Download Chemistry 102B What`s in an atom? Before “Chemistry” Other Early

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Transcript
Before “Chemistry”
• Alchemy/Alchemists - a pseudoscience
built around trying to turn cheap metals into
GOLD! (400 B.C.-1400 A.D.)
• Metallurgy – systematic extraction of metals
from ores laid some groundwork for modern
chemistry. (1500s)
• The first “chemist” was Robert Boyle who
worked on pressure and volume of gases
and postulated that elements could not be
separated into simpler substances. (1660s)
Chemistry 102B
What’s in an atom?
January 22, 2007
Other Early Chemists
John Dalton’s Atomic Theory
• Antoine Lavoisier (late 1700s) – carefully
weighed reactants and products of combustion.
Developed the “Law of conservation of Mass”.
• Joseph Proust (early 1800s) – discovered that a
given compound always contained the same
proportions of certain elements by mass. “Law of
Definite Proportions”
• John Dalton (early 1800s) – noted that elements
that combined to form more than one kind of
compound, did so in proportions of integers by
mass. “Law of Multiple Proportions”
1. Each element is made up of tiny particles
called atoms.
2. Atoms of a given element are identical, atoms
of different elements are different.
3. Chemical compounds are formed when atoms
of 2 or more elements combine w/ each other.
A given compound always has the same
relative numbers and types of atoms.
4. Chemical reactions involve reorganization of
the atoms, but not atoms are destroyed or
created. “Law of conservation of mass”
Practice Problem
J. J. Thomson, Cathode Ray Tube
A
B
C
Which box displays a
i. a gaseous compound and gaseous element
A and B
ii. a solid element and a gaseous compound
C
1
Robert Millikan, Charge Oil Droplets
Plum Pudding Model of the Atom
Electrons dispersed
evenly
Ernest Rutherford, Gold Foil Experiment
Modern View of Atomic Structure (Page 5)
10-13 cm
http://cwx.prenhall.com/petrucci/medialib/media_portfolio/text_images/006_RUTHERFORD.MOV
Nuclear Particles (Page 9)
Particle
• Electrons
• Protons
• Neutrons
10-8 cm
If a nucleus were the size of a marble, the
atom would be the size of Memorial Stadium.
Alkali metals
Alkaline earth
metals
Noble gases
Halogens
Mass
Charge
-31
9.10939 x 10 kg
11.67265 x 10-27 kg
1+
-27
1.67495 x 10 kg
None
Mass number
Atomic number
A
Z
X
Element symbol
Mass number, A, = total number of protons and neutrons
Atomic number, Z, = number of protons
2