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Unit 10 Final Project 1 Kaplan University Unit 10 Final Project Denver Martin Designing a Network IT273 Networking Concepts By Anthony Outlaw Feb 13, 2010 Unit 10 Final Project 2 Part A: Double-spaced paragraphs discussing the hardware used in your design Hubs are connection devices and operate at the Physical layer of the OSI model. A hub is a central point to connection for cable segments in a physical star topology. Hubs can provide different services based on the sophistication, example: managed hubs, switched hubs, intelligent hubs. Hubs pass on all data no matter what device it is addressed to, which can add congestion to the network. Routers are more sophisticated than hubs and operate at the Network layer of the OSI model. Routers connect network segments even if the network segment is of a different type. Routers also changes packets size, format, and addressing to fit the type of destination network on which the packet is being sent. Furthermore, routers: limit collision domains, determine the best path for a packet to reach another network, and filter or block broadcasts. Switches are multiport bridges that function at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. Each port makes a decision about whether to forward data packets to the attached network. Also, switches keep track of MAC addresses of all the attached node addresses and the port to which each node is connected. Also switches can help filter traffic and eliminate unwanted congestion. Modems are devices that enable computers to communicate over dial-up telephone lines. Also, if modems operate in the OSI model they would operate at the Physical layer of the model. I used a cable modem in my diagram to provide Internet connectivity for client computers. Unit 10 Final Project 3 Part B: Research on Protocols In an effort to prepare a thoroughly researched document on the following protocols, a good place to start would be defining protocols. A Protocol is the rules and standards that define network communication. A protocol stack is the protocol software components running on a computer. And, a protocol suite is a set of related protocols that support network communication at the Network and higher layers of the OSI model. The OSI which is short for Open Systems Interconnection model is important because it is the framework that defines the way in which information passes up and down between physical hardware devices and the applications running on user desktops. The OSI model has seven layers which are: Application layer, Presentation layer, Sessions layer, Transport layer, Network layer, Data Link layer, and Physical layer, in which different protocols are executed. Here I will only cover three layers and the protocols that are executed in those layers. The layers I will cover are: The Application layer, the Transport layer, and the Network layer. The Application layer is the end user’s access to the network, providing a set of utilities for application programs. Also, protocols functioning at the Application layer work with the applications you use to communicate over the network. Application layer protocols consist of: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), Domain Name System (DNS), and Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a protocol in the TCP/IP protocol suite that is used to send email, using Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) as its delivery protocol. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a protocol used to access web pages while surfing on the internet. Without this protocol the user would not be able to Unit 10 Final Project 4 surf the web. Domain Name System (DNS) is a TCP/IP protocol used for mapping of IP addresses to host names. DNS helps to translate host names and domain names to IP addresses, by means of a standardized look up table. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a protocol and service used to provide IP addresses and TCP/IP configuration parameters. The primary concern for using DHCP is to centralize the management of IP addresses. DHCP holds pools of IP addresses that are assigned automatically to clients on an as-needed basis. The Transport layer of the OSI model is responsible for handling end-to-end communication issues and establishing, maintaining, and terminating connections between computers. Also the Transport layer is responsible for breaking down packets, ensuring all packets have been received, and flow control, to ensure that no computer is overwhelmed by the number of packets it receives. The Transport layer protocols consist of: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) provides connection-oriented packet delivery service that includes error checking and sequence numbering, with the destination device sending back an acknowledgement (ACK) that the packet was received. TCP is known as a reliable transport method because of the ACK and the error checking. User Datagram Protocol (UDP) provides connectionless packet delivery services that send packets without any type of error checking, sequence numbering, or guarantee of delivery. UDP also known as connectionless transmission does not have the receiver send an acknowledgement like TCP. For this reason connectionless transmission (UDP) is less reliable; however, UDP is faster than TCP. Unit 10 Final Project 5 The Network layer of the OSI model is responsible for network logical addresses and routing control. Delivery of packets are also apart of the Network layer’s responsibility. Routing is important because a router finds the best path to transfer packets from a computer, over the network, to the desired destination. The Network layer protocols consist of: Internet Protocol (IP), Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP), and Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). Internet Protocol (IP) provides for the network identification through addressing and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)/ connectionless delivery of packets. IP moves the data from point A to point B and is known as the best-effort transmission because it does not exchange information to establish an end-to-end connection before starting a transmission. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a TCP/IP protocol that provides a device’s MAC address, based on its IP address. Anytime a computer communicates with another computer it needs to know its MAC address, which is hard-coded on the network adapter. TCP/IP uses Address Resolution Protocol to find a computer’s MAC address when the IP address is known. Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) does the exact opposite of Address Resolution Protocol (ARP). RARP finds the IP address when the MAC address is known. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is a management and troubleshooting protocol that provides support through error and control messages.