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The Rise of Muslim States Copy the notes as they appear. Expansion under the Umayyads By 661, the Umayyads took over Islam. In less than 100 years, they had expanded the empire into Asia, Africa, and Europe. The Golden Age of Islam Islam entered a golden age in around 800 AD. Advancements in art and design Muslims did not use the human form in art. They thought it took away from their worship of God. Arabic script began being used for art. Arabic is the language of the Qur’an. Artists became skilled at calligraphy. Calligraphy is the art of handwriting. Calligraphers decorated many things, including buildings. Literature Muslims also produced great works of literature. The most famous were stories of great adventure and fantasy called The Thousand and One Nights. Other famous stories like Sinbad the Sailor and Aladdin came out of this period of Muslim history. A Thousand and One Nights Sinbad the Sailor and Aladdin Mathematics Muslims invented a new numbering system, It was called, Hisab al-abr: “the addition of one thing to another. Al-jabr is the origin of the word… algebra Medicine Muslim doctors were the first to identify and describe diseases such as smallpox and measles. They were the first to create public hospitals. Muslim doctors wrote an encyclopedia of drugs that was used for 600 years. They also created the first pharmacy schools.