Download Chapter 14 - Respiration Some terms alveolar ventilation rate

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Chapter 14 - Respiration
Some terms
alveolar ventilation rate, alveolus, anatomical dead space, Boyle’s Law, bronchiole (terminal,
respiratory), bronchus, carbaminohemoglobin, carbonic anhydrase, conducting portion of
respiratory “tree”, Dalton’s Law of partial pressures, external and internal respiration, functional
reserve volume, Henry’s Law (of solubility), internal and external nares, intrapleural and
intrapulmonary pressures, laryngopharynx, larynx, minute volume, nasal conchae (turbinates),
nasopharynx, oropharynx, oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve, percent hemoglobin
saturation, pharynx, pleural membrane (parietal and visceral layers, pleural cavity), respiratory
membrane, tidal volume, Type I and Type II alveolar cells, vocal folds
Study suggestions
____
1. How is the type of epithelium found in a region (e.g. nasopharynx vs. oropharynx) related to
its function?
2. What variables are involved in the Fick equation for diffusional gas exchange? What
adaptations of the alveoli maximize diffusional gas exchange? Won’t you be happy when this
class is over and you will never have to think about the Fick equation again? (Unless you take
A&P.)
3. Be able to calculate partial pressures. (Dalton’s law)
4. What is “pulmonary ventilation.” How does Boyle’s law help explain this process?
5. How does intrapleural pressure compare with alveolar (intrapulmonary) during inspiration?
During expiration?
6. What is anatomical dead space? Why is it physiologically important?
7. Be very familiar with Slide #42. Know the significance of this formula:
CO2 + H20 ↔ H2CO3 ↔ H+ + HCO38. A significant amount of CO2 is transported in solution (i.e. dissolved) in the blood. O2
transport, on the other hand, requires a carrier molecule (hemoglobin). How does Henry’s law
explain the fact that O2 transport requires a carrier?
Some practice questions:
1. The 500 ml of air that is inhaled and exhaled during quiet breathing is known as the ___.
a. anatomical dead space b. expiratory reserve volume
c. functional reserve volume
d. tidal volume
e. vital capacity
2. Which of the following is not part of the conducting portion of the respiratory system?
a. alveolus
b. larynx
c. oropharynx
d. primary bronchus
e. trachea
3. The oropharynx functions as part of both the respiratory and digestive systems. Therefore, it
is lined with a pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells.
a. true
b. false
4. Exhalation during quiet breathing is primarily a passive process that does not depend directly
on muscle contraction.
a. true
b. false
5.
a.
b.
c.
d.
The exchange of oxygen at the respiratory membrane in the lungs is efficient because ___.
the concentration difference for oxygen between lung air and blood is small
the distance over which diffusion must occur is small
the alveolar surface area for gas exchange is small
none of these
6. The final portion of the conducting airways is called the ___.
a. alveolus
b. alveolar sac
c. primary bronchus
d. terminal bronchiole
e. tertiary bronchus
7. If the volume of a sealed container filled with air is increased, then the air pressure inside
the container will ___. (Assume that environmental temperature does not change.)
a. decrease
b. increase
c. stay the same
8. Intrapleural pressure is the pressure between visceral and parietal pleurae. The lungs
remain inflated because intrapleural pressure is always ___ alveolar (intrapulmonary) pressure.
a. greater than
b. less than
c. the same as
9. When the diaphragm contracts it moves downward. This movement results in ___.
a. expiration
b. inspiration
c. perspiration
d. consternation
10. During inspiration, pressure within the lungs is ___ atmospheric pressure.
a. greater than
b. less than
c. the same as
11. Most of the CO2 that is carried from the tissues to the lungs is transported as ___.
a. bicarbonate ions (HCO3-)
b. carbaminohemoglobin
c. carbonic acid H2CO3
d. dissolved CO2 gas
12. The partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) in the tissues is ___ the partial pressure of PCO2 of
arterial blood.
a. greater than
b. less than
c. about the same as
13. The partial pressure of O2 (PO2) in the tissues is ___ the partial pressure of PO2 of arterial
blood.
a. greater than
b. less than
c. about the same as
*** Use the following interesting information about the planet Zorkon to answer the next two
questions.
Atmospheric pressure at sea level:
1000 mmHg
O2 concentration of atmosphere:
20%
CO2 concentration of atmosphere:
30%
Nitrogen concentration of atmosphere: 50%
Average grade in Human Biology:
75%
Number of days in a Zorkon week:
8
14. What is the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) on the planet Zorkon?
a. 200 mmHg
b. 300 mmHg
c. 500 mmHg
d. 750 mmHg
e. 1000 mmHg
15. What is the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) on the planet Zorkon?
a. 200 mmHg
b. 300 mmHg
c. 500 mmHg
d. 750 mmHg
e. 1000 mmHg
1.
2.
3.
4.
d
a
b
a
5.
6.
7.
8.
b
d
a
b
9. b
10. b
11. a
12. a
13. b
14. a
15. b