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DIFFERENTIAL TREATMENT OF TRANSGENDER PEOPLE IN SOCIAL SERVICES: A SOCIAL WORK RESPONSE Darren Whitfield, MSW, University of Denver Shanna K.Kattari,M.Ed, University of Denver Lisa Langenderfer – Magruder, MSW, University of Denver Council on Social Work Education Annual Meeting, October 26, 2014 Learning Objectives Describe the prevalence of discrimination experienced by trans* people who access social services. Discuss how the intersection of race and gender identity influences the rate of discrimination for trans* people who access social services. Facilitate a discussion of the skills needed to address transphobia and racism in social work educational settings to reduce anti-trans discrimination in social service settings. Working Definition A Need for Social Services Trans* individuals are more likely to experience discrimination compared to heterosexuals and lesbian, gay, and bisexual cisgender people. 1 The prevalence of mental health disorders among trans* individuals is higher than the heterosexual and lesbian, gay, and bisexual cisgender individuals. 2 Transphobia results in negative health outcomes for members of this community, including a higher risk for substance abuse. 3,4 Extant empirical research suggest that approximately 9.2% of trans* reported partner violence in 20 states. 5 Current prevalence studies suggest that between 15% to 86% of transgender individuals have reported being a victim of sexual assault or rape. 6, 7 Prevalence of Transphobia in Social Services When attempting to access mental health, drug treatment and domestic violence, and rape crisis services trans* individuals encounter the following common barriers: 8-10 Outright denial of services based on their gender identity Inappropriate behavior of clinicians Disregard of their gender identity by clinicians and their staff Being required to use facilities based on their genitalia and not their gender identity (e.g., showering and sleeping facilities) Being mandated to wear clothing that is ascribed their natal sex. Similarly, trans* people of color report experiencing discrimination and harassment when utilizing social services. Current Study Examines the intersection of gender identity and race to determine if there is a difference in the experience of transphobia in social services utilization for trans* people of color. What is the overall prevalence of discrimination of trans* individual when access mental health, substance abuse, and domestic violence services? Is there a difference in the rate of discrimination for trans* people of color who access mental health, drug treatment, and domestic violence services? Methods Secondary data analysis using 2010 National Transgender Discrimination Survey (N=6,456), collected by The National Center for Transgender Equality (NCTE) and the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force (NGLTF). Cleaned and recoded data according to the research question. Used SPSS to conduct Chi square test of independence to determine a difference in transphobia in social service utilization by racial background. The total sample size for analysis in the study was (N=6,451). Sample Demographics Results Key Findings A majority of trans* individuals reported by discriminated against at mental health clinics, drug treatment programs, domestic violence shelters, and rape crisis centers. Overall trans* people of color were statistically more likely to report discrimination at all four social service settings compared to White trans* individuals. When examining the disparity among racial/ethnic minority groups, we find different rates of discrimination across the different social service settings. Across all settings, Latino and bi/multiracial trans* individuals experienced statistically significant rates of discrimination compared to White trans* individuals. Limitations The data was collected using an Internet protocol therefore, the sample is only a cross-sectional sample who have access to the Internet. Individuals tend to underreport experiencing discrimination, therefore these estimates may be underrepresentation of actual discrimination. Thinking intersectional, we cannot definitively state that individuals experienced discrimination based on their gender identity and not due to their race or the combination of both identities. Implications to Social Work Practice The findings suggest this is a relationship between being denied treatment at social service agencies and the intersection of gender identity and race/ethnicity. BSW, MSW programs, and on-going professional education, should focus not only on diversity regarding race and gender identity, but also on intersectionality, and how clients with multiple identities that are marginalized may be at an exponentially greater risk of discrimination in social service settings. As a profession, it is crucial for social workers, human services professionals, and others who have contact with clients at social service-providing agencies to actively work to reduce discrimination and provide more culturally component and inclusive services. Acknowledgements Trans* Community References 1. Nemoto, T., Operario, D., & Keatley, J. (2005). Health and social services for male-to-female transgender persons of color in San Francisco. International Journal of Transgenderism, 8(2-3), 5-19. 2. Budge, S. L., Adelson, J. L., & Howard, K. A. (2013). Anxiety and depression in transgender individuals: The roles of transition status, loss, social support, and coping. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 81(3), 545. doi: 10.1037/a0031774 3. Clements, K. (1999). The transgender community health project: Descriptive results. San Francisco: San Francisco Department of Public Health. References 4. Reback, C., & Lombardi, E. (1999). HIV risk behaviors of male-to-female transgenders in a community-based harm reduction program. The International Journal of Transgenderism, 3 (1), 2. 5. National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs [NCAVP]. (2013). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and HIVaffected intimate partner violence in 2012. Retrieved from http://www.avp.org/storage/documents/ncavp_2012_ipvre port.final.pdf 6. Clements-Nolle, K., Marx, R., & Katz, M. (2006). Attempted suicide among transgender persons: The influence of gender-based discrimination and victimization. Journal of homosexuality, 51(3), 53-69. References 7. Stotzer, R. L. (2009). Violence against transgender people: A review of United States data. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 14(3), 170-179. 8. Kosenko, K., Rintamaki, L., Raney, S., & Maness, K. (2013). Transgender Patient Perceptions of Stigma in Health Care Contexts. Medical care, 51(9), 819-822. 9. Rutherford, K., McIntyre, J., Daley, A., & Ross, L. (2012). Development of expertise in mental health service provision for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender communities. Medical Education, 46, 903=913.