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Transcript
The Art of
Ancient
Egypt
The Growth of
Egyptian
Civilization
Early Inhabitants Along
the Nile
Yearly
summertime flooding of
the Nile River
Deposits
of fertile soil in the valley
People change from gatherers to
producers
Rely more on animals they raised for
food
The Formation of Kingdoms
Increased
population = growth of
villages and towns
Two large kingdoms (3000 BC)
 Lower
Egypt
Fan-shaped delta
region at the mouth
of the Nile
 Upper
Egypt
Valley carved in
the desert by the
river
Egypt
ruled by a
succession of
pharaohs for 3000
years
Three Major Periods of
Egyptian History
Each
kingdom divided into
dynasties.
 Dynasty:
a period during which a single
family provided a succession of rulers
 Blood HAD to be pure = marry from in
immediate family
 Earliest Dynasty 3100 BC when Egypt
united under Menes
founded
the first of the 31 Egyptian
dynasties
The OLD KINGDOM
2686
 start
BC – 2150 BC
of the third dynasty
Capital
at Memphis
Ended when centralized
government was weakened by
rise of independent nobles.
 country
split into small states and civil wars
broke out
The MIDDLE KINGDOM
2050 – 1800 BC
 Nobles regained control of the country
Capital
at Thebes
Time of law and order and
prosperity
 Pharaoh
supreme head but not as powerful
as those in the Old Kingdom
Ended
when Egypt easily overrun
by the Hyksos from western Asia
 Inhabited
Lower Egypt and forced
Egyptian people to pay tribute
The NEW KINGDOM
1570 BC – 332 BC
 Warrior pharaohs used expertise to extend
control over neighboring nations
Amenhotep
III – pharaoh during
the peak of Egypt’s power and
influence
Amenhotep
Akhenaton)
IV (later called
 Changed
Tradition (not a popular move)
Moved capital to Tel el-Amarna
Established Aton (sun god) as the supreme
god
Decline
of Ancient Egypt
 After
Akhenaton’s death, traditions
returned
 Alexander the Great of Macedonia
conquered Egypt in 332
centuries of Hellenistic rule
 Egypt
made a province of Rome 30 BC
The Pyramids
Covered
with polished layer of
white limestone
The
Pyramid of
Khufu
 13
acres big and
48 stories high
 2.3 million stone
blocks
Design of the Pyramids
Almost
perfectly
square floor plan
Base larger than
height = Solidity
and permanence
Solid limestone
with exception of
passage-ways and
small galleries
Influence of Religion
Importance
placed on
resurrection of the soul and
eternal life after death
(reincarnation)
 --
The soul = ka
Purpose
to protect and preserve
the body after death
 Embalmed
and wrapped in strips of cloth;
placed in the tomb, awaiting the soul’s
return
The Pyramids as Tombs
Most
impressive tombs were
built for pharaohs.
Dead-end
passageways and
false burial chambers to
confuse grave robbers
Evolution of the Pyramid
Shape
Dead
buried in hidden pits and
piled sand and stone over top
Use
of sundried bricks to build
mastabas
 Mastaba:
low, flat tomb
 Rectangular in shape with sloping sides
and a chapel, as well as false and true
burial chambers
Mastaba at Meydum in the
Old Kingdom
Several
mastabas of
diminishing size placed on
top of each other = step
pyramid
Mastaba
Sakkara
at
Mastabas
built without steps and
a point added to top = true
pyramid form
Construction of the Pyramids
Each
pyramid took many
thousands of workers and
decades to build
Middle Kingdom: construction
impractical
permanent
tombs for pharaoh
cut into rock cliffs
The Temples
Temples
erected along
eastern banks of the Nile near
Thebes
Each
built by command of
pharaoh and dedicated to
pharaoh’s favorite god/gods
At pharaoh’s death, temple
became his funeral chapel
Temple of Amon-Re at Karnak
Temples
to
honor
particular
gods were
enlarged to
tremendous
proportions
by several
pharaohs
Structure of the Temple
Great
doorway flanked by obelisks
(tall, four-sided, pointed stone shafts)
Statues of pharaoh and banners
opened onto uncovered courtyard
Entry into great hall at end of
courtyard
Massive stone columns of 70 feet
Sanctuary: small dark and mysterious
chamber where only the pharaoh and
certain priests were permitted