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British North America
Unit 2
The BIG Questions
1. Where and why did colonists settle in
British North America after the fall of
New France?
2. How did key people and events shape
the new British colonies?
3. What were the causes, events and
results of the War of 1812?
Question #1
Where and why did colonists
settle in British North
America after the fall of
New France?
Quebec and Its people
After New France fell to British control in the
1760s, many of the French pioneers who were
in the area were afraid of what would become
of their culture and ways of life.
The Quebec Act (1774) protected many of their
ways, so it was possible for a French colony to
survive in the area that was renamed as
There were many different groups within Quebec, and
each group wanted something different from the
British government.
What they wanted
70 000
-To keep their French and Roman Catholic lifestyle
- To continue having coureurs des bois to push fur
trade into the interior
English merchants and
-To take over the entire fur trade
- change way of life in Quebec from French to
- settle in the interior by getting free land there
- set up farms there
First Nations
59 000
-Keep traditional way of life and involvement in fur
-Prevent more settlers moving into interior
13 American colonies
2 500 000 -Expand into Quebec and the Ohio Valley
-Expand control of the fur trade
The ‘Carrot’ or the ‘Stick’?
• The British government could have dealt with
these groups in two different ways.
READ: pgs H 72-73 in textbook
Record notes about :
- “Stick Supporters”
- “Carrot Supporters”
ANSWER What do YOU think?, Q1-2 and HAND IN
How the British dealt with the Groups
• The British chose to use the ‘Carrot’, instead
of the ‘Stick’. In 1763, King George III of Britain
declared a Royal Proclamation.
• It related to all of Britain’s colonies in North
• Royal Proclamation affected Quebec because:
– Britain now controlled all France’s territories in
regions including New France and Acadia
– English civil law would replace French law. The
seigneurial system was abolished.
– The rest of New France would be First Nations
territory and all Canadiens living in First Nations
territory had to leave
– Anyone involved in the fur trade in the First
Nations territory had to have a licence from the
• The Royal Proclamation worked to coax the
French at times and push at others.
• Do you think this was the best way to make
everyone happy?
The Thirteen Colonies
• The British had 13 colonies that stretched
south along the eastern coast, that were filled
with many different people with many
different ideas. Each of the colonies were
quite different from one another because of
the resources they had and the type of people
that founded them.
• 13 colonies:
New Hampshire
Rhode Island
New York
New Jersey
North Carolina
South Carolina
• The northern colonies had large forests and
winters were severe
• The middle colonies had rich agricultural lands
for grains and vegetables
• The southern colonies were hot and rich
crops, like cotton and rice, grew well there.
• There were differences in religion too, from
Protestants, Roman Catholics and Pilgrims
• Although the colonies had all these
differences, there was a growing sense that
they were becoming strong and independent
from Britain as a united force.
• During the Seven Years’ War, the British began
to increase taxes in the colonies
– This leads to protests, like the Boston Tea Party
• The Ohio Valley
– This area was key to North American expansion
for the 13 colonies, the Canadiens and the First
– The Royal Proclamation cut this area off for the 13
colonies, and would prove crucial in their future.
• The Quebec Act (1774)
– This replaced the Royal Proclamation, and set out
to establish French rights
– It was good for the Canadiens, but upset many of
the other groups
• The Quebec Act was good for the Quebecois, but
the 13 colonies were OUTRAGED
• In 1776, the 13 colonies stated the AMERICAN
– Representatives from the 13 colonies held a meeting
in Philadelphia, called the Continental Congress.
– On July 4th, 1776 they declared that the United States
of America was an independent nation and war was
declared against Britain
– The American Revolutionary war lasted until 1783
• Which side would Quebec take?
– The Continental Congress sent appeals to the
Quebecois to join the Americans
– The Quebecois did not give immediate support to
the Americans, so the Americans invaded!
– Generals Montgomery and Benedict Arnold led
troops against Montreal and Quebec, but were
defeated by both the weather and the fighters
– It was clear now that Quebec would not support
them against the British
United Empire Loyalists
– Not everyone in the 13 colonies were against the British.
– United Empire Loyalists were against the idea of
independence, and therefore went against the Patriots,
who were for it.
– As the battles between the British and Patriots
became fiercer, it became clear that the
Patriots were winning
• The Loyalists had been persecuted by the Patriots;
their homes were burnt and families were publicly
• To gain more support, the British promised FreeLand in Quebec, Nova Scotia and P.E.I. to Loyalists,
for fighting with the British
• About 50 000 Loyalists settled in the area and
worked hard to build and support the regions
The Second Treaty of Paris (1783)
• By 1783, the Americans had militarily defeated the
• In order to find peace between the two groups,
Benjamin Franklin and other representatives
negotiated with Britain and on September 3, 1783, a
second Treaty of Paris was signed
It outlined:
- Britain recognized American Independence
- US got control of the Ohio Valley
- Americans could fish off the coast of Quebec and
other British colonies
- All British troops had to leave the United States
- Loyalists could no longer be prosecuted, and their
property had to be returned
SO! How did Britain deal with the
Various Groups
• Quebecois- Quebec Act
• Gave them rights to religion, property and traditional
ways of life
• First Nations- Small Pox
– Gave them highly infectious disease, which basically
destroyed their societies and military strength
• 13 colonies – American Revolution
– Tried to tax the colonies
– Colonies revolted
– British lost control of the United States and now faced
military competition in North America
Back to the BIG QUESTION 1
Where and why did colonists settle in
British North America after the fall of
New France?
Big Question #2
How did key people
and events shape the
new British colonies?
The Loyalists
• Quebec was not the only British colony in the
area during the late 1700s. There was also
Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia and New
Brunswick. These groups made up British
North America.
• The Loyalists came to British North America to
escape persecution in the United States.
• The Loyalists were a mixed group, that had
little in common, except that they were
opposed to American Independence.
Merchants (store owners) and farmers
- Abandoned property in the 13 colonies
Small landowners, former British soldiers,
and people hoping for religious tolerance
-Had little more than their clothing and
some small possessions
- hoped to become richer in BNA
Black slaves
- Accompanied their Loyalist owners
Escaped black slaves
Used the migration as a way of escaping
from their owners and becoming free
• The Loyalists’ early years in BNA were not always
– Many sacrificed their entire way of life
– Many faced isolation, away from their family and
• HOWEVER! They did receive assistance from the
Crown for resettling
– Living conditions improved for many
– Their role in keeping BNA loyal to the Crown was highly
– To honour them, the Crown declared that they would
put U.E., after their name to distinguish them from
Where the Loyalists Settled
• They were concentrated in ‘three’ locations
Nova Scotia
New Brunswick
Lake Ontario and Lake Erie Regions
1. Nova Scotia
• In 1776, the first shipload of Loyalists left New
York for Nova Scotia
• In all, about 30 000 Loyalists settled in Nova
• Many belonged to minority groups, mostly
religious, and felt they needed protection.
• They were the: Huguenots(French Protestants)
and Quakers(opposed all violence and war)
• BOSTON KING (1783)
– Black Loyalists also fought and received
land, but White society in Nova Scotia
rejected them, and many ended up
creating their own separate communities.
– Boston King was part of a group that
formed Birchtown, a Black community near
Shelburne, Nova Scotia
– It would become the largest free Black
community in North America
King Continued
• Free Black Loyalists who lived in Birchtown
were paid less than normal rate for the little
work they could find
• Unemployed and poor white Loyalists and
soldiers took their frustration out on the
Blacks in Shelburne
– 1784: they attacked and rioted through Birchtown
– King had escaped slavery in South Carolina
– He was disheartened by the treatment of his
people in Nova Scotia, so he and his wife left in
2. New Brunswick
• New Brunswick was a part of Nova Scotia until
• Many of the same people and groups settled
there, as Nova Scotia
3. Quebec
• Some Loyalists from New England migrated to
the St. Lawrence region of Quebec
• Many settled east of Montreal, because
everywhere else had already been settled
• This area is now known as The Eastern
4.Lake Ontario and Lake Erie Regions
• Loyalists had a huge impact on this region, as
before the 1780s only First Nations lived there
• Many of the regiments of British soldiers that
had to flee the United States, disbanded in the
Niagara and Kingston areas
• There were also many important groups of
First Nations who had fought with the British,
that relocated to the region
JOSEPH BRANT ( Thayendanegea)
- He was one of the best known leaders of the
Mohawk people
- His people were originally from New York,
but he believed their future lay in BNA
- HOWEVER! His lands had been signed away
to the Americans in the Second Treaty of Paris,
and his people were betrayed by the British
• The British Commander in Quebec realized the
injustice done to Brant and his people, and so
opened up about 2750 square kilometres along
the Grand River for their settlement
• It was known as THE SIX NATIONS RESERVE, and
was to remain as a reward for the loyalty that
Brant showed the crown
• Following governors had different ideas, and
slowly over time the land was taken away bit-bybit
– Cambridge and Brantford sit on parts of the reserve
4. Continued
• Development of the Lake Ontario and Erie Regions
– Colonel John Butler moved his regiment into the region
in 1784
– His followers started the town of Newark, now known as
– Civilian loyalists set up small communities, which later
grew into large cities (Burlington, Kingston, etc.)
– There were many skilled trades in the communities, so
trade was good
– The United Empire Loyalists would succeed in their new
communities, regardless of their losses in the war
Loyalist Expand
• By the late 1790’s, there were about 12 000
Loyalists settled in what is now, Southern
• They felt entitled to support from the Crown,
because of their loyalties
• Fairly soon, they began to ask the government
to change the law of Quebec, to be more
How the Loyalists Changed the Face of
• Textbook H101-H105
• Read and complete the questions provided
Question 3
What were the
causes, events and
results of the War of
• Long Term Causes
– Napoleonic Wars (1799-1815)
– France was defeated, but got revenge by supporting
American troops
– This upset the British, and caused conflict
• Immediate Causes
– British Interfered with American Merchant Ships
– Americans were trying to expand into the Northwest
– Americans accused British of supplying First Nations
with firearms
– Americans were spreading propaganda against the
• In June of 1812, America declared war on
Britain. The War of 1812 was fought in many
land battles, skirmishes and naval battles on
the Great Lakes.
• Although the odds were against the British,
sometimes it just takes a strong leader to
change the tides of war. The British had two:
– Sir Isaac Brock, a British Officer
– Tecumseh, a Shawnee Chief
Sir Isaac Brock/ Tecumseh
• Early in the war, Brock commanded the troops
in Upper Canada, and with Tecumseh he
planned to stop the Americans before they
could invade from the south.
• They decided to attack various American forts,
only weeks after war was declared, catching
the American troops completely unprepared.
– Fort Michlimimackinac was captured without a
single shot being fired
The Battles
1. Detroit
- With a force of only 400 soldiers and 600
First Nations, Brock and Tecumseh went to
battle with the American General, General
- Hull had over 2 500 soldiers at Fort Detroit
• 1. Con’t
– Brock decided to use deception to scare General Hull,
dressing his militia in red soldiers’ uniforms, and had
each man set his own cooking fire, instead of the
usual 1 fire/3 or 4 men.
• This made it seem like Brock had thousands, rather
than just hundreds of soldiers
– Tecumseh did the same with his warriors, having them
constantly yell out battle cries to frighten the
– General Hull feared for the lives of his men, and so
surrendered without a battle even occurring
– Detroit secured the west and allowed for the defence
of other parts of Upper and Lower Canada
• 2. Queenston Heights
– One of the most famous battles, fought not far from
what is now Niagra-on-the-Lake
– In October 1812, American soldiers moved from New
York State into the area and captured the high ground
around Queenston
– General Brock rushed to the attack, using a small force
to push the Americans back
– HOWEVER!! A sniper shot Brock and he died almost
– His attack slowed the Americans enough to allow
other British forces to advance and push the
Americans back to New York
• The British took almost 1000 American prisoners, with
very little loss
• 3. Beaver Dams (Thorold)
– June 24, 1813
– 550 Americans were camped at Queenston
– The commander of the troops and his officers
were stationed at an inn, owned by James and
Laura Secord
– Laura overheard the commander’s plans for
attack, and in an act of bravery, rushed to tell
British Colonel Fitzgibbon about the planned
attack at Beaver Dams
– Due to Laura’s bravery, Fitzgibbons 80 soldiers and
250 First Nations men were able to prepare and
then successfully defeat the Americans
• 4. Washington and Baltimore
– In retaliation for Americans burning towns in
Upper Canada, the British forces attacked and
burned Washington in August 1814
– They tried to do the same in Baltimore
• Several British ships shelled Fort McHenry
• The British ‘bombs bursting in air’ and the
Congreve ‘rockets’ red glare’, would become
key parts of the American national anthem
VIP (Very Important Peoples)
- Quick Presentation of the following
Laura Secord
Sir Isaac Brock
Lt. Colonel John By
Sir Isaac Brock
Sir Isaac Brock (1769-1812)
• Joined the army at age of 18
• Fought with Britain against France in the Seven Years’
• Tactics were beneficial in to the British in the War of
• Deceived General Hull in the battle Detroit
• Ally with Shawnee Chief, Tecumseh
• Helped to defend and protect Upper Canada
• Died in Battle, at Queenston Heights
• Great Shawnee Chief
• In American Revolution, Americans destroyed Shawnee
• Tecumseh realized that British would help protect their
• Because he fought with Sir Isaac Brock, he was a
recognized ally to the British
• Key to the fight between the British and the Americans
• Helped defeat General Hull at the Battle of Detroit
Laura Secord
Laura Secord
• Born in Massachusetts
• Married John Secord, and would later play a key
role in the Battle of Beaver Dam
• Successful warned General Fitzgibbon of
American attack
• Without her bravery, Beaver Dam would have lost
to Americans, and Upper Canada would have
been at risk for full invasion
Lieutenant- Colonel John By
Lieutenant- Colonel John By
• Military man, born in London, England
• Not really in favour of fighting
• Stationed in Lower Canada, in Quebec City since 1802
• Helped design and build the Rideau Canal system, to transport
goods from the St. Lawrence, up to Ottawa
• Made new fortifications for Quebec City
• Helped to expand infrastructure
• Was charged with unauthorized spending, and shipped back
to Great Britain
The Treaty of Ghent
• Answer the “Flip Think” Questions on the back
of the handout, ON LINED PAPER.
• Write in full sentences
are finished!
Effects of the War of 1812
• Some are good ! Some are Bad !
• Pgs H122-H123
– Read as a class
– Discuss
– Complete the organizer, deciding what were:
– Long Term Effects
– Short Term Effects
– Positive Effects
– Negative Effects
My Museum Exhibit
• One of the easiest ways to experience history first
hand, is to visit and tour local museums. Museum
Curators, the people who run museums, spend a lot
of time deciding what their themes for their exhibits
will be, and what kinds of things they would like to
put on display.
• This is your chance to try and ‘build’ a museum
exhibition of your own, for British North America
and War of 1812.
Museum ‘Stuff’ to Consider
• Be interesting for your audience!
• Include your location, hours of operation, etc.
• What information do you want to put on
display (Use your notes as a source! Oh, annd
the textbook).
• Put pictures, information blocks and anything
else you think you may want to!