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The Evolution of Online Advertisement Casey Shannon CompSci 49S February 21, 2008 Basic Idea: Deliver targeted ads to customers who will then be more apt to purchasing things. How Do Search Engines Accomplish this? 1. personal characteristics of a web page visitor known to the party delivering an ad 2. keywords of a search query launched by the user 3. content of a web page visited by the user. Google’s Marketing Breakthrough • Why not make advertisers pay for using the search engine as a marketing medium? • Advertisers want their company/product to be the most competitive and popular, therefore they want their advertising to be the most competitive and popular. • How do search engine’s provide the best search results for the post popular products? PAY-PER-CLICK Advertising Model • Targeted advertisement based on two effectiveness measures: • 1.) Click-Through Rate (CTR):specifies on how many ads X, out of the total number of ads Y shown to the visitors, the visitors actually clicked; in other words, CTR = X/Y. CTR measures how often visitors click on the ad • 2.) Conversion Rate: it specifies the percentage of visitors who took the conversion action. Conversion rate gives a sense of how often visitors actually act on a given ad, which is a better measure of ad’s effectiveness than the CTR measure. PAY-PER-CLICK Advertising Model The PPC model is widely adopted by Google and now its two main programs, AdWords and AdSense, are based on it. AdWords: a program allowing advertisers to purchase CPC-based advertising that targets the ads based on the keywords specified in users’ search queries. An advertiser chooses the keywords for which the ad will be shown on Google’s web page. Uses of AdWords When a user issues a search query on Google.com or a network partner site, ads for relevant words are shown along with search results on the site on the right side of the Web page as “sponsored links” and also above the main search results. The ordering of the paid listings on the side of the page is determined according to the AdRank. Quality is the “quality” of the keyword being search. Ad Rank = CPC x QualityScore, Uses of AdSense Google AdSense is a program for website owners to display Google’s ads on their websites and earn money from Google as a result. To participate in this program, website publishers need to register with Google and be accepted into the program by Google. Also they have to meet certain criteria set by Google such as AdSense for Search (AFS) and AdSense for Content (AFC): Uses of AdSense • AdSense for Search (AFS): publishers allow Google to place its ads on their websites when the user does keyword-based searches on their sites. • AdSense for Content (AFC): the system that automatically delivers targeted ads to the publisher’s web pages that the user is visiting. These ads are based on the content of the visited pages, geographical location and some other factors. Uses of AdWords and AdSense Google pays advertisers using the PPC model. Publishers can see detailed online reports helping the publishers to track their earnings. These reports contain several statistics of clicking activities on the ads displayed on publisher’s website. These statistics help the publisher to get an idea of how well his or her website is performing in the AdSense program and how much the publisher is expected to earn over time. Advertising Payment Methods • CPM – Cost per Mille – an advertiser pays per one thousand impressions of the ad (“Mille” stands for “thousand” in Latin); an alternative term used in the industry for this payment model is CPI (Cost per Impression). • CPC – Cost per Click (a. k. a. Pay per Click or PPC; we will use these terms interchangeably) – an advertiser pays only when a visitor clicks on the ad, as is clearly stated in the name of this payment model. • CPA – Cost per Action – an advertiser only pays when a certain conversion action takes place, such as a product being purchased, an advertised item was placed into a shopping cart, or a certain form being filled. This is the best option for an advertiser to pay for the ads from the advertisers’ point of view since it gives the Problems with PAY-PER-CLICK Conversion Fraud: People clicking on products/advertisements excessively without the real intent of actually making any purchases. Recent History of CPC Method Cost Per Click is the predominant advertising payment method, made popular by search engines such a Google and Overture (now part of Yahoo!). Google introduced CPC AdWords program in 2002. Combining a particular ad payment method with a particular targeting method. For Google and Yahoo! the two main models are the keyword-based PPC and the content-based PPC models. Google’s Plan for the Future • Because there are no guarantees to the advertiser, they could be losing money on ads if there is no revenue coming from users purchasing their products. Thus the Cost Per Action model is most fair and logical to advertisers. • Google is trying to test a CPA payment model that some consider to be the future of online advertising payment methods.