Download AD8349 700 MHz to 2700 MHz Quadrature Modulator Data Sheet

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700 MHz to 2700 MHz
Quadrature Modulator
AD8349
Output frequency range: 700 MHz to 2700 MHz
Modulation bandwidth: dc to 160 MHz (large signal BW)
1 dB output compression: 5.6 dBm @ 2140 MHz
Output disable function: output below –50 dBm in < 50 ns
Noise floor: –156 dBm/Hz
Phase quadrature error: 0.3 degrees @ 2140 MHz
Amplitude balance: 0.1 dB
Single supply: 4.75 V to 5.5 V
Pin compatible with AD8345/AD8346s
16-lead, exposed-paddle TSSOP package
APPLICATIONS
Cellular/PCS communication systems infrastructure
WCDMA/CDMA2000/PCS/GSM/EDGE
Wireless LAN/wireless local loop
LMDS/broadband wireless access systems
FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
AD8349
IBBP 1
16 QBBP
IBBN 2
15 QBBN
COM1 3
Σ
14 COM3
COM1 4
13 COM3
LOIN 5
12 VPS2
LOIP 6
PHASE
SPLITTER
11 VOUT
10 COM3
VPS1 7
BIAS
ENOP 8
9 COM2
03570-0-001
FEATURES
Figure 1.
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
The AD8349 is a silicon, monolithic, RF quadrature modulator
that is designed for use from 700 MHz to 2700 MHz. Its
excellent phase accuracy and amplitude balance enable high
performance direct RF modulation for communication systems.
The differential LO input signal is buffered, and then split into
an in-phase (I) signal and a quadrature-phase (Q) signal using a
polyphase phase splitter. These two LO signals are further
buffered and then mixed with the corresponding I channel and
Q channel baseband signals in two Gilbert cell mixers. The
mixers’ outputs are then summed together in the output
amplifier. The output amplifier is designed to drive 50 Ω loads.
The AD8349 can be used as a direct-to-RF modulator in digital
communication systems such as GSM, CDMA, and WCDMA
base stations, and QPSK or QAM broadband wireless access
transmitters. Its high dynamic range and high modulation
accuracy also make it a perfect IF modulator in local multipoint
distribution systems (LMDS) using complex modulation
formats.
The AD8349 is fabricated using Analog Devices’ advanced
complementary silicon bipolar process, and is available in a 16lead, exposed-paddle TSSOP package. Its performance is
specified over a –40°C to +85°C temperature range.
The RF output can be switched on and off within 50 ns by
applying a control pulse to the ENOP pin.
Rev. A
Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable.
However, no responsibility is assumed by Analog Devices for its use, nor for any
infringements of patents or other rights of third parties that may result from its use.
Specifications subject to change without notice. No license is granted by implication
or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Analog Devices. Trademarks and
registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
One Technology Way, P.O. Box 9106, Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A.
Tel: 781.329.4700
www.analog.com
Fax: 781.326.8703
© 2004 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved.
AD8349
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Specifications..................................................................................... 3
RF Output.................................................................................... 17
Absolute Maximum Ratings............................................................ 5
Output Enable............................................................................. 17
ESD Caution.................................................................................. 5
Baseband DAC Interface ........................................................... 18
Pin Configuration and Functional Descriptions.......................... 6
AD9777 Interface ....................................................................... 18
Equivalent Circuits ........................................................................... 7
Biasing and Filtering .................................................................. 18
Typical Performance Characteristics ............................................. 8
Reducing Undesired Sideband Leakage .................................. 19
Circuit Description......................................................................... 14
Reduction of LO Feedthrough ................................................. 19
Overview...................................................................................... 14
Sideband Suppression and LO Feedthrough vs. Temperature
....................................................................................................... 20
LO Interface................................................................................. 14
V-to-I Converter......................................................................... 14
Mixers .......................................................................................... 14
D-to-S Amplifier......................................................................... 14
Bias Circuit .................................................................................. 14
Output Enable ............................................................................. 14
Basic Connections .......................................................................... 15
Baseband I and Q Inputs ........................................................... 15
Single-Ended Baseband Drive .................................................. 15
LO Input Drive Level ................................................................. 16
Frequency Range ........................................................................ 16
LO Input Impedance Matching ................................................ 16
Single-Ended LO Drive.............................................................. 17
Applications..................................................................................... 21
3GPP WCDMA Single-Carrier Application ........................... 21
WCDMA MultiCarrier Application ........................................ 21
GSM/EDGE Application ........................................................... 22
Soldering Information ............................................................... 23
LO Generation Using PLLs ....................................................... 23
Transmit DAC Options ............................................................. 23
Evaluation Board ............................................................................ 24
Characterization Setups................................................................. 26
SSB Setup..................................................................................... 26
Outline Dimensions ....................................................................... 27
Ordering Guide .......................................................................... 27
REVISION HISTORY
11/04—Data Sheet Changed from Rev. 0 to Rev. A
Changes to Figure 25 through Figure 30 ................................11
Changes to Figure 37 through Figure 39 ................................13
Change to WCDMA MultiCarrier Application section .......21
Change to Figure 60 and Figure 61 .........................................21
11/03—Revision 0: Initial Version
Rev. A | Page 2 of 28
AD8349
SPECIFICATIONS
VS = 5 V; ambient temperature (TA) = 25°C; LO = –6 dBm; I/Q inputs = 1.2 V p-p differential sine waves in quadrature on a 400 mV dc
bias; baseband frequency = 1 MHz; LO source and RF output load impedances are 50 Ω, unless otherwise noted.
Table 1.
Parameter
Operating Frequency
LO = 900 MHz
Output Power
Output P1 dB
Carrier Feedthrough
Sideband Suppression
Third Harmonic1
Output IP3
Quadrature Error
I/Q Amplitude Balance
Noise Floor
GSM Sideband Noise
LO = 1900 MHz
Output Power
Output P1dB
Carrier Feedthrough
Sideband Suppression
Third Harmonic 1
Output IP3
Quadrature Error
I/Q Amplitude Balance
Noise Floor
GSM Sideband Noise
LO = 2140 MHz
Output Power
Output P1dB
Carrier Feedthrough
Sideband Suppression
Third Harmonic 1
Output IP3
Quadrature Error
I/Q Amplitude Balance
Noise Floor
WCDMA Noise Floor
LO INPUTS
LO Drive Level
Nominal Impedance
Input Return Loss
BASEBAND INPUTS
I and Q Input Bias Level
Input Bias Current
Input Offset Current
Bandwidth (0.1 dB)
Conditions
Min
700
Typ
Max
2700
Unit
MHz
1.5
4
7.6
–45
–35
–39
21
1.9
0.1
–155
–150
–152
6
dBm
dBm
dBm
dBc
dBc
dBm
degree
dB
dBm/Hz
dBm/Hz
dBc/Hz
POUT – (FLO + (3 × FBB)), POUT = 4 dBm
F1BB = 3 MHz, F2BB = 4 MHz, POUT = -4.2 dBm
20 MHz offset from LO, all BB inputs 400 mV dc bias only
20 MHz offset from LO, BB inputs = 1.2 V p-p differential on 400 mV dc
LO = 884.8 MHz, 6 MHz offset from LO, POUT = 2 dBm
0
POUT – (FLO + (3 × FBB)), POUT = 3.8 dBm
F1BB = 3 MHz, F2BB = 4 MHz, POUT = –4.5 dBm
20 MHz offset from LO, all BB inputs 400 mV dc bias only
20 MHz offset from LO, BB inputs = 1.2 V p-p differential on 400 mV dc
LO = 1960 MHz, 6 MHz offset from LO, POUT = 2 dBm
–2
POUT – (FLO + (3 × FBB)), POUT = 2.4 dBm
F1BB = 3 MHz, F2BB = 4 MHz, POUT = –6.5 dBm
20 MHz offset from LO, all BB inputs 400 mV dc bias only
20 MHz offset from LO, BB inputs = 1.2 V p-p differential on 400 mV dc
LO = 2140 MHz. 30 MHz offset from LO, PCHAN = –17.3 dBm
Pins LOIP and LOIN
Characterization performed at typical level
Drive via 1:1 balun, LO = 2140 MHz
Pins IBBP, IBBN, QBBP, QBBN
LO = 1500 MHz, baseband input = 600 mV p-p sine wave on 400 mV dc
LO = 1500 MHz, baseband input = 60 mV p-p sine wave on 400 mV dc
Rev. A | Page 3 of 28
–10
3.8
6.8
–38
–40
–37
22
0.7
0.1
–156
–150
–151
2.4
5.6
–42
–43
–37
19
0.3
0.1
–156
–151
–156
–6
50
–8.6
400
11
1.8
10
24
–30
–31
–36
6
–36
–36
5.1
–30
–36
–36
0
dBm
dBm
dBm
dBc
dBc
dBm
degree
dB
dBm/Hz
dBm/Hz
dBc/Hz
dBm
dBm
dBm
dBc
dBc
dBm
degree
dB
dBm/Hz
dBm/Hz
dBm/Hz
dBm
Ω
dB
mV
µA
µA
MHz
MHz
AD8349
Parameter
Bandwidth (3 dB)
OUTPUT ENABLE
Off Isolation
Turn-On Settling Time
Turn-Off Settling Time
ENOP High Level (Logic 1)
ENOP Low Level (Logic 0)
POWER SUPPLIES
Voltage
Supply Current
1
Conditions
LO = 1500 MHz, baseband input = 600 mV p-p sine wave on 400 mV dc
LO = 1500 MHz, baseband input = 60 mV p-p sine wave on 400 mV dc
Pin ENOP
ENOP Low
ENOP Low to High (90% of envelope)
ENOP High to Low (10% of envelope)
Min
Typ
160
340
Max
Unit
MHz
MHz
–78
20
50
–50
0.8
dBm
ns
ns
V
V
5.5
150
145
V
mA
mA
2.0
Pins VPS1 and VPS2
4.75
ENOP = High
ENOP = Low
135
130
The amplitude of the third harmonic relative to the single sideband power decreases with decreasing baseband drive level (see Figure 19, Figure 20, and Figure 21).
Rev. A | Page 4 of 28
AD8349
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
Table 2.
Parameter
Supply Voltage VPOS
IBBP, IBBN, QBBP, QBBN
LOIP and LOIN
Internal Power Dissipation
θJA (Exposed Paddle Soldered Down)
Maximum Junction Temperature
Operating Temperature Range
Storage Temperature Range
Rating
5.5 V
0 V, 2.5 V
10 dBm
800 mW
30°C/W
125°C
−40°C to +85°C
−65°C to +150°C
Stresses above those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings
may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress
rating only; functional operation of the device at these or any
other conditions above those indicated in the operational
section of this specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute
maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect
device reliability.
ESD CAUTION
ESD (electrostatic discharge) sensitive device. Electrostatic charges as high as 4000 V readily accumulate on
the human body and test equipment and can discharge without detection. Although this product features
proprietary ESD protection circuitry, permanent damage may occur on devices subjected to high energy
electrostatic discharges. Therefore, proper ESD precautions are recommended to avoid performance
degradation or loss of functionality.
Rev. A | Page 5 of 28
AD8349
PIN CONFIGURATION AND FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTIONS
IBBP 1
AD8349
IBBN 2
16 QBBP
15
QBBN
14 COM3
TOP VIEW
COM1 4 (Not to Scale) 13 COM3
COM1 3
12
LOIP 6
11 VOUT
VPS1 7
10 COM3
ENOP 8
9
COM2
03570-0-002
VPS2
LOIN 5
Figure 2.
Table 3. Pin Function Descriptions
Pin No.
1, 2,
15, 16
Mnemonic
IBBP, IBBN,
QBBN, QBBP
3, 4
COM1
5, 6
LOIN, LOIP
7
VPS1
8
ENOP
9
COM2
10, 13,
14
11
COM3
12
VPS2
VOUT
Description
Differential In-Phase and Quadrature Baseband Inputs. These high impedance inputs must be
dc-biased to approximately 400 mV dc, and must be driven from a low impedance source.
Nominal characterized ac signal swing is 600 mV p-p on each pin (100 mV to 700 mV). This
results in a differential drive of 1.2 V p-p with a 400 mV dc bias. These inputs are not self-biased
and must be externally biased.
Common Pin for LO Phase Splitter and LO Buffers. COM1, COM2, and COM3 should all be
connected to a ground plane via a low impedance path.
Differential Local Oscillator Inputs. Internally dc-biased to approximately 1.8 V when VS = 5.0 V.
Pins must be ac-coupled. Single-ended drive is possible with degradation in performance.
Positive Supply Voltage (4.75 V to 5.5 V) for the LO Bias-Cell and Buffer. VPS1 and VPS2 should
be connected to the same supply. To ensure adequate external bypassing, connect 0.1 µF and
100 pF capacitors between VPS1 and ground.
Output Enable. This pin can be used to enable or disable the RF output. Connect to high logic
level for normal operation. Connect to low logic level to disable output.
Common Pin for the Output Amplifier. COM1, COM2, and COM3 should all be connected to a
ground plane via a low impedance path.
Common Pin for Input V-to-I Converters and Mixer Cores. COM1, COM2, and COM3 should all
be connected to a ground plane via a low impedance path.
Device Output. Single-ended, 50 Ω internally biased RF output. Pin must be ac-coupled to the
load.
Positive Supply Voltage (4.75 V to 5.5 V) for the Baseband Input V-to-I Converters, Mixer Core,
Band Gap Reference, and Output Amplifer. VPS1 and VPS2 should be connected to the same
supply. To ensure adequate external bypassing, connect 0.1 µF and 100 pF capacitors between
VPS2 and ground.
Rev. A | Page 6 of 28
Equivalent
Circuit
Circuit A
Circuit B
Circuit C
Circuit D
AD8349
EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS
VPS2
VPS2
ENOP
COM3
04500-0-005
03570-0-003
IBBP
COM3
Figure 3. Circuit A
Figure 5. Circuit C
VPS1
VPS2
LOIN
40Ω
VOUT
03570-0-006
LOIP
40Ω
03570-0-004
COM2
COM1
Figure 4. Circuit B
Figure 6. Circuit D
Rev. A | Page 7 of 28
AD8349
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
8
10
7
1dB OUTPUT COMPRESSION (dBm)
VS = 5V
6
5
4
3
VS = 4.75V
2
1
0
–1
–2
–3
7
6
T = +85°C
T = +25°C
T = –40°C
5
4
3
2
1
0
–1
–2
1100 1300 1500 1700 1900 2100 2300 2500 2700
LO FREQUENCY (MHz)
–4
700
03570-0-007
900
Figure 7. Single Sideband (SSB) Output Power (POUT) vs. LO Frequency (FLO)
(I and Q Inputs Driven in Quadrature at Baseband Frequency (FBB) = 1 MHz,
I and Q Inputs at 1.2 V p-p Differential, TA = 25°C)
900
1100 1300 1500 1700 1900 2100 2300 2500 2700
LO FREQUENCY (MHz)
03570-0-010
–3
–4
700
Figure 10. SSB Output 1 dB Compression Point (OP1dB) vs. FLO (FBB = 1 MHz,
I and Q Inputs Driven in Quadrature , TA = 25°C)
–10
1
0
–15
60mV p-p
–1
CARRIER FEEDTHROUGH (dBm)
OUTPUT POWER VARIATION (dB)
8
–2
–3
–4
600mV p-p
–5
–6
–7
–8
–20
–25
–30
VS = 5.25V
–35
–40
VS = 5V
–45
VS = 4.75V
–50
–55
–9
1
10
100
1000
BASEBAND FREQUENCY (MHz)
–60
700
03570-0-008
–10
Figure 8. I and Q Input Bandwidth Normalized to Gain @ 1 MHz
(FLO = 1500 MHz, TA = 25°C)
900
1100 1300 1500 1700 1900 2100 2300 2500 2700
LO FREQUENCY (MHz)
03570-0-011
SSB OUTPUT POWER (dBm)
9
VS = 5.25V
Figure 11. Carrier Feedthrough vs. FLO (FBB = 1 MHz, I and Q Inputs Driven in
Quadrature at 1.2 V p-p Differential, TA = 25°C)
–20
4.0
–22
–24
VS = 5.25V
3.0
VS = 5V
2.5
VS = 4.75V
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0
10
20
30
40
TEMPERATURE (°C)
50
60
70
80
Figure 9. SSB POUT vs. Temperature (FLO = 2140 MHz, FBB = 1 MHz, I and Q
Inputs Driven in Quadrature at 1.2 V p-p Differential)
–30
–32
–34
–36
VS = 5.25V
–38
VS = 5V
–40
–42
–44
–46
VS = 4.75V
–48
–50
–40 –30 –20 –10
03570-0-009
0
–40 –30 –20 –10
–26
–28
0
10
20
30
40
TEMPERATURE (°C)
50
60
70
80
03570-0-012
CARRIER FEEDTHROUGH (dBm)
SSB OUTPUT POWER (dBm)
3.5
Figure 12. Carrier Feedthrough vs. Temperature (FLO = 2140 MHz, FBB = 1 MHz,
I and Q Inputs Driven in Quadrature at 1.2 V p-p Differential, TA = 25°C)
Rev. A | Page 8 of 28
–10
–10
–15
–15
THIRD ORDER DISTORTION (dBc)
–20
–25
VS = 5.25V
–30
–35
VS = 4.75V
–40
VS = 5V
–45
–50
–20
–25
–35
–40
VS = 5.25V
–45
–50
–55
–60
700
03570-0013
900
1100 1300 1500 1700 1900 2100 2300 2500 2700
LO FREQUENCY (MHz)
900
1100 1300 1500 1700 1900 2100 2300 2500 2700
LO FREQUENCY (MHz)
Figure 13. Sideband Suppression vs. FLO (FBB = 1 MHz, I and Q Inputs
Driven in Quadrature at 1.2 V p-p Differential, TA = 25°C)
Figure 16. Third Order Distortion vs. FLO (FBB = 1 MHz, I and Q Inputs
Driven in Quadrature at 1.2 V p-p Differential, TA = 25°C)
–10
–10
VS = 4.75V
–15
THIRD ORDER DISTORTION (dBc)
–15
–20
–25
VS = 5.25V
–30
–35
–40
–45
VS = 5V
–50
–20
–25
VS = 5V
–30
–35
–40
–50
10
–60
03570-0-014
1
100
BASEBAND FREQUENCY (MHz)
1
10
100
BASEBAND FREQUENCY (MHz)
Figure 14. Sideband Suppression vs. FBB (FLO = 2140 MHz, I and Q Inputs
Driven in Quadrature at 1.2 V p-p Differential, TA = 25°C)
03570-0-017
–55
–60
Figure 17. Third Order Distortion vs. FBB (FLO = 2140 MHz, I and Q Inputs
Driven in Quadrature at 1.2 V p-p Differential, TA = 25°C)
–30
–30
VS = 4.75V
VS = 5V
THIRD ORDER DISTORTION (dBc)
–35
VS = 4.75V
–45
VS = 5.25V
–50
–55
–60
–40 –30 –20 –10
0
10
20
30
40
TEMPERATURE (°C)
50
60
70
80
Figure 15. Sideband Suppression vs. Temperature (FLO = 2140 MHz,
FBB = 1 MHz, I and Q Inputs Driven in Quadrature at 1.2 V p-p Differential)
VS = 5V
–35
–40
VS = 5.25V
–45
–50
–55
–60
–40 –30 –20 –10
03570-0-015
SIDEBAND SUPPRESSION (dBc)
VS = 4.75V
VS = 5.25V
–45
–55
–40
03570-0016
–55
–60
700
SIDEBAND SUPPRESSION (dBc)
VS = 4.75V
VS = 5V
–30
0
10
20
30
40
TEMPERATURE (°C)
50
60
70
80
03570-0-018
SIDEBAND SUPPRESSION (dBc)
AD8349
Figure 18. Third Order Distortion vs. Temperature (FLO = 2140 MHz,
FBB = 1 MHz, I and Q Inputs Driven in Quadrature at 1.2 V p-p Differential)
Rev. A | Page 9 of 28
AD8349
10
160
8
155
3USB, dBc
SSB, dBm
–20
6
–25
4
–30
2
–35
150
SUPPLY CURRENT (mA)
–15
0
USB, dBC
–40
–2
–45
–4
–50
–6
LO, dBm
–8
–60
–10
–65
–12
–70
–14
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
BASEBAND DIFFERENTIAL INPUT VOLTAGE (V p-p)
130
115
110
–40 –30 –20 –10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
TEMPERATURE (°C)
Figure 22. Power Supply Current vs. Temperature
8
SSB, dBm
6
–25
4
–30
2
–35
LO, dBm
–40
500Ω
0
200Ω
–2
–45
–4
USB, dBc
–6
–8
–60
–10
–65
–12
–70
–14
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
BASEBAND DIFFERENTIAL INPUT VOLTAGE (V p-p)
NO TERMINATION
03570-0023
3USB, dBc
–55
03570-0-020
–50
VS = 4.75V
125
10
–15
–20
VS = 5.25V
135
Figure 19. Third Order Distortion (3USB), Carrier Feedthrough, Sideband
Suppression, and SSB POUT vs. Baseband Differential Input Level
(FLO = 900 MHz, FBB = 1 MHz, I and Q Inputs Driven in Quadrature, TA = 25°C)
–10
VS = 5V
140
120
03570-0-019
–55
145
03570-0-022
–10
Figure 20. Third Order Distortion (3USB), Carrier Feedthrough, Sideband
Suppression, and SSB POUT vs. Baseband Differential Input Level
(FLO = 1900 MHz, FBB = 1 MHz, I and Q Inputs Driven in Quadrature, TA = 25°C)
Figure 23. Smith Chart of LOIP Port S11 (LOIN Pin AC-Coupled
to Ground). Curves with Balun and External Termination
Resistors Also Shown (TA = 25°C)
10
–10
0
3USB, dBc
8
–15
–5
SSB, dBm
6
–25
4
–30
2
–35
0
LO, dBm
–40
–2
–45
–4
–6
–50
–55
–10
RETURN LOSS (dB)
–20
USB, dBc
–8
–60
–10
–65
–12
VS = 5V
–15
–20
–25
–30
BASEBAND DIFFERENTIAL INPUT VOLTAGE (V p-p)
Figure 21. Third Order Distortion (3USB), Carrier Feedthrough, Sideband
Suppression, and SSB POUT vs. Baseband Differential Input Level
(FLO = 2140 MHz, FBB = 1 MHz, I and Q Inputs Driven in Quadrature, TA = 25°C)
Rev. A | Page 10 of 28
–40
700
900
1100 1300 1500 1700 1900 2100 2300 2500 2700
FREQUENCY (MHz)
Figure 24. Return Loss ⏐S22⏐of VOUT Output (TA = 25°C)
03570-0-024
–14
–70
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
03570-0-021
–35
AD8349
30
20
28
18
26
24
16
22
14
PERCENTAGE
18
16
14
12
10
4
03570-0-025
–147.0
–147.5
–148.0
–148.5
–149.0
–149.5
–150.0
–150.5
–151.0
–151.5
–152.0
–153.0
–153.5
–154.0
NOISE FLOOR (dBm/Hz)
Figure 25. 20 MHz Offset Noise Floor Distribution at FLO = 900 MHz
(BB Inputs at a Bias of 400 mV with no AC signal, TA = 25°C)
Figure 28. 20 MHz Offset Noise Floor Distribution at FLO = 940 MHz
(FBB = 1 MHz, I and Q Inputs Driven in Quadrature at 1.2 V p-p, TA = 25°C)
30
28
28
26
26
24
24
22
22
20
PERCENTAGE
20
18
16
14
12
10
18
16
14
12
10
03570-0-026
–148.0
–148.5
–149.0
–149.5
–150.0
–150.5
–151.0
–151.5
–152.0
NOISE FLOOR (dBm/Hz)
–152.5
–154.0
–154.5
–155.0
–155.5
0
–156.0
2
0
–156.5
4
2
–157.0
6
4
–157.5
8
6
–158.0
8
03570-0-029
–154.5
–155.0
–155.5
–156.0
–156.5
–157.0
NOISE FLOOR (dBm/Hz)
0
03570-0-028
2
2
PERCENTAGE
8
4
6
NOISE FLOOR (dBm/Hz)
Figure 26. 20 MHz Offset Noise Floor Distribution at FLO = 1900 MHz
(BB Inputs at a Bias of 400 mV with no AC signal, TA = 25°C)
Figure 29. 20 MHz Offset Noise Floor Distribution at FLO = 1960 MHz
(FBB = 1 MHz, I and Q Inputs Driven in Quadrature at 1.2 V p-p, TA = 25°C)
30
28
28
26
26
24
24
22
22
20
20
PERCENTAGE
30
18
16
14
12
18
16
14
12
–149.0
–149.5
–150.0
–150.5
–151.0
–151.5
–152.0
Figure 27. 20 MHz Offset Noise Floor Distribution at FLO = 2140 MHz
(BB Inputs at a Bias of 400 mV with no AC signal, TA = 25°C)
–152.5
NOISE FLOOR (dBm/Hz)
–153.0
–155.0
–155.5
–156.0
0
–156.5
2
0
–157.0
4
2
–157.5
6
4
–158.0
8
6
–158.5
10
8
–159.0
10
03570-0-027
PERCENTAGE
10
6
8
0
12
03570-0-030
PERCENTAGE
20
NOISE FLOOR (dBm/Hz)
Figure 30. 20 MHz Offset Noise Floor Distribution at FLO = 2140 MHz
(FBB = 1 MHz, I and Q Inputs Driven in Quadrature at 1.2 V p-p, TA = 25°C)
Rev. A | Page 11 of 28
AD8349
35
–140
–142
30
25
–146
–148
PERCENTAGE
NOISE FLOOR (dBm/Hz)
–144
WITH AC INPUT
–150
–152
–154
20
15
10
WITHOUT AC INPUT
–156
5
–8
–6
–4
–2
0
0
–0.200 –0.175 –0.150 –0.125 –0.100 –0.075 –0.050 –0.025
03570-0-031
–160
–10
2
LO INPUT (dBm)
0
MAGNITUDE IMBALANCE (dB)
03570-0-034
–158
Figure 34. I and Q Inputs Quadrature Phase Imbalance Distribution
(FLO = 2140 MHz, FBB = 1 MHz, I and Q Inputs Driven in
Quadrature at 1.2 V p-p Differential, TA = 25°C)
Figure 31. 20 MHz Offset Noise Floor vs. LO Input Power
(FLO = 2140 MHz, TA = 25°C)
–10
35
–15
25
PERCENTAGE
–25
–30
–35
FLO = 1900MHz
–40
–45
20
15
10
FLO = 2140MHz
–50
–8
–6
–4
–2
0
2
0
LO INPUT (dBm)
0
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
1.50
PHASE (I-Q) IMBALANCE (Degrees)
Figure 32. Carrier Feedthrough vs. LO Input Power (FBB = 1 MHz, I and Q
Inputs Driven in Quadrature at 1.2 V p-p Differential, TA = 25°C)
03570-0-035
–60
–10
5
FLO = 900MHz
–55
03570-0032
CARRIER FEEDTHROUGH (dBm)
30
–20
Figure 35. I and Q Inputs Amplitude Imbalance Distribution
(FLO = 2140 MHz, FBB = 1 MHz, I and Q Inputs Driven in
Quadrature at 1.2 V p-p Differential, TA = 25°C)
–10
35
–15
FLO = 900MHz
25
–25
–30
PERCENTAGE
SIDEBAND SUPPRESSION (dBc)
30
–20
FLO = 1900MHz
–35
–40
–45
20
15
10
FLO = 2140MHz
–50
5
–8
–6
–4
LO INPUT (dBm)
–2
0
2
0
4.5
03570-0033
–60
–10
Figure 33. Sideband Suppression vs. LO Input Power (FBB = 1 MHz, I and Q
Inputs Driven in Quadrature at 1.2 V p-p Differential, TA = 25°C)
5.0
5.5
OP1dB (dBm)
6.0
6.5
03570-0-036
–55
Figure 36. OP1dB Distribution. (FLO = 2140 MHz, FBB = 1 MHz, I and Q Inputs
Driven in Quadrature, TA = 25°C)
Rev. A | Page 12 of 28
AD8349
35
20
T = +85°C
18
30
T = –40°C
16
25
PERCENTAGE
PERCENTAGE
14
12
10
8
6
20
15
10
4
5
–70
–60
–50
–40
0
–70
03570-0-039
0
–80
–30
CARRIER FEEDTHROUGH (dBm)
Figure 37. Carrier Feedthrough Distribution at FLO = 900 MHZ (FBB = 1 MHz,
I and Q Inputs Driven in Quadrature at 1.2 V p-p, TA = 25°C)
–65
–60
–55
–50
CARRIER FEEDTHROUGH (dBm)
AFTER NULLING TO < –65dBm AT +25°C
Figure 40. Carrier Feedthrough Distribution at Temperature Extremes, After
Carrier Feedthrough Nulled to < - 65 dBm at TA = 25°C. (FLO = 2140 MHz,
I and Q Inputs at a bias of 400 mV)
40
30
28
35
T = +85°C
26
T = –40°C
24
30
22
25
PERCENTAGE
PERCENTAGE
–45
03570-0-037
2
20
15
20
18
16
14
12
10
10
8
6
5
4
–50
–45
–40
–35
–30
–25
CARRIER FEEDTHROUGH (dBm)
Figure 38. Carrier Feedthrough Distribution at FLO = 1900 MHz (FBB = 1 MHz,
I and Q Inputs Driven in Quadrature at 1.2 Vp-p, TA = 25°C)
0
–75
22
20
PERCENTAGE
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
–60
–55
–50
–45
–40
CARRIER FEEDTHROUGH (dBm)
–35
–30
03570-0-041
2
–65
–45
–40
–65
–60
–55
–50
SIDEBAND SUPPRESSION (dBc)
AFTER NULLING TO < –50dBc AT +25°C
–35
Figure 41. Sideband Suppression Distribution at Temperature Extremes, After
Sideband Suppression Nulled to < -50 dBc at TA = 25°C. (FLO = 2140 MHz,
FBB = 1 MHz, I and Q Inputs biased at 0.4 V)
24
0
–70
–70
03570-0-038
–55
03570-0-040
2
0
–60
Figure 39. Carrier Feedthrough Distribution at FLO = 2140 MHz (FBB = 1 MHz,
I and Q Inputs Driven in Quadrature at 1.2 V p-p, TA = 25°C)
Rev. A | Page 13 of 28
AD8349
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
OVERVIEW
V-TO-I CONVERTER
The AD8349 can be divided into five sections: the local oscillator (LO) interface, the baseband voltage-to-current (V-to-I)
converter, the mixers, the differential-to-single-ended (D-to-S)
amplifier, and the bias circuit. A detailed block diagram of the
device is shown in Figure 42.
The differential baseband input voltages that are applied to the
baseband input pins are fed to two op amps that perform a
differential voltage-to-current conversion. The differential
output currents of these op amps then feed each of their
respective mixers.
MIXERS
LOIP
LOIN
The AD8349 has two double-balanced mixers, one for the inphase channel (I channel) and one for the quadrature channel
(Q channel). Both mixers are based on the Gilbert cell design of
four cross-connected transistors. The output currents from the
two mixers sum together in a pair of resistor-inductor (R-L)
loads. The signals developed across the R-L loads are sent to the
D-to-S amplifier.
PHASE
SPLITTER
IBBP
IBBN
OUT
03570-0-043
Σ
QBBP
QBBN
D-TO-S AMPLIFIER
Figure 42. Block Diagram
The LO interface generates two LO signals at 90 degrees of
phase difference to drive two mixers in quadrature. Baseband
signals are converted into currents by the V-to-I converters,
which feed into the two mixers. The outputs of the mixers
combine to feed the differential-to-single-ended amplifier,
which provides a 50 Ω output interface. Reference currents to
each section are generated by the bias circuit. Additionally, the
RF output is controlled by an output enable pin (ENOP), which
is capable of switching the output on and off within 50 ns. A
detailed description of each section follows.
The output D-to-S amplifier consists of two emitter followers
driving a totem pole output stage. Output impedance is established by the emitter resistors in the output transistors. The
output of this stage connects to the output (VOUT) pin.
BIAS CIRCUIT
A band gap reference circuit generates the proportional-toabsolute-temperature (PTAT) reference currents used by
different sections. The band gap reference circuit also generates
a temperature stable current in the V-to-I converters to produce
a temperature independent slew rate.
LO INTERFACE
OUTPUT ENABLE
The LO interface consists of interleaved stages of buffer
amplifiers and polyphase phase splitters. An input buffer
provides a 50 Ω termination to the LO signal source driving
LOIP and LOIN. The buffer also increases the LO signal
amplitude to drive the phase splitter. The phase splitter is
formed by an R-C polyphase network that splits the buffered
LO signal into two parts in precise quadrature phase relation
with each other. Each LO signal then passes through a buffer
amplifier to compensate for the signal loss through the phase
splitter. The two signals pass through another polyphase
network to enhance the quadrature accuracy over the full
operating frequency range. The outputs of the second phase
splitter are fed into the driver amplifiers for the mixers’ LO
inputs.
During normal operation (ENOP = high), the output current
from the V-to-I converters feeds into the mixers, where they
mix with the two phases of LO signals. When ENOP is pulled
low, the V-to-I output currents are steered away from the
mixers, thus turning off the RF output. Power to the final stage
of LO drivers is also removed to minimize LO feedthrough.
Even when the output is disabled, the differential-to-singleended stage is still powered up to maintain constant output
impedance.
Rev. A | Page 14 of 28
AD8349
BASIC CONNECTIONS
The basic connections for operating the AD8349 are shown in
Figure 43. A single power supply of between 4.75 V and 5.5 V is
applied to pins VPS1 and VPS2. A pair of ESD protection diodes
connect internally between VPS1 and VPS2, so these must be
tied to the same potential. Both pins should be individually
decoupled using 100 pF and 0.1 μF capacitors to ground. These
capacitors should be located as close as possible to the device.
For normal operation, the output enable pin, ENOP, must be
pulled high. The turn-on threshold for ENOP is 2 V. Pins
COM1, COM2, and COM3 should all be tied to the same
ground plane through low impedance paths.
power of the output signal is at least a crest factor below the
AD8349’s output compression point. Refer to the Applications
section for drive-level considerations in WCDMA and
GSM/EDGE systems.
Reducing the baseband drive level also has the benefit of
increasing the bandwidth of the baseband input. This would
allow the AD8349 to be used in applications requiring a high
modulation bandwidth, e.g., as the IF modulator in high datarate microwave radios.
SINGLE-ENDED BASEBAND DRIVE
BASEBAND I AND Q INPUTS
Where only single-ended I and Q signals are available, a
differential amplifier, such as the AD8132 or AD8138, can be
used to generate the required differential drive signal for the
AD8349.
The I and Q inputs should be driven differentially. The typical
differential drive level (as used for characterization measurements) for the I and Q baseband signals is 1.2 V p-p, which is
equivalent to 600 mV p-p on each baseband input. The baseband inputs have to be externally biased to a level between
400 mV and 500 mV. The optimum level for the best performance is 400 mV. The recommended drive level of 1.2 V p-p
does not indicate a maximum drive level. If operation closer to
compression is desired, the 1.2 V p-p differential limit can be
exceeded.
Figure 44 shows an example of a circuit that converts a groundreferenced, single-ended signal to a differential signal, and adds
the required 400 mV bias voltage.
The baseband inputs can also be driven with a single-ended
signal biased to 400 mV, with the unused inputs biased to
400 mV dc. This mode of operation is not recommended,
however, because any dc level difference between the bias level
of the drive signal and the dc level on the unused input
(including the effect of temperature drift), can result in
increased LO feedthrough. Additionally, the maximum low
distortion output power will be reduced by 6 dB.
For baseband signals with a high peak-to-average ratio (e.g.,
CDDA or WCDMA), the peak signal level will have to be below
the AD8349’s compression level in order to prevent clipping of
the signal peaks. Clipping of signal peaks increases distortion.
In the case of CDMA and WCDMA inputs, clipping results in
an increase of signal leakage into adjacent channels. In general,
the baseband drive should be at a level where the peak signal
IP
1
IBBP
QBBP
16
2
IBBN
QBBN
15
3
COM1
COM3
14
4
COM1
COM3
13
QP
QN
IN
T1
ETC1-1-13 2
LO
AD8349
1
4
100pF
5
LOIN
VPS2
12
100pF
6
LOIP
VOUT
11
0.1µF
VOUT
100pF
3
7
VPS1
COM3
10
8
ENOP
COM2
9
200Ω
+VS
0.1µF
+VS
100pF
100pF
Figure 43. Basic Connections
Rev. A | Page 15 of 28
03570-0-044
200Ω
5
AD8349
+5V
10kΩ
+
10µF
0.1µF
866Ω
0.1µF
100pF
100pF
0.1µF
499Ω
IIN
499Ω
8
499Ω
3
5
49.9Ω
0.1µF
2
AD8132
VPS1
4
1
6
VPS2
IBBP
24.8Ω
+
0.1µF
IBBN
10µF
Σ
499Ω
VOUT
–5V
LOIP
+5V
QBBP
PHASE
SPLITTER
LOIN
QBBN
+
0.1µF
AD8349
10µF
COM1 COM2 COM3
499Ω
QIN
499Ω
8
5
49.9Ω
499Ω
3
0.1µF
2
AD8132
4
1
6
+
0.1µF
03570-0-045
24.9Ω
10µF
499Ω
–5V
Figure 44. Single-Ended IQ Drive Circuit
LO INPUT DRIVE LEVEL
LO INPUT IMPEDANCE MATCHING
The local oscillator inputs are designed to be driven differentially. The device is specified with an LO drive level of –6 dBm.
This level was chosen to provide the best noise performance.
Increasing the LO drive level degrades sideband suppression
and increases carrier feedthrough, while improving noise
performance. Reducing the LO drive level creates the opposite
effect: improved sideband suppression and reduced carrier
feedthrough.
Single-ended LO sources are transformed into a differential
signal via a 1:1 balun (ETC1-1-13). A 200 Ω shunt resistor to
GND on each LO input on the device side of the balun reduces
the return loss for the LO input port. Because the LO input pins
are internally dc-biased, ac coupling capacitors must be used on
each LO input pin.
FREQUENCY RANGE
The LO frequency range is from 700 MHz to 2700 MHz. These
limits are defined by the nature of the LO phase splitter
circuitry. The phase splitter generates LO drive signals for the
internal mixers, which are 90 degrees out of phase from each
other. Outside of the specified frequency range (700 MHz to
2700 MHz), this quadrature accuracy degrades, resulting in
poor sideband rejection performance. Figure 45 and Figure 46
show the sideband suppression of a typical device operating
outside the specified LO frequency range. The level of sideband
suppression and degradation is also influenced by manufacturing process variations.
Rev. A | Page 16 of 28
AD8349
4.0
0
3.5
–10
–10
2.5
–30
USB
2.0
–40
1.5
–50
–20
–25
–30
SINGLE-ENDED LO DRIVE
–35
–40
–45
–50
DIFFERENTIAL LO DRIVE
–55
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
–60
700
LO FREQUENCY (MHz)
900
1100 1300 1500 1700 1900 2100 2300 2500 2700
LO FREQUENCY (MHz)
Figure 48. LO Feedthrough vs. Frequency, Single-Ended vs. Differential LO
Drive (Single-Sideband Modulation)
Figure 45. Sideband Suppression below 700 MHz
0
–40
–1
–41
USB
–2
–42
–3
–43
SIDEBAND SUPPRESSION (dBc)
RF OUTPUT
–44
–4
SSB
–5
–45
–6
–46
–7
–47
–8
2700
2750
2800
2850
2900
2950
–48
3000
03570-0-047
SSB OUTPUT POWER (dBm)
–60
700
03570-0-046
1.0
300
03570-0-049
–20
SSB
CARRIER FEEDTHROUGH (dBm)
3.0
SIDEBAND SUPPRESSION (dBc)
SSB OUTPUT POWER (dBm)
–15
The RF output is designed to drive a 50 Ω load, but should be
ac-coupled, as shown in Figure 43, because of internal dc
biasing. The RF output impedance is close to 50 Ω and provides
fairly good return loss over the specified operating frequency
range (see Figure 24). As a result, no additional matching
circuitry is required if the output is driving a 50 Ω load. The
output power of the AD8349 under nominal conditions
(1.2 V p-p differential baseband drive, 400 mV dc baseband
bias, and a 5 V supply) is shown in Figure 7.
OUTPUT ENABLE
The LO input can be driven single-ended at the expense of
higher LO feedthrough at most frequencies (see Figure 48).
LOIN is ac-coupled to ground, and LOIP is driven through a
coupling capacitor from a single-ended 50 Ω source (see
Figure 47).
Figure 49 and Figure 50 show the enable and disable time
domain responses of the ENOP function at 900 MHz. Typical
enable and disable times are approximately 20 ns and
50 ns, respectively.
VENOP (V)
A 400 Ω shunt resistor on the signal-source side of the ac
coupling capacitor was used for the measurement.
100pF
5 LOIN
6 LOIP
LO
400Ω
03570-0-048
AD8349
100pF
Figure 47. Schematic for Single-Ended LO Drive
8
800
6
600
4
400
2
200
0
0
–2
–200
–4
–400
–6
–600
–8
0
20
40
60
80
TIME (ns)
Figure 49. ENOP Enable Time, 900 MHz
Rev. A | Page 17 of 28
–800
100
03570-0-050
Figure 46. Sideband Suppression above 2700 MHz
VVOUT (mV)
SINGLE-ENDED LO DRIVE
The ENOP pin can be used to turn the RF output on and off.
This pin should be held high (greater than 2 V) for normal
operation. Taking ENOP low (less than 800 mV) disables the
output power and provides an off-isolation level of < –50 dBm
at the output.
LO FREQUENCY (MHz)
800
1.50
6
600
1.35
4
400
2
200
0
0
1.20
1.05
0.90
0.75
–2
–200
–4
–400
–6
–600
0.30
–800
100
0.15
–8
0
20
40
60
80
TIME (ns)
0.60
0.45
10
100
1.103
R3 (Ω)
Figure 50. ENOP Disable Time, 900 MHz
03570-0-053
VVOUT (mV)
DIFFERENTIAL IQ SWING (V p-p)
8
03570-0-051
VENOP (V)
AD8349
Figure 52. Relationship Between R3 in Figure 51 and Peak
Baseband Input Voltage
BASEBAND DAC INTERFACE
BIASING AND FILTERING
The recommended baseband input swing and bias levels of the
AD8349’s differential baseband inputs allow for direct
connection to most baseband DACs without the need for any
external active components. Typically these DACs have a
differential full-scale output current from 0 mA to 20 mA on
each differential output. These currents can be easily converted
to voltages using ground-referenced shunt resistors. Most
baseband DACs for transmit chains are designed with two
DACs in a single package.
A value of 40 Ω on R1 and R2 in Figure 51 will generate the
required 400 mV dc bias. Note that this is independent of the
value of R3. Figure 52 shows the relationship between the value
of R3 and the peak baseband input voltage with the 40 Ω
resistors in place. From Figure 52, it can be seen that a value of
240 Ω will provide a peak-to-peak swing of approximately
1.2 V p-p differential into the AD8349’s baseband inputs.
AD9777 INTERFACE
The AD977x family of dual DACs is well suited to driving the
baseband inputs of the AD8349. The AD9777 is a dual 16-bit
DAC that can generate either a baseband output or a complex
IF using the device’s complex modulator.
When using a DAC, low-pass image reject filters are typically
used to eliminate images that are produced by the DAC. They
provide the added benefit of eliminating broadband noise that
might feed into the modulator from the DAC.
The basic interface between the AD9777’s IOUT outputs and the
AD8349’s differential baseband inputs is shown in Figure 51.
The Resistors R1 and R2 set the dc bias level, and R3 sets the
amplitude of the baseband input voltage swing.
AD9777
1
R1I
IOUTB1
IOUTA2
72
R2I
Due to offset voltages, internal device mismatch, and imperfect
quadrature over the AD8349’s operating range, the SSB
spectrum has a number of undesirable components such as LO
feedthrough and undesired sideband leakage. When the
AD8349 is driven by a modulated baseband signal, (e.g. 8-PSK,
GMSK, QPSK, or QAM), these nonidealities will manifest
themselves as degraded error vector magnitude (EVM) and
degraded spectral purity.
2
IBBN
16
QBBP
R2Q
68
IBBP
R3I
69
R1Q
IOUTB2
OPTIONAL
LOW-PASS
FILTER
OPTIONAL
LOW-PASS
FILTER
R3Q
15
QBBN
03570-0-052
IOUTA1
Figure 53 shows a single sideband spectrum at 2140 MHz. The
baseband sine and cosine signals come from the digital output
of a Rohde & Schwarz AMIQ arbitrary waveform generator.
These signals drive the AD9777 dual DAC, which in turn drives
the AD8349’s baseband inputs. Note that the AD9777’s complex
modulator is not being used.
AD8349
73
The closest available resistor values are 40.2 Ω and 240 Ω, and
these values were used in the characterization of the AD8349
when the DAC was used as a signal source.
Figure 51. Basic AD9777 to AD8349 Interface
Rev. A | Page 18 of 28
AD8349
10
–10
–20
–30
–40
–60
–80
–90
CENTER 2.14GHz
SPAN 10MHz
03570-0-054
–70
Figure 53. AD8349 Single Sideband Spectrum at 2140 MHz
REDUCING UNDESIRED SIDEBAND LEAKAGE
Undesired sideband leakage is the result of phase and amplitude
imbalances between the I and Q channel baseband signals.
Therefore, to reduce the undesired sideband leakage, the
amplitude and phase of the baseband signals have to be
matched at the mixer cores. Because of mismatches in the
baseband input paths leading to the mixers, perfectly matched
baseband signals at the pins of the device may not be perfectly
matched when they reach the mixers. Therefore, slight
adjustments have to be made to the phase and amplitudes of the
baseband signals to compensate for these mismatches.
Begin by making one of the inputs, say the I channel, the
reference signal. Then adjust the amplitude and phase of the
Q channel’s signal until the unwanted sideband power reaches a
trough. The AD9777 has built-in gain adjust registers that allow
this to be performed easily. If an iterative adjustment is
performed between the amplitude and the phase, the undesired
sideband leakage can be minimized significantly.
Note that the compensated sideband rejection performance
degrades as the operating baseband frequency is moved away
from the frequency at which the compensation was performed.
As a result, the frequency of the I and Q sine waves should be
approximately half the baseband bandwidth of the modulated
carrier. For example, if the modulator is being used to transmit
a single WCDMA carrier whose baseband spectrum spans from
dc to 3.84/2 MHz, the calibration could be effectively performed
with 1 MHz I and Q sine waves.
The procedure for reducing the LO feedthrough is simple. A
differential offset voltage is applied from the I DAC until the LO
feedthrough reaches a trough. With this offset level held, a
differential offset voltage is applied to the Q DAC until a lower
trough is reached (This is an iterative process).
Figure 54 shows a plot of LO feedthrough vs. I channel offset (in
mV) after the Q channel offset has been nulled. This suggests
that the compensating offset voltage should have a resolution of
at least 100 µV to reduce the LO feedthrough to be less than –
65 dBm. Figure 55 shows the single sideband spectrum at 2140
MHz after the nulling of the LO. The reduced LO feedthrough
can clearly be seen when compared with the performance
shown in Figure 53.
Compensated LO feedthrough degrades somewhat as the LO
frequency is moved away from the frequency at which the
compensation was performed. This variation is very small
across a 30 MHz or 60 MHz cellular band, however. This small
variation is due to the effects of LO-to-RF output leakage
around the package and on the board.
–52
–54
REDUCTION OF LO FEEDTHROUGH
Because the I and Q signals are being multiplied with the LO,
any internal offset voltages on these inputs will result in leakage
of the LO to the output. Additionally, any imbalance in the LO
to RF in the mixers will also cause the LO signal to leak through
the mixer to the RF output. The LO feedthrough is clearly
visible in the single sideband spectrum. The nominal LO
feedthrough of –42 dBm can be reduced further by applying
offset compensation voltages on the I and Q inputs. Note that
Rev. A | Page 19 of 28
–56
–58
–60
–62
–64
–66
–68
–70
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
IOPP-IOPN (mV)
Figure 54. Plot of LO Feedthrough vs. I Channel Baseband Offset
(Q Channel Offset Nulled)
03570-0-055
–50
CARRIER FEEDTHROUGH (dBm)
AMPLITUDE (dBm)
the LO feedthrough is reduced by varying the differential offset
voltages on the I and Q inputs (xBBP – xBBN), not by varying
the nominal bias level of 400 mV. This is easily accomplished by
programming and then storing the appropriate DAC offset code
required to minimize the LO feedthrough. This, however,
requires a dc-coupled path from the DAC to the I and Q inputs.
SSB = 1.7dBm
LO = –44.5dBm
USB = –52dBc
THIRD HARMONIC = –36.8dBc
0
AD8349
10
–10
AMPLITUDE (dBm)
IMPROVING THIRD HARMONIC DISTORTION
SSB = 1.7dBm
LO = –71.4dBm
USB = –52dBc
THIRD HARMONIC = –36.8dBc
0
–20
–30
–40
–50
–60
–70
03570-0-077
–80
–90
CENTER 2.14GHz
SPAN 10MHz
While sideband suppression can be improved by adjusting the
relative baseband amplitudes and phase, the only means
available to reduce the third harmonic is to reduce the output
power. (See Figure 19, Figure 20, and Figure 21). It is worth
noting, however, that as the output power is reduced, the noise
floor, in dBc, stays fairly constant at the higher end of the power
curve (Figure 56). This indicates that the output power can be
reduced to a level that yields an acceptable third harmonic
without incurring a signal-to-noise ratio penalty. The constant
SNR vs. output power relationship also indicates that baseband
voltage variations can be effectively used to control system
output power and/or regulate signal chain gain.
–86
–88
940 SSB
1960 SSB
2140 SSB
0
–2
–90
–92
–94
–4
–6
–96
1960 20 MHz NOISE
940 20 MHz NOISE
2140 20 MHz NOISE
–8
–10
–98
–100
–12
SINGLE SIDEBAND PERFORMANCE VS. BASEBAND
DRIVE LEVEL
Figure 56 shows the SSB output power and noise floor in
dBc/100 kHz versus baseband drive level at LO frequencies of
940 MHz, 1960 MHz, and 2140 MHz.
4
–14
0.2
–102
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
–104
1.2
DIFFERENTIAL BASEBAND DRIVE (V p-p)
Figure 56. SSB POUT and 20 MHz Noise Floor vs. Baseband Drive Level
(FLO = 940 MHz, 1960 MHz, and 2140 MHz)
Rev. A | Page 20 of 28
03570-0-056
In practical applications, reduction of LO feedthrough and
undesired sideband suppression can be performed as a one time
calibration, with the required correction factors being stored in
nonvolatile RAM. These compensation schemes hold up well
over temperature. Figure 40 and Figure 41 show the variation in
LO feedthrough and sideband suppression over temperature
after compensation is performed at 25°C.
–84
2
SSB OUTPUT POWER (dBm)
SIDEBAND SUPPRESSION AND LO FEEDTHROUGH
VS. TEMPERATURE
6
20 MHz NOISE FLOOR (dBC/100kHz)
Figure 55. AD8349 Single Sideband Spectrum at 2140 MHz after LO Nulling
AD8349
APPLICATIONS
Figure 59 shows the variation in ACPR with output power at
1960 MHz and 2140 MHz. It also shows the noise floor
measured at an offset of 30 MHz from the center of the modulated WCDMA signal. From the graphs, it can be seen that there
is an optimal output power at which to operate that delivers the
best ACPR. If the output power is increased beyond that point,
the ACPR degrades as the result of increased distortion. Below
that optimum, the ACPR degrades due to a reduction in the
signal-to-noise ratio of the signal.
AD8349
680nH
73
1
IOUTA1
–148
–150
–66
–151
2140 ADJ CPR
–69
270pF
680nH
680nH
69
16
IOUTA2
68
270pF
15
IOUTB2
–18
–16
–14
–20
CHANNEL POWER (DBM)
–12
–10
–8
The high dynamic range of the AD8349 also permits use in
multicarrier WCDMA applications. Figure 60 shows a 4-carrier
WCDMA spectrum at 1960 MHz. At a per-carrier power of
–24.2 dBm, an ACPR of –60.4dB is achieved. Figure 61 shows
the variation in ACP and noise floor (dBc/Hz) with output
power.
CH PWR = –24.2dBm
ADJ CPR = –60.4dB
ALT CPR = –63.1dB
–50
QBBP
QBBN
–60
–70
–80
–90
–100
–110
–120
Figure 57. Single-Carrier WCDMA Application Circuit
(DAC-Modulator Interconnect)
–130
CENTER 1.96GHz
4MHz/
SPAN 40MHz
–33
CH PWR = –17.3dBm
ADJ CPR = –68.7dB
ALT CPR = –72.7dB
–40
–50
Figure 60. 4-Carrier WCDMA Spectral Plot at 1960 MHz,
Including Adjacent and Alternate Channel Power Ratio
–70
–80
–90
–100
–110
–120
ALT
LO
ADJ
LO
CENTER 2.14GHz
CH
ADJ
UP
ALT
UP
SPAN 24.6848MHz
03570-0-059
AMPLITUDE (dBm)
–60
–130
–157
03570-0-060
–22
WCDMA MULTICARRIER APPLICATION
IBBN
03570-0-058
680nH
–24
Figure 59. Single-Carrier WCDMA ACPR and Noise Floor (dBm/Hz) at 30 MHz
Carrier Offset vs. Channel Power at 1960 MHz and 2140 MHz
(Test Model 1 with 64 Active Channels)
–30
240Ω
40.2Ω
–156
–72
–26
IBBP
40.2Ω
100pF
–155
2140 NOISE
–71
240Ω
2
IOUTB1
–154
1960 NOISE
–70
AMPLITUDE (dBm)
100pF
–153
–68
–40
40.2Ω
–152
–67
40.2Ω
72
–149
1960 ADJ CPR
–65
Figure 58. Single-Carrier WCDMA Spectral Plot at 2140 MHz,
including Adjacent and Alternate Channel Power Ratio
Rev. A | Page 21 of 28
03570-0-062
AD9777
–147
–63
–64
ACPR (dB)
The interpolation filter used for the measurement of WCDMA
performance is shown in Figure 57. This third order Bessel filter
has a 3 dB bandwidth of 12 MHz. While the 3GPP single
channel bandwidth is only 3.84 MHz, this wide 3 dB bandwidth
of 12 MHz was driven by the need for a flat group delay out to
at least half the bandwidth of the baseband signal. Figure 58
shows a plot of a WCDMA spectrum at 2140 MHz using the
3 GPP Test Model 1 (64 channels active). At an output power of
–17.3 dBm, an adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) just shy of
–69 dBc was measured.
–62
NOISE FLOOR (dBm/Hz)
3GPP WCDMA SINGLE-CARRIER APPLICATION
–150
–60
–61
–62
–152
2140 ALT CPR
1960 ALT CPR
–63
–64
–154
1960 NOISE
2140 NOISE
–156
–66
–29 –28 –27 –26 –25 –24 –23 –22 –21 –20 –19 –18 –17
CHANNEL POWER (dBm)
03570-0063
–65
Figure 61. 4-Carrier WCDMA Adjacent and Alternate Channel Power Ratio
and 50 MHz Noise Floor (dBm/Hz) vs. Per-Channel Power
at 1960 MHz and 2140 MHz
GSM/EDGE APPLICATION
Figure 62 and Figure 64 show plots of GMSK error vector
magnitude (EVM), spectral performance, and noise floor
(dBc/100 kHz at 6 MHz carrier offset) at 885 MHz and
1960 MHz. Based on spectral performance, a maximum output
power level of around 2 dBm is appropriate. Note, however, that
as the output power decreases below this level, there is only a
very slight increase in the dBc noise floor. This indicates that
baseband drive variation can be used to control or correct the
gain of the signal chain over a range of at least 5 dB, with little
or no SNR penalty.
3.5
EVM
–65
3.0
–70
2.5
–80
EVM%
600kHz
–75
–85
–90
PEAK NOISE FLOOR
2.0
–95
–100
–110
–10
1.0
–6
–4
–2
0
2
2.0
EVM
–95
–100
1.5
AVERAGE NOISE FLOOR
–105
–110
–14
1.0
–12
–10
–8
–6
–4
–2
4
6
CHANNEL POWER (dBm)
0
2
4
–50
4.0
–55
–60
3.5
–65
400kHz
–70
3.0
–75
600kHz
–80
PEAK NOISE FLOOR
2.5
–85
–90
2.0
AVERAGE NOISE FLOOR
–95
–100
1.5
–105
–110
–13
EVM
–11
–9
–7
–5
–3
1.0
–1
1
3
5
–50
4.0
–55
–60
3.5
–65
–70
3.0
–75
400kHz
–80
2.5
600kHz
–85
PEAK NOISE FLOOR
–90
2.0
AVERAGE NOISE FLOOR
–95
–100
1.5
–105
–110
–14
EVM
–12
–10
–8
–6
–4
CHANNEL POWER (dBm)
AVERAGE NOISE FLOOR
–8
PEAK NOISE FLOOR
–90
Figure 64. GMSK EVM, Spectral Performance, and Noise Floor
vs. Channel Power (Frequency = 1960 MHz)
1.5
–105
2.5
Figure 63. 8-PSK EVM, Spectral Performance, and Noise Floor
vs. Channel Power (Frequency = 885 MHz)
400kHz AND 600kHz SPECTRAL MASK (dBc/30kHz)
6MHz OFFSET NOISE FLOOR (dBc/100kHz)
400kHz
03570-0065
400kHz AND 600kHz SPECTRAL MASK (dBc/30kHz)
6MHz OFFSET NOISE FLOOR (dBc/100kHz)
4.0
–60
–85
CHANNEL POWER (dBm)
An LO drive level of approximately –6 dBm is recommended
for GMSK and 8-PSK. A higher LO drive power will improve
the noise floor slightly; however, it also tends to degrade EVM.
–55
–80
CHANNEL POWER (dBm)
Figure 63 and Figure 65 show plots of 8-PSK EVM, spectral
performance, and noise floor at 885 MHz and 1960 MHz.
–50
3.0
600kHz
–75
EVM%
–59
400kHz
–70
03570-0066
–148
1960 ADJ CPR
3.5
–65
EVM%
–58
–60
03570-0067
2140 ADJ CPR
4.0
–55
EVM%
ALT AND ADJ CPR (dB)
–57
–50
–2
1.0
0
2
03570-0068
–146
–56
50MHz NOISE FLOOR (dBm/Hz)
–55
400kHz AND 600kHz SPECTRAL MASK (dBc/30kHz)
6MHz OFFSET NOISE FLOOR (dBc/100kHz)
–144
–54
400kHz AND 600kHz SPECTRAL MASK (dBc/30kHz)
6MHz OFFSET NOISE FLOOR (dBc/100kHz)
AD8349
Figure 65. 8-PSK EVM, Spectral Performance, and Noise Floor vs. Channel
Power (Frequency = 1960 MHz)
Figure 62.GMSK EVM, Spectral Performance, and Noise Floor
vs. Channel Power (Frequency = 885 MHz)
Rev. A | Page 22 of 28
AD8349
SOLDERING INFORMATION
Table 5. ADF4360 Family Operating Frequencies
The AD8349 is available in a 16-lead TSSOP package with an
exposed paddle. The exposed paddle must be soldered to the
exposed metal of a ground plane for a lowered thermal
impedance and reduced inductance to ground. This results in a
junction-to-air thermal impedance (θJA) of 30°C/W. If multiple
ground planes are present, the area under the exposed paddle
should be stitched together with vias.
ADI Model
ADF4360-1
ADF4360-2
ADF4360-3
ADF4360-4
ADF4360-5
ADF4360-6
ADF4360-7
Output Frequency Range (MHz)
2150/2450
1800/2150
1550/1950
1400/1800
1150/1400
1000/1250
Lower frequencies set by external L
LO GENERATION USING PLLS
Analog Devices has a line of PLLs that can be used for
generating the LO signal. Table 4 lists the PLLs together with
their maximum frequency and phase noise performance.
Table 4. ADI PLL Selection Table
ADI Model
ADF4111BRU
ADF4111BCP
ADF4112BRU
ADF4112BCP
ADF4117BRU
ADF4118BRU
Frequency FIN
(MHz)
1200
1200
3000
3000
1200
3000
At 1 kHz Phase Noise
dBc/Hz, 200 kHz PFD
–78
–78
–86
–86
–87
–90
TRANSMIT DAC OPTIONS
The AD9777 recommended in the previous sections of this data
sheet is by no means the only DAC that can be used to drive the
AD8349. There are other DACs that are appropriate, depending
on the level of performance required. Table 6 lists the dual
Tx-DACs that ADI offers.
Table 6. ADI Dual Tx – DAC Selection Table
Analog Devices also offers the ADF4360 fully integrated
synthesizer and VCO on a single chip that offers differential
outputs for driving the local oscillator input of the AD8349.
This means that the user can eliminate the use of the balun
necessary for the single-ended-to-differential conversion. The
ADF4360 comes as a family of chips with six operating
frequency ranges. One can be chosen depending on the local
oscillator frequency required. The user should be aware that
while the use of the integrated synthesizer might come at the
expense of slightly degraded noise performance from the
AD8349, it can be a much cheaper alternative to a separate PLL
and VCO solution. Figure 61 shows the options available.
Part
AD9709
AD9761
AD9763
AD9765
AD9767
AD9773
AD9775
AD9777
Rev. A | Page 23 of 28
Resolution (Bits)
8
10
10
12
14
12
14
16
Update Rate (MSPS Min)
125
40
125
125
125
160
160
160
AD8349
EVALUATION BOARD
A populated AD8349 evaluation board is available.
The AD8349 has an exposed paddle underneath the package,
which is soldered to the board. The evaluation board is
designed without any components on the underside of the
board so that heat may be applied under the AD8349 for easy
removal and replacement of the DUT.
03570-0-073
03570-0-074
YuPing Toh
Mike Chowkwanyun
Figure 66. Layout of Evaluation Board, Top Layer
Figure 67. Evaluation Board Silkscreen
Table 7. Evaluation Board Configuration Options
Component
TP1, TP4, TP3
SW1, ENOP,
TP2
R1, R2, R5, R9,
C8–C11
Function
Power Supply and Ground Vector Pins.
Output Enable: Place in the A position to connect the ENOP pin to +VS via pull-up resistor R10.
Place in the B position to disable the device by grounding the pin ENOP through a 49.9 Ω pulldown resistor. The device may be enabled via an external voltage applied to the SMA connector
ENOP or TP2.
Baseband Input Filters: These components can be used to implement a low-pass filter for the
baseband signals.
Rev. A | Page 24 of 28
Default Condition
Not applicable
SW1 = A
R1, R2, R5, R9 = 0 Ω,
C8 – C11 = OPEN
AD8349
R1
IP
C8
OPEN
C9
OPEN
AD 8349
1 IBBP
0Ω
R2
QBBP 16
R9
IN
R5
0Ω
C11
OPEN
TP4
GND
R3
200Ω
C1
100pF
R6
OPEN
LO
+VS
C2
100pF
T1
ETC-1-1-13
C3
0.1µF
QP
0Ω
2 IBBN
QBBN 15
3 COM1
COM3
QN
0Ω
C10
OPEN
14
4 COM1
COM3 13
5 LOIN
VPS2 12
6 LOIP
VOUT 11
7 VPS1
COM3 10
8 ENOP
COM2
TP3
VPOS
TP1
GND
R11
C5
100pF
0Ω
C6
0.1µF
+VS
R4
200Ω
R7
0Ω
9
C7
100pF
VOUT
C4
100pF
TP2
ENOP
R10
10kΩ
A
ENOP
Figure 68. Evaluation Board Schematic
Rev. A | Page 25 of 28
03570-0-072
B
R8
49.9Ω
AD8349
CHARACTERIZATION SETUPS
SSB SETUP
The primary setup used to characterize the AD8349 is shown in
Figure 69. This setup was used to evaluate the product as a
single-sideband modulator. The interface board has circuitry
that converts the single-ended I and Q inputs from the arbitrary
function generator to differential inputs with a dc bias of
400 mV. Additionally, the interface board provides connections
for power supply routing. The HP34970A and its associated
plug-in 34901 were used to monitor power supply currents and
voltages being supplied to the AD8349 characterization board.
IEEE
D2
34901
34907
34907
D1
D2
D3
TEKAFG2020
INTERFACE
BOARD
+25V MAX
VN
–25V MAX
GND
VP
P1
HP3631
IEEE
RFOUT
IN
I_IN
OUTPUT_1
Q_IN
OUTPUT_2
IP
QP QN
QP
AD8349
QN
CHARACTERIZATION
BOARD
LO
VOUT
ENOP
P1
HP8561E
RF I/P
SPECTRUM
ANALYZER
IEEE
IEEE
ARB FUNCTION GEN
IN
IP
AGILENT
E4437B
D3
VPS1
COM
IEEE
HP34970A
D1
PC CONTROLLER
Figure 69. Characterization Board SSB Test Setup
Rev. A | Page 26 of 28
IEEE
03570-0-076
+15V MAX
Two HP34907 plug-ins were used to provide additional
miscellaneous dc and control signals to the interface board. The
LO input was driven directly by an RF signal generator and the
output was measured directly with a spectrum analyzer. With
the I channel driven by a sine wave and the Q channel by a
cosine wave, the lower sideband is the single sideband (SSB)
output. The typical SSB output spectrum is shown in Figure 53.
AD8349
OUTLINE DIMENSIONS
5.10
5.00
4.90
16
BOTTOM
VIEW
9
4.50
4.40
4.30
TOP
VIEW
1
EXPOSED
PAD
(Pins Up)
6.40
BSC
3.00
SQ
8
1.05
1.00
0.80
1.20 MAX
0.15
0.00 SEATING 0.65
BSC
PLANE
0.30
0.19
0.20
0.09
8°
0°
0.75
0.60
0.45
COMPLIANT TO JEDEC STANDARDS MO-153-ABT
Figure 70. 16-Lead Thin Shrink Small Outline with Exposed Pad [TSSOP/EP]
(RE-16-2)
Dimensions shown in millimeters
ORDERING GUIDE
Model
AD8349ARE
AD8349ARE-REEL7
AD8349AREZ1
AD8349AREZ-REEL71
AD8349-EVAL
1
Temperature Range (°C)
–40 to +85
–40 to +85
–40 to +85
–40 to +85
Package Description
16-Lead TSSOP, Tube
16-Lead TSSOP, 7" Tape and Reel
16-Lead TSSOP, Tube
16-Lead TSSOP, 7" Tape and Reel
Evaluation Board
Z = Pb-free part.
Rev. A | Page 27 of 28
Package Option
RE-16
RE-16
RE-16
RE-16
AD8349
NOTES
© 2004 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. Trademarks and
registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
C03570-0-11/04(A)
Rev. A | Page 28 of 28