Download Minerals

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• Necessary for modern
technological societies
• Standard of living
depends on mineral
All minerals start out as magma in
Earth’s interior
• Differentiation led to
lighter minerals at the
• Crust is made of:
Oxygen, Silicon,
Aluminum, Iron, Calcium,
Magnesium, Sodium,
and Potassium.
• Denser elements (iron
and nickel) formed core.
Minerals are redistributed and
concentrated by various processes
• Tectonic processes
• Igneous processes
– Molten rock cools and minerals separate due to different
melting points
– Hot groundwater leaches out and concentrates minerals
• Sedimentary processes
– weathering and erosion from wind, water, gravity
– sediments separated by size and density, concentrated
in stream beds (sand, gravel, gold)
• Metamorphic processes, high heat and pressure
More processes…
• Evaporative processes
– form salt deposits such as K, Na and gypsum
• Biological
– accumulation of shells, marine organisms (ex:
PO4, CaCO3)
Minerals from the sea
• Sea water is 35 ppt salts (ex. chlorine and
• Mining ocean water is not currently economically
• Law of the Seabed - resources of seabed belong to
all countries
• Black smokers- underwater thermal vents at
divergent plate boundaries
– mineral rich water mostly metal sulfides create large
– supports an unusual ecosystem of bacteria, tube worms,
giant clams