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PARTS OF A CELL Diagrams in your book are on page 175! WORDS TO KNOW BEFORE GETTING STARTED cytology: study of cells organelle (“little organ”): membranebound cell structure that performs 1 or more functions examples: mitochondrion, chloroplast, nucleus, Golgi complex, lysosome, etc. NUCLEUS (Plural: Nuclei) Function: control center of cell (contains DNA) Found in both plant and animal cells NUCLEUS (Plural: Nuclei) Trivia! DNA ALWAYS stays in the cell nucleus. True or false? NUCLEOLUS (Plural: Nucleoli) Function: structure inside nucleus that produces ribosomes Found in both plant and animal cells NUCLEAR MEMBRANE/ENVELOPE Function: surrounds nucleus and separates it from the cytoplasm; has nuclear pores (holes) Found in both plant and animal cells NUCLEAR MEMBRANE/ENVELOPE CELL MEMBRANE Function: boundary between inside and outside of cell; controls movement of materials in and out of cell Found in both plant and animal cells CELL MEMBRANE CELL WALL Function: surrounds cell membrane; protects and supports the plant; contains cellulose Found in plant cells CELL WALL CYTOPLASM Function: jelly-like material that fills the cell; holds organelles in place Found in both plant and animal cells CYTOPLASM RIBOSOME Function: where proteins are made; some are attached to endoplasmic reticulum, some are free in cytoplasm Found in both plant and animal cells RIBOSOME ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER) Function: transports materials ; has ribosomes attached Found in both plant and animal cells ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER) SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER) Function: also transports materials but makes lipids, too; no ribosomes attached; also contains enzymes that perform many tasks, like detoxication of drugs. Found in both plant and animal cells SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER) Trivia! Which organ in the human body often contains large amounts of smooth ER? GOLGI COMPLEX/BODY/APPARATUS Function: packages and ships products made by the cell Puts the “finishing touches” on the proteins that are made Found in both plant and animal cells GOLGI COMPLEX/BODY/APPARATUS Trivia! The scientist who discovered the Golgi Body/complex/apparatus was from what country? LYSOSOME Function: contains enzymes that digest/recycle cell waste and old organelles that don’t function anymore Enzymes also break down organic molecules. Found in animal cells LYSOSOME Trivia! Lysosomes are dysfunctional in this genetic disorder that affects primarily Eastern European Jewish populations. VACUOLE Function: A space where food, water , salts, proteins and carbohydrates are stored Found in both plant and animal cells, but is much larger in plant cells VACUOLE CHLOROPLAST Function: converts light energy into chemical energy [photosynthesis]; Sunlight + carbon dioxide + water glucose + oxygen Found in plant cells CHLOROPLAST Trivia! What is the name of the green pigment found in chloroplasts? MITOCHONDRION (Plural: Mitochondria) Function: place where food molecules are broken down to release energy that can be used by the cell [cellular respiration] Glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + energy (ATP) Found in both plant and animal cells MITOCHONDRION (Plural: Mitochondria) Trivia! In humans, all or nearly all of our mitochondria come from the cytoplasm of the ___. CYTOSKELETON Function: provides support for the cell; helps in movement and maintains the cell’s shape. Two types are: microtubules – hollow tubes; maintains cell shape; helps in cell division microfilaments – fibers that are not hollow; is a framework that supports cell Found in both plant and animal cells CYTOSKELETON Trivia! What 2 organelles mentioned today contain their own DNA?