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Aquatic
Biodiversity
Brittney arellana
Nicolette Benedetti
Nairelis Real
Aquatic equivalents of biomes= Aquatic life
zones
Aquatic life zones
Salt water or marine
Fresh water
Oceans, estatuaries, coastal westlands,
shorelines,coral reefs, magrove forest
-lakes, rivers, streams, and inland
wetlands
Types of plankton:
-phytoplankton-algae, support most aquatic food webs
-Zoo plankton- consumers, feed on phytoplankton's
-Ultra plankton- photosynthetic bacteria 20 %of the primary
productivity near ocean surface
~ Oceans provide ecological and economic services:
-
Oceans provide enormously valuable ecological and economic
services
Cool fact: one estimate of the combined value
Cool fact: one estimate of the combined value
of these goods and services from all marine
of these goods and services from all marine
coastal ecosystem is over $12 trillion per year,
coastal ecosystem is over $12 trillion per year,
nearly equal to the U.S gross domestic product
nearly equal to the U.S gross domestic product

Marine aquatic systems are enormous reservoirs
of biodiversity. They include many different
ecosystems, which host a great variety of species ,
genes and biological and chemical processes.
Coastal zone
Open sea
Ocean bottom
warm ,nutrients
,shallow water
that extends from
high tide mark on
land to gently
sloping, shallow
edge of the
continental shelf
(submerged
continents)
sharp increase in
water depth at
the edge of the
continental shelf
it seperates the
coastal from vast
volumes of the
ocean
major life zone
contains enough
nutrients

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Some of the earths most productive ecosystem because
of high nutrients inputs
Provide important ecological and economic services
Help maintain water quality in tropical coastal zones
by filtering toxic pollutants, excess plant nutrients and
sediments
- they provide food, habitat, and nursery sites.
#1. the UN food and agriculture organization
estimated that between 1980 and 2005 atleast
1/5 of the worlds mangrove forest were lost
mostly because of human coastal development
#2. coral reefs are among the worlds oldest,
most diverse and productive ecosystem, the
biodiversity is equal to tropical rainforest coral
reefs provide homes for ¼ of all marine
species
water stands in some fresh water systems and flow in
others.

fresh water life zones include standing bodies of
fresh water such as:
-lakes
-ponds
- inland wetlands
and flowing systems such as streams and rivers
* Although these fresh water systems cover less then 2.2%
of the Earths surface, they provide a number of
important ecological and economic servies

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Lakes are large natural bodies of standing fresh water
Fresh water lakes very tremendously in size, depth and
nutrient content
-deep lakes normally consist of four distinct zones that
are defined by their depth and distance from shore
Littoral zone ( near the zone)
Limnetic zone ( sun light layer )
Profundal zone(a layer of deep water, to dark for
photosynthesis
Benthic zone ( inhabited mostly some species of fish)
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*ecologist classify lakes according to their nutrient
content and primary productivity
- Glaciers and mountain streams supply water to many
lakes, bringing little in the way of sediment or
microscopic to could the water and small population of
fish species because of their low level of nutrients.
These lakes have a low net primary productivity
* a lake with a large supply of nutrients needed by
producers is called eutrophic ( well nourished)

In many areas streams begin in mountains or
hilly areas. Which collect earths surface as rain
or as snow melts during warm seasons
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- coastal deltas, mangrove, forests, and coastal
wetlands provide considerbale natural protection
agaisnt flood and wave damage from coastal storms,
hurricans, typhoons, and tsunamis
- humans have built damns to control water flow and
provide electricity
Hurricane Katrina in 2005, when the dams of
New Orleans has begun a project to
protect and restore wetlands in the
Mississippi Delta in order to increase
resilience against flooding, hurricanes,
and rising sea levels caused by global
warming. This is a reversal of previous
tactics, which relied solely on dams
and river levees. Research has shown
that wetlands play a crucial role in the
defence against flooding.
New Orleans burst, was the worst civil
engineering disaster in US history and one of
the country’s worst natural catastrophes.
Eighty percent of New Orleans was flooded
after the hurricane ripped through, 1,500
people died, and almost a million people
were displaced. Some 16,000 offices and
factories were flooded, and 40 schools were
destroyed. The city’s recovery has been slow
– the current population in the city proper is
still almost half as large as it was before the
disaster.

What is the Biotic responses of Rate of water level fluctuation?

Macroinvertebrates are vulnerable to what?
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List the 5 examples of the most commonly cited abiotic
determinants of aquatic macrophyte.
Flow regulation by dams, are often compound by what? And
explain.
Physical disturbance from floods is thought to be a major
determinate of?
The viability of populations of many species of fully aquatic
organism depends on?