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AP World History REVIEW - Period
1
Technological and Environmental Transformations, to c. 600 B.C.E.
The three to four key concepts per period define what is most essential to know about each period based upon the most current historical research in
world history. This approach enables students to spend less time on factual recall, more time on learning essential concepts, and helps them develop
historical thinking skills necessary to explore the broad trends and global processes involved in their study of AP World History.
Key Concept 1.1
Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth
The term Big Geography draws attention to the ________________ nature of world history. Throughout the Paleolithic period, humans migrated
from _______________ to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas. Early humans were ______________ and ________________ in adapting to
different geographical settings from savanna to desert to Ice Age tundra. By making an analogy with modern hunter-forager societies, anthropologists
infer that these bands were relatively ___________________________. Humans also developed varied and sophisticated _____________________.
1. Archeological evidence indicates that during the Paleolithic era, hunting-foraging bands of humans gradually migrated from their origin in
East Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas, adapting their technology and cultures to new climate regions.
a. Humans used _______ in new ways: to aid hunting and foraging, to protect against predators, and to adapt to cold environments.
b. Humans developed a wider range of _________ specially adapted to different environments from tropics to tundra.
c. Economic structures focused on small ______________ groups of hunting-foraging bands that could make what they needed to
survive. However, not all groups were self-sufficient; they _____________________ people, ideas, and goods.
Key Concept 1.2
The Neolithic Revolution and Early Agricultural Societies
In response to warming climates at the end of the last Ice Age, from about __________ years ago, some groups adapted to the environment in new
ways, while others remained hunter-foragers. Settled __________________ appeared in several different parts of the world. The switch to agriculture
created a more ___________, but not necessarily more _________________, food supply. Agriculturalists also had a massive impact on the
_______________________ through intensive cultivation of selected plants to the exclusion of others, through the construction of _____________
systems, and through the use of domesticated animals for food and for labor. Populations increased; family groups gave way to village life and, later,
to urban life with all its complexity. ________________ and _________________________ systems developed, giving elite men concentrated power
over most of the other people in their societies. _______________ emerged in parts of Africa and Eurasia. Pastoral peoples domesticated animals and
led their herds around grazing ranges. Like agriculturalists, pastoralists tended to be more socially _______________ than hunter-foragers. Because
pastoralists were __________, they rarely accumulated large amounts of material possessions, which would have been a hindrance when they
changed grazing areas. The pastoralists’ mobility allowed them to become an important _____________ for technological change as they interacted
with settled populations.
1. Beginning about 10,000 years ago, the Neolithic Revolution led to the development of new and more complex economic and social
systems.
a. Possibly as a response to ______________ change, permanent agricultural villages emerged first in the lands of the eastern
Mediterranean. Agriculture emerged at different times in Mesopotamia, the Nile River Valley and Sub-Saharan Africa, the Indus
River Valley, the Yellow River or Huang He Valley, Papua New Guinea, Mesoamerica, and the Andes.
b. Pastoralism developed at various sites in the grasslands of _________________________.
c. Different crops or animals were domesticated in the various core regions, depending on available local flora and fauna.
d. Agricultural communities had to work _____________________ to clear land and create the water control systems needed for
crop production.
e. These agricultural practices drastically impacted environmental diversity. Pastoralists also affected the environment by grazing
large numbers of animals on fragile grasslands, leading to erosion when overgrazed.
2. Agriculture and pastoralism began to transform human societies.
a. Pastoralism and agriculture led to more reliable and abundant food supplies, which ___________________ the population.
b. Surpluses of food and other goods led to ______________________ of ___________, including new classes of artisans and
warriors, and the development of elites
c. Technological innovations led to improvements in agricultural production, trade, and transportation.
Required examples:
d.
In both pastoralist and agrarian societies, __________ groups accumulated ___________, creating more hierarchical social
structures and promoting _____________________ forms of social organization.
Key Concept 1.3
The Development and Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral, and Urban Societies
From about ____________ years ago, urban societies developed, laying the foundations for the first civilizations. The term civilization is normally
used to designate __________ societies with __________s and powerful ____________. While there were many differences between civilizations,
they also shared important features. They all produced agricultural surpluses that permitted significant specialization of labor. All civilizations
contained cities and generated complex institutions, such as political bureaucracies, armies, and religious hierarchies. They also featured clearly
stratified social hierarchies and organized long-distance trading relationships. Economic exchanges intensified within and between civilizations, as
well as with nomadic pastoralists.
As populations grew, __________________ for surplus resources, especially food, led to greater social stratification, specialization of labor,
increased trade, more complex systems of government and religion, and the development of record keeping. As civilizations expanded, they had to
balance their need for more resources with environmental constraints such as the danger of undermining soil fertility. Finally, the accumulation of
wealth in settled communities spurred ______________ between communities and/or with pastoralists; this violence drove the development of new
technologies of war and urban defense.
1.
Core and foundational civilizations developed in a variety of geographical and environmental settings where agriculture flourished.
a. Students should be able to identify the location of all of the following required examples of core and foundational civilizations
•
Mesopotamia in the Tigris and Euphrates River Valleys
•
Egypt in the Nile River Valley
•
Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa in the Indus River Valley
•
Shang in the Yellow River or Huang He Valley
•
Olmecs in Mesoamerica
•
Chavín in Andean South America
2.
The first states emerged within core civilizations.
a. States were powerful new systems of rule that __________ surplus labor and resources over large areas. Early states were often
led by a ruler whose source of power was believed to be ________ or had divine support and/or who was supported by the
________________.
b. As states grew and competed for land and resources, the more favorably ____________ — including the Hittites, who had access
to ________ — had greater access to resources, produced more surplus food, and experienced growing populations. These states
were able to undertake ________________________________________ and conquer surrounding states.
c. Early regions of __________ expansion or _____________ building were Mesopotamia, Babylonia, and the Nile Valley.
d. Pastoralists were often the developers and disseminators of new weapons and modes of transportation that transformed warfare
in agrarian civilizations.
Illustrative examples of new weapons
Illustrative examples of new modes of transportation
3.
Culture played a significant role in _____________ states through laws, language, literature, religion, myths, and monumental art.
a. Early civilizations developed monumental architecture and urban planning.
Illustrative examples:
b.
Elites, both _____________ and ______________, promoted arts and artisanship.
Illustrative examples:
c.
Systems of record keeping arose independently in all early civilizations and subsequently were diffused.
Illustrative examples:
d.
States developed legal codes, including the _______________________________, that reflected existing hierarchies and
facilitated the rule of governments over people.
New religious beliefs developed in this period continued to have strong influences in later periods.
Required examples:
e.
f.
Trrade expanded th
hroughout this period
p
from locall to regional andd transregional, w
with civilizationss exchanging gooods, cultural
id
deas, and technollogy.
Requireed examples:
g.
h.
__
____________ and
a __________
________ hierarcchies intensified as states expandded and cities muultiplied.
Liiterature was alsso a reflection off culture.
Illustrative examples:
***************************************
****************************************************************
*******************
AN
NOTE ABOUT
A
T PREHIISTORY
Y (BEFO
ORE 35500 CE)
A bassic type of periiodization is to divide all of tiime into "prehiistory" and "hiistory." Usuallyy the distinctioon is based on w
whether or not
the peeople left ____
_____________
__ records, butt the presence of
o written recoords is very cloosely tied to thee beginnings off
_________________
___. Scholars are
a not entirely sure about wh
hen human beinngs first appearred on earth, buut new discoveeries continue
to pussh the date furtther back in tim
me. So "prehisttory" lasted forr _____________________ off years.
The ffirst humans prrobably emergeed in ________
____________
____, due to a hhappy confluennce of _________________ off food and
domeesticable animaals and favorab
ble __________
_________. Fo
or thousands off years humanss sustained them
mselves as hunnters and
gatheerers, and as a result
r
were quite __________
_______ on thee abundance off food. Hunterss gained skills in capturing annd killing
animaals, and gatherers learned wh
hich plants and fruits were ediible and nutritiious. Technoloogical inventionns generally suupported the
fulfilllment of these basic activitiess. __________
___ (and eventu
ually ______________) were sshaped as toolss and weapons, and
technniques were dev
veloped for effficient gatherin
ng and storage of
o food.
By _____________ BCE,
B
humans had
h migrated to
o many other areas,
a
probablyy following thee __________ aand other availlable food
sourcces. Major mig
grations includ
de:
• Early Africcans to Australlia, the Middle East, Europe, and Asia
• Asians across the land brridge to the Am
mericas
Our knnowledge of prrehistoric
peoplee is ___________, partly
becauuse they lived so long ago, and
d
partlyy because they lleft no written
recordds.
Howeever, archaeologists have
foundd evidence of thhese generally
____________ characcteristics of
prehisstoric people:
M people trav
veled in small baands, and authoriity was based onn ___________ rrelationships. Men took leadershhip roles, but
Sociaal structure - Most
womeen were highly __________
__
for their
t
gathering sk
kills. Labor was generally divideed based on gennder, with men ass hunters and woomen as
gatherrers. However, status differencess between men and
a women weree generally not w
wide, with relativve gender _____________ appareently
characcterizing their grroup life.
Beliefs - Archaeologgical evidence suuggests that prehistoric people were guided by thheir beliefs in ____________ and ____________ places. Their
cave ddrawings and traaces of their cultu
ural objects indiccate that they beelieved in an ________________,, although they pprobably did nott practice
polythheism, or a belief in many gods. Instead, polydaeemonism / _____
___________, oor the belief in m
many spirits (not specific gods), pprobably
descriibes their religion
n more accurately. Bushes, rock
ks, trees, plants, or
o streams couldd be inhabited byy these spirits, w
who often appeared to
__________________ with humans. Period 1: Technological and Environmental Transformations
(Agricultural Transformation to River Valley Civilizations)
THE BIG PICTURE
1) Interactions among different groups of people on the planet were
usually limited to groups that were geographically nearby, but
interactions increased steadily throughout the time period, both in
frequency and distance.
2) Physical geography and the natural environment interacted with
human activities to shape changes and continuities during the time
period.
MARKER EVENTS
The invention of __________
The Neolithic Revolution (Agricultural Transformation)
1) People settle down; first concept of _________________
2) Division of labor
3) Social _______________ (accumulation of land; specialized
occupations)
4) __________________ inequality (loss of women’s economic
power; superior strength of men for agriculture)
5) The importance of _____________ (not everyone needed to
be a farmer; food supplies more reliable)
6) Religious changes (shift from spirits to many “gods” with
human characteristics; focus on _____________ and
_______________)
7) Emergence of ___________ industries (pottery, metallurgy –
copper then bronze then iron, textiles)
8) The growth of towns and cities
• 7000 BCE - ____________ (Jordan River) and
____________________ (southern Turkey)
The _____________ of ________________
From ______________ to _______________ (Hebrews were first)
KEY TERMS
Animism
Book of Songs
Caste system and varnas
Cosmopolitan
Cultural Diffusion vs. Independent Invention
Cuneiform and hieroglyphics
Diaspora
Dynasty
Epic of Gilgamesh
Hammurabi’s Code
Law Code
Loess
Lucy
Monotheism
Oracle Bones and Shamans
Paleolithic
Pastoralism
Patriarchy
Pharaoh
Polytheism
Social Mobility
Specialization
Surplus
Theocracy
Tribute
Vassals
Vedas
Ziggurats TIME PERIODS
•
•
•
The Paleolithic Age refers to about 12,000 BC. During this time people were _________________.
The Neolithic Age refers to the age from about 12,000 BC to about 8000 BC. It is during this time that people settled in
____________________ and _____________________ began to emerge.
River Valley Civilizations refers to about _______________ to _____________ BC. – Tigris-Euphrates, Nile, Indus, and
Huang He Rivers; community cooperation to manage irrigation and flood control
WHAT IS A CIVILIZATION?
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
Reliable surpluses of food
Highly specialized occupations (more complex jobs including government, trade, religion)
Clear social class distinctions
Growth of cities
Complex, formal governments
Long-distance trade
Advanced technology
Organized writing systems (communication for trade, religion, taxes, and politics; Incas were an exception – no writing
system)
THE WEB OF COMMERCE & CULTURES
•
•
•
•
•
Egypt
Mesopotamia
Hittites
Nubians
Minoans / Mycenaeans
APWH Themes (SPICE Chart)
Period 1: Technological and Environmental Transformations
(Agricultural Revolution to River Valley Civilizations)
CULTURE
ECONOMY
(and Technology)
SOCIAL
POLITICAL
INTERACTIONS
• Family important
(ancestor-worship)
• Ruling class,
military, lower
classes
• Women had no
rights
• Dynasties based on
the Mandate of
Heaven
• Feudalism
• Clans
• Remains isolated
due to geography
from other centers
of urbanization.
Constant threats
from Xiongnu to
the north and other
nomadic groups.
• Filial piety
• Oracle bones
• Human sacrifice
• No evidence of
social divisions
• Organized cities,
not much known,
but structured
politically is
suspected.
• At the end of the
period, IndoEuropeans (Aryans)
invade.
• Trade with various
peoples across the
early river valley
systems.
• Mother goddess/
fertility cult
• Polytheism
• Early form of Shiva
• Indoor plumbing,
planned cities,
written language,
raised cities,
agriculture
• Patriarchal
societies (all)
Some minor
exceptions with
the upper classes
for women
• Ruling classes,
elite (soldiers,
priests), lower
classes, slaves
• Mesopotamia –
city/states military
and priests
important
• Hammurabi’s code
• Egypt – pharaohs
(god-kings)
Theocracy
• Trade among
societies spreads
ideas. Evidence of
Indus Valley trade
via seals found in
Mesopotamia.
• Frequent war
• Babylonian
captivity
• Phoenicians were
early seafarers
• Polytheism, nature
worship, god –kings
(Egypt)
• Mathematical
advances: calendars,
number system,
tools, irrigation,
sails, pyramidal
structures, writing
systems: cuneiform
and hieroglyphics
• Crossbow, irrigation,
roads, canals, iron
tools and weapons,
plow, wheelbarrow
• Domesticate animals
East Asia /
Southeast
Asia
South Asia
Middle East
/ Southwest
Asia:
Mesopotamia
Egypt
Hebrews
• Relief sculpture and
painting. Elaborate
tombs
• Domesticate animals
SOCIAL
POLITICAL
• Tribal, nomadic
groups
Europe
CULTURE
• Migrations of
various groups
including the
Hittites, bringing
iron-working.
Other IndoEuropeans migrate
and settle in Greece
and Italy.
• Polytheism, nature
worship
ECONOMY
(and Technology)
• Nomadic groups
(Hittites) introduce
iron-working
• Monolithic
structures:
Stonehenge
• Looser gender
relations
• Village Chiefs
• Clans (extended
family units)
• Basic unit: family
• Bantu speakers
migrate throughout
sub-Saharan Africa
spreading ironworking and
language, mixing
with nomadic
groups
• Polytheistic,
animism, belief in a
single creator-god
• Griots – oral
historians
• Iron tools, skipped
Copper and Bronze
ages
• Religiously linked
rulers
• Religion-based
• No apparent
organization in
Chavin culture
• Migration via
Beringia from Asia
during the Ice Age.
• Polytheistic,
ritualistic sacrifice,
jaguar spirit
• Monumental stone
sculptures, pyramids,
ball courts, pottery,
irrigation and
farming techniques
(cultivation of maize
and potatoes)
• Domestication of
llamas and turkeys
• Language group –
Austronesian brought
from Asia
• Chiefs and nobles
gained semi-divine
status
• Public rituals
• Sophisticated
maritime technology
• Lapita traded pottery
and obsidian
Africa
Americas
• Chiefs and nobles
organized public
life
Oceania
INTERACTIONS
• Hereditary
chiefdoms
• Physical contests
for leadership
roles
• Migration to ease
tensions
• Two mother
cultures emerge:
Olmec in
MesoAmerica,
Chavin in South
America
• Migrations began
60,000 years ago
• 3000 BCE – trading
ports in New
Guinea
• Sailed as far as
Madagascar