RATIO
75%
25%
ISOTOPES
ISOTOPES OF CHLORINE
35
37
Cl
17
Cl
17
ATOMIC NUMBER
MASS NUMBER
PROTONS
NEUTRONS
17
35
17
18
17
37
17
20
ABUNDANCE
RATIO
75%
3
25%
1
:
ISOTOPES
ISOTOPES OF CHLORINE
35
37
Cl
17
Cl
17
ATOMIC NUMBER
MASS NUMBER
PROTONS
NEUTRONS
17
35
17
18
17
37
17
20
ABUNDANCE
RATIO
75%
3
25%
1
AVERAGE
:
ISOTOPES
ISOTOPES OF CHLORINE
35
37
Cl
17
Cl
17
ATOMIC NUMBER
MASS NUMBER
PROTONS
NEUTRONS
17
35
17
18
17
37
17
20
ABUNDANCE
RATIO
75%
3
25%
1
AVERAGE MASS
:
35 + 35 + 35 + 37
4
=
ISOTOPES
ISOTOPES OF CHLORINE
35
37
Cl
17
Cl
17
ATOMIC NUMBER
MASS NUMBER
PROTONS
NEUTRONS
17
35
17
18
17
37
17
20
ABUNDANCE
RATIO
75%
3
25%
1
AVERAGE MASS
:
35 + 35 + 35 + 37
4
= 35.5
ISOTOPES
ISOTOPES OF CARBON
12
C
6
ATOMIC NUMBER
MASS NUMBER
PROTONS
NEUTRONS
6
12
6
6
13
C
6
6
13
6
7
14
C
6
6
14
6
8
ISOTOPES
ISOTOPES OF CARBON
12
C
6
ATOMIC NUMBER
MASS NUMBER
PROTONS
NEUTRONS
6
12
6
6
13
C
6
6
13
6
7
14
C
6
6
14
6
8
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
THE ARRANGEMENT OF
ELECTRONS IN ATOMS
OF THE FIRST TWENTY
ELEMENTS IN THE
PERIODIC TABLE
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
HYDROGEN
H
Li Be B
He
C
N
Na Mg Al Si P
O
F Ne
S Cl Ar
K Ca
+
ATOMIC NUMBER
1
GROUP
1
ELECTRONIC
CONFIGURATION
1
• atoms have the same number of electrons as protons
• electrons are found in shells (energy levels) around the nucleus
• electrons are put into the lowest energy level first
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
HELIUM
H
Li Be B
He
C
N
Na Mg Al Si P
O
F Ne
S Cl Ar
K Ca
2+
ATOMIC NUMBER
2
GROUP
0
ELECTRONIC
CONFIGURATION
2
• the innermost shell can hold up to two electrons
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
LITHIUM
H
Li Be B
He
C
N
Na Mg Al Si P
O
F Ne
S Cl Ar
K Ca
3+
ATOMIC NUMBER
3
GROUP
1
ELECTRONIC
CONFIGURATION
2,1
• each shell (energy level) can hold a maximum number of electrons
• the first one can only hold 2,so the next goes in the second shell
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
BERYLLIUM
H
Li Be B
He
C
N
Na Mg Al Si P
O
F Ne
S Cl Ar
K Ca
4+
ATOMIC NUMBER
4
GROUP
2
ELECTRONIC
CONFIGURATION
2,2
• the second shell is gradually filled up until it has eight electrons
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
BORON
H
Li Be B
He
C
N
Na Mg Al Si P
O
F Ne
S Cl Ar
K Ca
5+
ATOMIC NUMBER
5
GROUP
3
ELECTRONIC
CONFIGURATION
2,3
• the second shell is gradually filled up until it has eight electrons
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
CARBON
H
Li Be B
He
C
N
Na Mg Al Si P
O
F Ne
S Cl Ar
K Ca
6+
ATOMIC NUMBER
6
GROUP
4
ELECTRONIC
CONFIGURATION
2,4
• the second shell is gradually filled up until it has eight electrons
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
NITROGEN
H
Li Be B
He
C
N
Na Mg Al Si P
O
F Ne
S Cl Ar
K Ca
7+
ATOMIC NUMBER
7
GROUP
5
ELECTRONIC
CONFIGURATION
2,5
• the second shell is gradually filled up until it has eight electrons
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
OXYGEN
H
Li Be B
He
C
N
Na Mg Al Si P
O
F Ne
S Cl Ar
K Ca
8+
ATOMIC NUMBER
8
GROUP
6
ELECTRONIC
CONFIGURATION
2,6
• the second shell is gradually filled up until it has eight electrons
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
FLUORINE
H
Li Be B
He
C
N
Na Mg Al Si P
O
F Ne
S Cl Ar
K Ca
9+
ATOMIC NUMBER
9
GROUP
7
ELECTRONIC
CONFIGURATION
2,7
• the second shell is gradually filled up until it has eight electrons
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
NEON
H
Li Be B
He
C
N
Na Mg Al Si P
O
F Ne
S Cl Ar
K Ca
10+
ATOMIC NUMBER
10
GROUP
0
ELECTRONIC
CONFIGURATION
2,8
• the second shell is now full
• full outer shells are characteristic of the unreactive NOBLE GASES
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
SODIUM
H
Li Be B
He
C
N
Na Mg Al Si P
O
F Ne
S Cl Ar
K Ca
11+
ATOMIC NUMBER
11
GROUP
1
ELECTRONIC
CONFIGURATION
2,8,1
• as the second shell is full, electrons go into the third shell
• the third shell can hold up to a maximum of eight electrons
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
MAGNESIUM
H
Li Be B
He
C
N
Na Mg Al Si P
O
F Ne
S Cl Ar
K Ca
12+
ATOMIC NUMBER
12
GROUP
2
ELECTRONIC
CONFIGURATION
2,8,2
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
ALUMINIUM
H
Li Be B
He
C
N
Na Mg Al Si P
O
F Ne
S Cl Ar
K Ca
13+
ATOMIC NUMBER
13
GROUP
3
ELECTRONIC
CONFIGURATION
2,8,3
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
SILICON
H
Li Be B
He
C
N
Na Mg Al Si P
O
F Ne
S Cl Ar
K Ca
14+
ATOMIC NUMBER
14
GROUP
4
ELECTRONIC
CONFIGURATION
2,8,4
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
PHOSPHORUS
H
Li Be B
He
C
N
Na Mg Al Si P
O
F Ne
S Cl Ar
K Ca
15+
ATOMIC NUMBER
15
GROUP
5
ELECTRONIC
CONFIGURATION
2,8,5
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
SULPHUR (SULFUR)
H
Li Be B
He
C
N
Na Mg Al Si P
O
F Ne
S Cl Ar
K Ca
16+
ATOMIC NUMBER
16
GROUP
6
ELECTRONIC
CONFIGURATION
2,8,6
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
CHLORINE
H
Li Be B
He
C
N
Na Mg Al Si P
O
F Ne
S Cl Ar
K Ca
17+
ATOMIC NUMBER
17
GROUP
7
ELECTRONIC
CONFIGURATION
2,8,7
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
ARGON
H
Li Be B
He
C
N
Na Mg Al Si P
O
F Ne
S Cl Ar
K Ca
18+
ATOMIC NUMBER
18
GROUP
0
ELECTRONIC
CONFIGURATION
2,8,8
• the third shell is now full
• full outer shells are characteristic of the unreactive NOBLE GASES
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
POTASSIUM
H
Li Be B
He
C
N
Na Mg Al Si P
O
F Ne
S Cl Ar
K Ca
19+
ATOMIC NUMBER
19
GROUP
1
ELECTRONIC
CONFIGURATION
2,8,8,1
• as the third shell is full, electrons go into the fourth shell
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
CALCIUM
H
Li Be B
He
C
N
Na Mg Al Si P
O
F Ne
S Cl Ar
K Ca
20+
ATOMIC NUMBER
20
GROUP
2
ELECTRONIC
CONFIGURATION
2,8,8,2
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
WHAT IS IT?
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
WHAT IS IT?
H
Li Be B
He
C
N
Na Mg Al Si P
O
F Ne
S Cl Ar
K Ca
16+
ELECTRONS
?
PROTONS
?
ATOM / ION
?
ELEMENT
?
ANSWER
?
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
WHAT IS IT?
H
Li Be B
He
C
N
Na Mg Al Si P
O
F Ne
S Cl Ar
K Ca
16+
ELECTRONS
16
PROTONS
16
ATOM / ION
ATOM
ELEMENT
SULPHUR
ANSWER
S
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
WHAT IS IT?
H
Li Be B
He
C
N
Na Mg Al Si P
O
F Ne
S Cl Ar
K Ca
19+
ELECTRONS
?
PROTONS
?
ATOM / ION
?
ELEMENT
?
ANSWER
?
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
WHAT IS IT?
H
Li Be B
He
C
N
Na Mg Al Si P
O
F Ne
S Cl Ar
K Ca
19+
ELECTRONS
18
PROTONS
19
ATOM / ION
POSITIVE ION
ELEMENT
POTASSIUM
ANSWER
K+
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
WHAT IS IT?
H
Li Be B
He
C
N
Na Mg Al Si P
O
F Ne
S Cl Ar
K Ca
17+
ELECTRONS
?
PROTONS
?
ATOM / ION
?
ELEMENT
?
ANSWER
?
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
WHAT IS IT?
H
Li Be B
He
C
N
Na Mg Al Si P
O
F Ne
S Cl Ar
K Ca
17+
ELECTRONS
18
PROTONS
17
ATOM / ION
NEGATIVE ION
ELEMENT
CHLORINE
ANSWER
Cl¯
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
WHAT IS IT?
H
Li Be B
He
C
N
Na Mg Al Si P
O
F Ne
S Cl Ar
K Ca
8+
ELECTRONS
?
PROTONS
?
ATOM / ION
?
ELEMENT
?
ANSWER
?
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
WHAT IS IT?
H
Li Be B
He
C
N
Na Mg Al Si P
O
F Ne
S Cl Ar
K Ca
8+
ELECTRONS
10
PROTONS
8
ATOM / ION
NEGATIVE ION
ELEMENT
OXYGEN
ANSWER
O2-
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
WHAT IS IT?
H
Li Be B
He
C
N
Na Mg Al Si P
O
F Ne
S Cl Ar
K Ca
13+
ELECTRONS
?
PROTONS
?
ATOM / ION
?
ELEMENT
?
ANSWER
?
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
WHAT IS IT?
H
Li Be B
He
C
N
Na Mg Al Si P
O
F Ne
S Cl Ar
K Ca
13+
ELECTRONS
10
PROTONS
13
ATOM / ION
POSITIVE ION
ELEMENT
ALUMINIUM
ANSWER
Al3+
ATOMIC
STRUCTURE
THE END
© 2011 JONATHAN HOPTON & KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING
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