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PARTS OF
A CELL
Diagrams in
your book are
on page 175!
WORDS TO KNOW BEFORE GETTING STARTED
 cytology:
study of cells
 organelle (“little organ”): membranebound cell structure that performs 1 or more
functions
 examples:
mitochondrion, chloroplast, nucleus,
Golgi complex, lysosome, etc.
NUCLEUS
(Plural: Nuclei)

Function: control
center of cell
(contains DNA)

Found in both plant
and animal cells
NUCLEUS
(Plural: Nuclei)
Trivia!
DNA ALWAYS stays in the
cell nucleus. True or false?
NUCLEOLUS
(Plural: Nucleoli)

Function:
structure inside
nucleus that
produces
ribosomes

Found in both
plant and animal
cells
NUCLEAR
MEMBRANE/ENVELOPE

Function:
surrounds nucleus
and separates it from
the cytoplasm; has
nuclear pores (holes)

Found in both
plant and animal
cells
NUCLEAR
MEMBRANE/ENVELOPE
CELL MEMBRANE

Function:
boundary between
inside and outside of
cell; controls
movement of
materials in and out
of cell

Found in both
plant and animal
cells
CELL MEMBRANE
CELL WALL

Function:
surrounds cell
membrane; protects
and supports the
plant; contains
cellulose

Found in plant
cells
CELL WALL
CYTOPLASM

Function: jelly-like
material that fills the
cell; holds organelles
in place

Found in both
plant and animal
cells
CYTOPLASM
RIBOSOME

Function: where
proteins are made;
some are attached to
endoplasmic
reticulum, some are
free in cytoplasm

Found in both
plant and animal
cells
RIBOSOME
ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC
RETICULUM (ER)

Function:
transports materials ;
has ribosomes
attached

Found in both
plant and animal
cells
ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC
RETICULUM (ER)
SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC
RETICULUM (ER)

Function: also
transports materials
but makes lipids, too;
no ribosomes
attached; also
contains enzymes
that perform many
tasks, like
detoxication of
drugs.

Found in both
plant and animal
cells
SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC
RETICULUM (ER)
Trivia!

Which organ in the human body often
contains large amounts of smooth ER?
GOLGI
COMPLEX/BODY/APPARATUS

Function:
packages and ships
products made by
the cell
 Puts the “finishing
touches” on the
proteins that are
made

Found in both
plant and animal
cells
GOLGI
COMPLEX/BODY/APPARATUS
Trivia!

The scientist who discovered the Golgi
Body/complex/apparatus was from what
country?
LYSOSOME

Function: contains
enzymes that
digest/recycle cell
waste and old
organelles that don’t
function anymore
 Enzymes also break
down organic
molecules.

Found in animal
cells
LYSOSOME
Trivia!

Lysosomes are dysfunctional in this
genetic disorder that affects primarily
Eastern European Jewish populations.
VACUOLE

Function:
A space where food,
water , salts, proteins
and carbohydrates are
stored

Found in both
plant and animal
cells, but is much
larger in plant
cells
VACUOLE
CHLOROPLAST

Function: converts
light energy into
chemical energy
[photosynthesis];
 Sunlight + carbon
dioxide + water
glucose + oxygen

Found in plant
cells
CHLOROPLAST
Trivia!

What is the name of the green pigment
found in chloroplasts?
MITOCHONDRION
(Plural: Mitochondria)


Function: place where
food molecules are
broken down to release
energy that can be used
by the cell [cellular
respiration]
Glucose + oxygen
carbon dioxide + water
+ energy (ATP)

Found in both
plant and animal
cells
MITOCHONDRION
(Plural: Mitochondria)
Trivia!

In humans, all or nearly all of our
mitochondria come from the cytoplasm
of the ___.
CYTOSKELETON

Function: provides support
for the cell; helps in
movement and maintains the
cell’s shape. Two types are:
 microtubules – hollow
tubes; maintains cell
shape; helps in cell
division
 microfilaments – fibers
that are not hollow; is a
framework that supports
cell

Found in both plant
and animal cells
CYTOSKELETON
Trivia!

What 2 organelles mentioned today
contain their own DNA?