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Physics Common Core Curriculum Map 2012-2013 Common Core Unit Name: 1- and 2-Dimensional Kinematics Unit Number: 1 Enduring Understanding: 1.1 – The motion of objects (both one-dimensionally and two-dimensionally) can be analyzed using vectors, graphs and calculations. Standard Essential Questions What are the differences in scalar vs. vector quantities? How can vector addition be used to determine resultant displacement and velocity of an object? How can position vs. time graphs be used to determine an object’s position, average velocity and instantaneous velocity? How can velocity vs. time graphs be used to determine an object’s acceleration and displacement? What are the mathematical relationships between displacement, velocity, and acceleration for an object moving in one dimension? 1.1.2 – Analyze motion in one dimension using time, distance, and displacement, velocity and acceleration. What are the mathematical relationships between displacement, velocity, and acceleration for an object moving in one dimension? 1.1.3 – Analyze motion in two dimensions using angle of trajectory, time, distance, displacement, velocity, and acceleration. What are the relationships between horizontal and vertical motion for an object launched either horizontally or at an angle? How can the components of a two-dimensional vector be resolved using trigonometry (and how can two components be used to produce the resultant vector)? How does an observer’s frame of reference affect the apparent relative motion of an object? 1.1.1 – Analyze motion graphically and numerically using vectors, graphs and calculations. Pacing Guideline ~10 days (for 1.1.1 & 1.1.2 combined) Key Academic Vocabulary Magnitude Direction Scalar Vector Resultant Position Distance Displacement Velocity Acceleration Average vs. Instantaneous Tangent (Essentially a continuation of 1.1.1) Uniform acceleration Free fall ~10 days Projectile Trajectory Horizontal Vertical Gravity Air resistance Sine Cosine Tangent Uniform velocity 1 Physics Common Core Curriculum Map 2012-2013 For an object moving with uniform circular motion, how is the object’s velocity related to its speed, acceleration and radius of curvature? (Supplemental: For projectiles launched at an angle, how do the projectile’s launch angle, launch velocity and gravity affect its range, maximum height and time aloft?) Suggested Resources by Unit 1-Dimensional Kinematics Notes 2-Dimensional Kinematics Notes DVAT Lab Vector Addition WS Displacement & Velocity WS Average Velocity & Displacement WS Average Acceleration WS Postion vs. Time Graph Simulation Displacement with Constant Acceleration WS Velocity & Displacement with Constant Acceleration WS Final Velocity After Any Acceleration WS The Moving Man Interactive Simulation Motion in 2D Interactive Simulation Falling Objects WS Vectors WS #2 Vector Addition WS Resolving Vectors WS Vector Addition Interactive Simulation Shoot For Your Grade Lab Projectiles Launched at an Angle WS Projectile Motion Interactive Simulation Projectiles Launched at an Angle Lab Relative Velocity Problems WS Circular Motion Problems WS Uniform acceleration Circular motion Centripetal acceleration Frame of reference Relative motion Period Location of these resources http://www.webassign.net/serway/af/AF_0202.swf http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/moving-man http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/motion-2d http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/vector-addition http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/projectile-motion 2 Physics Common Core Curriculum Map 2012-2013 Common Core Unit Name: Forces Unit Number: 2 Enduring Understanding: 1.2 – Forces acting on objects cause them to accelerate, and these forces can be described using vectors, graphs, force diagrams, and calculations. Standard 1.2.1 – Analyze forces and systems of forces graphically and numerically using vectors, graphs, and calculations. 1.2.2 – Analyze systems of forces in one dimension and two dimensions using free body diagrams. 1.2.3 – Explain forces using Newton’s laws of motion as well as the universal law of gravitation. Essential Questions How can the components of a free body diagram be used to produce a resultant force vector (and how can a single force vector be resolved into its component forces)? How is an object’s acceleration related to its mass and the force(s) acting on it? How can information regarding forces acting on an object be used to produce a resultant force vector (and how can a single force vector be resolved into its component forces or their constituents)? How do contact forces and forces at a distance (field forces) differ? How is an object’s state of motion affected by the forces acting on it? How is an object’s acceleration related to its mass and the force(s) acting on it? When two objects interact, what is the relationship between the forces these objects exert on each other? How is the gravitational force of attraction between two objects related to the objects’ masses and distance apart? Pacing Guideline Key Academic Vocabulary ~2 days Force Agent System Free body diagram Static equilibrium Newton’s second law Net force Unbalanced force ~3 days Contact force Field force (Forces at a distance) Normal force Weight Friction Tension Applied force ~5 days Newton’s first law Newton’s second law Newton’s third law Inertia Net force Unbalanced force Universal law of gravitation Action-reaction pair 3 Physics Common Core Curriculum Map 2012-2013 1.2.4 – Explain the effects of forces (including weight, normal, tension and friction) on objects. 1.2.5 – Analyze basic forces related to rotation in a circular path (centripetal force). How is weight related to mass and gravity? What constitutes forces such as the “normal” force, tension and air resistance? What is the difference between static friction and kinetic friction? What creates centripetal force for objects moving in a circle? Suggested Resources by Unit Forces Notes Free Body Diagrams WS Net External Force WS Newton’s 2nd Law WS (#1) Newton’s 2nd Law WS (#2) Gravity and Newton’s 2nd Law: The Baseball Drop Lab Newton’s 2nd Law: Glider Lab Coefficient of Friction WS (suggested but not in curriculum) Overcoming Friction WS (suggested but not in curriculum) Determining the Coefficient of Friction Lab Forces in One Dimension Interactive Simulation Forces and Motion Interactive Simulation Ramp: Forces and Motion Interactive Simulation Universal Gravitation WS Gravity Force Lab Interactive Simulation Centripetal Force WS Circular Motion Lab Forces Review WS ~3 days Weight Normal force Tension Static friction Kinetic friction Air resistance ~2 days Centripetal acceleration Centripetal force Newton’s second law Circular motion Location of these resources http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/forces-1d http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/forces-and-motion http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/ramp-forces-and-motion http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/gravity-force-lab 4 Physics Common Core Curriculum Map 2012-2013 Common Core Unit Name: Energy Unit Number: 3 Enduring Understanding: 2.1 – All objects possess energy by virtue of their position, composition, or motion, and this energy (or changes in energy, in the form of work or power) can be expressed in graphs and calculations. Standard 2.1.1 – Interpret data on work and energy presented graphically and numerically. 2.1.2 – Compare the concepts of potential and kinetic energy and conservation of total mechanical energy in the description of the motion of objects. Essential Questions How is the work done on an object related to the force acting on it and the distance the object moves (both mathematically and graphically)? How is work done on an object related to the change in its spring potential, gravitational potential, and/or kinetic energies? How is energy converted from potential to kinetic (and vice versa) when objects move up or down, or back and forth in simple harmonic motion? How is energy conserved in reactions and physical processes? What happens to mechanical energy as a result of friction? Pacing Guideline Key Academic Vocabulary ~5 days Joule Energy Kinetic energy Potential energy Gravitational potential energy Zero level Elastic/Spring potential energy Relaxed length Spring/Force constant Work Work-energy theorem ~4 days Thermal energy Temperature Heat Hooke’s Law Mechanical energy Non-mechanical energy Conserved Periodic motion Equilibrium Pendulum Restoring force Simple harmonic motion Period Amplitude Frequency 5 Physics Common Core Curriculum Map 2012-2013 2.1.3 – Explain the relationship among work, power and energy. How is power related to the concepts of work, time, applied force and velocity? Suggested Resources by Unit Energy Notes Kinetic Energy Problems WS Potential Energy Problems WS Work Problems WS Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem Problems WS The Ramp Interactive Simulation Hooke’s Law WS Masses & Springs Interactive Simulation Hooke’s Law and Spring Constants Lab Power Problems WS People Power Lab Conservation of Mechanical Energy Problems WS Energy Skate Park Interactive Simulation Pendulum, Mass-Spring Problems WS Pendulum Lab Interactive Simulation Determining “g” Using a Pendulum Lab The Bungee Jumper: Conservation of Energy Lab 1-2 days Power Watt Location of these resources http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/the-ramp http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/mass-spring-lab http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/energy-skate-park http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/pendulum-lab 6 Physics Common Core Curriculum Map 2012-2013 Common Core Unit Name: Momentum Unit Number: 4 Enduring Understanding: 1.3 – Momentum and energy are usually conserved in interactions between objects. Standard 1.3.1 – Analyze the motion of objects in completely elastic and completely inelastic collisions by using the principles of conservation of momentum and conservation of energy. 1.3.2 – Analyze the motion of objects based on the relationship between momentum and impulse. Essential Questions What does it mean to say that momentum is conserved in an interaction? What is the difference between elastic and inelastic collisions, in terms of conservation of energy and momentum? In what sorts of interactions or collisions would momentum and energy be conserved, and when would either or both of them not be conserved (offer specific examples)? How is momentum different from inertia and velocity? How is impulse related to momentum and force? How can impulse be derived from a force vs. time graph? How is impulse related to real-world concepts such as follow-through and bending your knees when you jump from a height to the ground to prevent injury? Pacing Guideline Key Academic Vocabulary ~3 days momentum conserved isolated conservation of momentum conservation of energy recoil elastic collision inelastic collision perfectly inelastic collision ideal gas real gas kinetic-molecular theory ~3 days impulse follow-through force-time graph 7 Physics Common Core Curriculum Map 2012-2013 Suggested Resources by Unit Momentum Notes Momentum Problems WS Momentum, Force & Impulse WS Meteorite Impulse Simulation Lab Stopping Distance Problems WS Conservation of Momentum Problems WS Collision Lab Interactive Simulation Law of Conservation of Momentum Lab Momentum Review WS Location of these resources http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/collision-lab 8 Physics Common Core Curriculum Map 2012-2013 Common Core Unit Name: Waves Unit Number: 5 Enduring Understanding: 2.2 – The behavior of mechanical and electromagnetic waves is a function of their properties, including wavelength, frequency, and amplitude, and the behavior of these waves both within and between various media can be described with mathematical equations. Standard 2.2.1 – Analyze how energy is transmitted through waves, using the fundamental characteristics of waves: wavelength, period, frequency, amplitude, and wave velocity. 2.2.2 – Analyze wave behaviors in terms of transmission, reflection, refraction and interference. Essential Questions How do different types of waves transfer energy through a medium? What are the relationships between wave frequency, period, wavelength and energy? How does the frequency of sound or light change based on the position of the observer relative to the source of the waves? What types of waves require a medium to be propagated, and what types do not require a medium? What happens when a wave encounters a new medium? How is the speed of electromagnetic waves related to their Pacing Guideline Key Academic Vocabulary 2 days Pendulum Mass-spring system Tuning fork Slinky Ripple tank Work-Kinetic energy theorem Wavelength Period Frequency Amplitude Wave Speed Crest Trough Oscillation Hertz Medium Density Elasticity Doppler effect 3 days Mechanical waves Electromagnetic waves Vacuum Reflection Refraction Speed of light (c) Photon 9 Physics Common Core Curriculum Map 2012-2013 medium? 2.2.3 – Compare mechanical and electromagnetic waves in terms of wave characteristics and behavior (specifically sound and light). How is the angle at which light strikes a boundary with another transparent medium related to whether or how the light is transmitted or reflected? What happens when waves moving in opposite directions in a medium interact with each other? What are similarities and differences between mechanical and electromagnetic waves? What are similarities, differences and examples of longitudinal (compressional), transverse and surface waves? Suggested Resources by Unit Waves Notes Wave on a String Interactive Simulation Wave Problems WS Measuring the Speed of Light With Marshmallows Lab Sound Interactive Simulation Speed of Sound: Mach 1 Lab Snell’s Law WS Bending Light Interactive Simulation Wave Interference Interactive Simulation Refraction Through a Glass Block Lab Critical Angle and Total Internal Reflection Lab Index of refraction Normal Snell’s Law Total internal reflection Critical angle Law of reflection Angle of incidence Superposition Constructive interference Destructive interference Node Antinode Standing wave 2 days Longitudinal (compressional) waves Transverse waves Surface waves Compression Rarefaction Pitch Loudness Timbre Decibel Location of these resources http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/wave-on-a-string http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/sound http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/bending-light http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/wave-interference 10 Physics Common Core Curriculum Map 2012-2013 Common Core Unit Name: Electricity Unit Number: 6 Enduring Understanding: 2.3 – The rate at which charge flows through a circuit is related to the potential difference across the circuit, and the resistance to flow encountered by the charge. 3.1 – Electrical charges create electrical fields, and these fields exert forces on other electrical charges. Standard Essential Questions Pacing Guideline Key Academic Vocabulary 2.3.1 – Explain Ohm’s law in relation to electric circuits. What is the relationship between electrical potential (voltage), current and resistance? 2-3 days Electrical potential (voltage) Potential difference Current Resistance Volts Amperes Ohms Ohm’s Law Electric circuit 2.3.2 – Differentiate the behavior of moving charges in conductors and insulators. What is the difference between a conductor and an insulator? 1 day Conductor Insulator Semiconductor Conservation of Charge 2.3.3 – Compare the general characteristics of AC and DC systems without calculations. What is the difference between alternating and direct current, and what are the advantages and limitations of each? 1 day Alternating current Direct Current Alternator Transformer 2.3.4 – Analyze electric systems in terms of their energy and power. How is electrical power related to electrical potential, current, resistance, work, energy and time? 1 day Power Watts 11 Physics Common Core Curriculum Map 2012-2013 2.3.5 – Analyze systems with multiple potential differences and resistors connected in series and parallel circuits, both conceptually and mathematically, in terms of voltage, current and resistance. What is the behavior of and relationship between electrical potential, current, and resistance in series, parallel and combination circuits? 5 days Series circuit Parallel circuit Combination circuit Voltmeter Ammeter Equivalent resistance Switch Resistor Battery Ground 3.1.1 – Explain qualitatively the fundamental properties of the interactions of charged objects. What is the nature of electrical charge? 1 day Positive Negative Conservation of charge 3.1.2 – Explain the geometries and magnitudes of electric fields. How can you illustrate electric fields between two charges or around objects? 4-5 days How do you determine the strength at various points in an electrical field? Electric field Test charge Force lines Field line Electric dipole Electric field Strength Electric potential energy Joules Capacitor Dielectric How is the force of attraction or repulsion between two charges related to the magnitude of the charges and the distance between them? 1 day Coulomb’s Law Point charge 3.1.3 – Explain how Coulomb’s law relates to the electrostatic interactions among charged objects. 12 Physics Common Core Curriculum Map 2012-2013 3.1.4 – Explain the mechanisms for producing electrostatic charges including charging by friction, conduction, and induction. What are the different ways in which an object can become charged? 1 day Friction Conduction Charging by contact Induction Separation of charge Electron affinity Grounded Electroscope 3.1.5 – Explain how differences in electrostatic potentials relate to the potential energy of charged objects. How is work done on an object by lifting it similar to and different from work done on a charged particle by pushing it against the electric field of a charge object? 1 day Electric potential energy Gravitational potential energy What is electric potential energy? How are electric fields similar to and different from gravitational fields? Suggested Resources by Unit Electricity Notes Balloons & Static Electricity: Friction & Induction Interactive Simulation Coulomb’s Law Problems WS Coulomb’s Law Lab Charges & Fields Interactive Simulation Electric Field Hockey Interactive Simulation Electric Field Strength Problems WS Potential Difference Problems WS Capacitor Lab Interactive Simulation Ohm’s Law Problems WS Ohm’s Law Interactive Simulation Battery Voltage Interactive Simulation Battery-Resistor Circuit Interactive Simulation Series Circuit Problems WS Location of these resources http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/balloons http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/charges-and-fields http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/electric-hockey http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/capacitor-lab http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/ohms-law http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/battery-voltage http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/battery-resistor-circuit 13 Physics Common Core Curriculum Map 2012-2013 Series Circuit Lab Parallel Circuit Problems WS Parallel Circuit Lab Combination Circuit Problems WS Circuit Construction Kit Interactive Simulation Electric Power Problems WS Electricity Review WS http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/circuit-construction-kit-ac 14 Physics Common Core Curriculum Map 2012-2013 Common Core Unit Name: Magnetism Unit Number: 7 Enduring Understanding: 3.2 – Moving electric charges create magnetic fields. Standard 3.2.1 – Explain the relationship between magnetic domains and magnetism. 3.2.2 – Explain how electric currents produce various magnetic fields. 3.2.3 – Explain how transformers and power distributions are applications of electromagnetism. Essential Questions What causes magnetism? How are magnetic field lines oriented around bar magnets? What are magnetic domains and how are they affected by magnetic fields? What is a solenoid and how does it work? What causes electromagnetism, and what factors affect the strength of an electromagnet? How does electromagnetic induction occur, as described by Faraday’s law? How does a generator produce alternating current? How do transformers alter current and voltage? Pacing Guideline Key Academic Vocabulary 1 day Magnetism Magnetic field lines Magnetic poles Electron spin Diamagnetism Paramagnetism Ferromagnetism Domains 1 day Right-hand rule Solenoid Electromagnet 1 day Electromagnetic induction Faraday’s law Flux Generator Alternating current Transformers Eddy currents Hysteresis loss Flux transport failure 15 Physics Common Core Curriculum Map 2012-2013 Suggested Resources by Unit Location of these resources Magnetism Notes Mapping a Magnetic Field Lab Strength of a Magnet’s Field Lab Constructing a Homemade Speaker Magnet and Compass Interactive Simulation Faraday’s Law Interactive Simulation Faraday’s Electromagnetic Lab Interactive Simulation Magnets and Electromagnets Interactive Simulation Generator Interactive Simulation http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/magnet-and-compass http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/faradays-law http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/faraday http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/magnets-and-electromagnets http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/generator 16