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Grains
By Melissa Bess
Nutrition and Health Education Specialist
FNEP STAFF TRAINING ONLY, DO NOT
USE WITH FNEP PARTICIPANTS
02/2007
Introduction
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Gluten
Gluten sensitivities
Whole grains
Protein/amino acids
16 different grains/breads
Gluten
• Gluten is a protein in wheat, rye,
barley, and oat products
• Gives cohesiveness to dough
• Now food labels must list wheat
under allergy info, if gluten is in the
product
Gluten sensitivity
• Immune system is intolerant of gluten
– Not an allergy
– Symptoms – bloating, diarrhea, constipation,
fatigue, etc
– Celiac disease – damage to small intestine,
impaired ability to absorb nutrients, can
cause malnutrition
– Often misdiagnosed, thought to be in 1 in 133
people
– Genetic disorder
Whole grains
• Contains entire grain kernel
– Bran
– Germ
– Endosperm
• Visible on label
Amino acids
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Building blocks of protein
9 essential – can only get from diet
11 non-essential – body can make
20 total
Amaranth
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Aztec culture to Asia
In South America, popped like popcorn
Gluten-free
Ancient whole grain
Carb, protein, polyunsaturated fat
One of best sources of vegetable protein
Calcium, iron, fiber, vitamins A and C, amino acids
More iron and fiber than wheat, 2x as much
calcium as milk
• Eat as cereal, mix with other grains, add to stir-fry
or soups
Barley
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Contains gluten
Egypt and England
One of the oldest cultivated grains
Highly adaptable, grown from north of the
Arctic and in Africa
• Hulled – more whole grain nutrients, very
slow cooking
• Pearled – not technically a whole grain,
but full of fiber
Buckwheat
• Gluten-free
• Cousin of rhubarb, not technically a grain
and not wheat
• Nutrients, nutty flavor, and appearance led
to adoption by grain group
• Often used to make pancakes
• Contains antioxidant called rutin, which
may prevent bad cholesterol from blocking
blood vessels
Bulgur
• When wheat kernels are
boiled, cracked, and sorted
• Often made from durum wheat (made into
pasta or bread, hardest of all wheats)
• Nutritious fast cooking food (10 mins to
boil), common use in tabbouleh (minty
grain and vegetable salad)
Kashi cereals
• Contains whole grains
– Whole oats, brown rice, whole rye, triticale,
buckwheat, barley, sesame seeds
• No artificial sweeteners, preservatives,
colors, or flavors
Millet
• Gluten-free
• Ancient whole grain mentioned in Bible
• High in protein, fiber, B-vitamins, amino
acids, phytochemicals, iron, magnesium,
phosphorus, and potassium
• Grain found in bird feeders in U.S. but
very popular in India, China, and South
America
• Has mild flavor, mixed with other grains
Muesli
• Dry - Contains organic rolled oats, rye
flakes, dried nuts, dried fruits, and seeds
• Fresh – rolled oats soaked in water or fruit
juice, includes chopped fresh fruits, ground
nuts or seeds, milk products (yogurt,
cream, cottage cheese, etc), or lemon
juice
• Fresh - not to be mixed with fresh milk, it
coagulates from acids in lemon or apple
juice
Dry vs. fresh
• Dry
• Fresh
Oats
• Inherently gluten-free
• Frequently contaminated with wheat
during growing or processing
Polenta
• Made from cornmeal
• Alternative to rice, pasta, potatoes
Popcorn
• Gluten-free
• Ancient whole grain (5,600 yrs old)
• Choose low-fat without trans fat
Quinoa
• Gluten-free
• Ancient whole grain (5,000 yrs old) comes from
Incas
• Protein, carb, polyunsaturated fat
• Complete protein, best sources of vegetable
protein (all 9 essential amino acids)
• Fiber, iron, magnesium, riboflavin
• Eat as cereal, infant cereal, in salads, or can
substitute for any grain in almost any recipe
Sorghum
• Gluten-free
• From farmers in Great Plains, thrives during
droughts
• In U.S., most goes to animal consumption,
made into wallboard, or for packing materials
• Worldwide, 50% goes to human consumption
• Eaten like popcorn, ground into flour for baked
goods, or brewed into beer
Spelt bread
• Ancient whole grain
• 8,000 yrs old, one of original seven grains
mentioned in Bible
• Contains 8 of the 9 essential amino acids
• High in fiber, excellent source of vitamin
B2
• Alternative to wheat
Sprouted grain bread
• Made from sprouted wheat, rye, and other
grains
• Sprouted wheat – actually allow wheat
berries to sprout or grow, then grind into
dough
• Contains no flour
• Easier to digest, simple sugars
Triticale
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Contains gluten
Hybrid of durum wheat and rye
Been around for 35 years
80% grown in Europe
Grows easily without pesticides or
fertilizers
• Nutty flavored, more protein and less
gluten than wheat alone
Wild rice
• Gluten-free
• Higher in protein, iron, fiber, and B
vitamins than brown rice but less
calcium and iron
• Not technically rice, but a seed
• Whole grain
ANY QUESTIONS?