Download Ch. 21 Climate

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Transcript
Ch. 21 Climate
21.1 Factors That Affect Climate
Factors that Affect Climate
 Affect the 2 most important elements of climate
 Temperature & Precipitation
 Latitude
 Elevation
 Topography
 Water Bodies
 Atmospheric Circulation
 Vegetation
Latitude
 Distance N or S of the equator
 As latitude increases, the intensity of solar energy
decrease
 The sun’s rays are most intense in the tropics
why…bc the region is at a right angle to the sun
 Tropical Zones
 Temperate Zones
 Polar Zones
Elevation
 Height above sea level
 Air temp. decreases w/ elevation
 The higher the elevation is, the colder the
climate is
 Elevation also determines how much
precipitation an area gets
Topography
 Topographic features such as mountains
play an important role in the amount of
precipitation that falls over an area.
 Rain Shadows – the dry area on the
leeward side of the mountain
Water Bodies
 Large bodies of water such as lakes & oceans
have an important effect on the temp. of an
area bc the temp. of the water body influences
the temp. of the air above it
 Think back to last unit…how does land heat &
cool differently than water?????
Atmospheric Circulation
 Global winds influence climate bc they
distribute heat & moisture around the
Earth
 HEAT BALANCE
 Warm air to the poles & cool air to the
equator
Vegetation
 Certain types of plants only can grow in
particular climates
 Vegetation can affect both temp. &
precipitation patterns in a particular area
 Vegetation influences how much of the sun’s
energy is absorbed & how fast this energy is
released (affects temp.)
 Transpiration (influences precipitation)
REVIEW REVIEW REVIEW
 How does latitude affect climate?
 How does elevation affect climate?
 How does a mountain range affect climate?
 How do bodies of water affect climate?
 What effect do global winds have on
climate?
 Describe how vegetation affects climate?
21.2 World Climates
The Koppen Climate Classification
System
 Uses mean monthly & annual values of temp.
and precipitation to classify climates
 Classifies it into climate regions
 5 principle groups: humid tropical, dry
climates, humid mid-latitude, polar climates, &
highland climates
Humid Tropical Climates
 Climates without winters
 Every month has a mean temp. above 18 oC
 Amt. of precipitation exceeds 200 cm
 2 types of humid tropical climates:
 Wet Tropical
 Tropical Wet & Dry
Humid Tropical Climates
Wet Tropical
 Tropical Rainforest
 High temps. & a lot of
precipitation
 Sun’s rays are always high
 Winds blow over causing
the warm, humid unstable
air to rise cool and
condense and then fall as
precipitation
Tropical Wet & Dry
 Bordering the wet tropics
 Have temps. & total
precipitation close to
those in wet tropics, but
this climate experiences
times of low precipitation
Humid Mid-Latitude Climates
 Include climates with mild winters & severe
winters
 Climates with mild winters have an avg. temp.
in the coldest month that is below 18 oC but
above -3 oC
 Severe winters have an avg. temp. in the
coldest month that is below -3 oC
Humid Mid – Latitude w/ Mild
Winters
 3 types: humid subtropical, marine west coast, &
dry-summer subtropical
 Humid subtropical – 25-40 degrees latitude on the
Eastern side of the continent
 Marine West Coast – 40-65 degrees latitude N & S
 Dry-Summer Subtropical – 30-45 degrees latitude
Humid Mid-Latitude w/ Severe
Winters
 2 types: humid continental climates &
subarctic climates
 Continental landmasses strongly influence
both climates
 Absent in the Southern Hemisphere
Dry Climates
 Yearly precipitation is not as great as the
potential loss of water by evaporation
 Evaporation is dependent on temperature
 2 types of dry climates: arid or desert & semiarid or steppe
 Result of global distribution of air pressure
and winds
Polar Climates
 Mean temp. of the warmest month is below 10 oC
 Very little precipitation
 Evaporation rates are also low
 2 types: Tundra Climate & Ice Cap Climate
 Tundra is a treeless region most in N. Hemisphere
 Ice Cap Climate does not have a single monthly
mean above 0 oC & has little vegetation &
permanent ice and snow
Highland Climates
 Localized (much different from climates in
surrounding areas)
 Vary from place to place
 In general they are cooler & wetter than
nearby areas at lower elevations
REVIEW REVIEW REVIEW
 Describe the Koppen climate classification
system.
 How do highland climates compare with
nearby lowlands?
 Can tundra climates exist at low latitudes?
Why or why not?