Download Biology 30 Notes October 8 - Endocrine System Pituitary Gland

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Biology 30 Notes – October 8, 2014 Endocrine System – Pituitary Gland
Review Ear – Game
Finish notes from yesterday.
Review Hormones produced and released by the Anterior Pituitary Gland.
Video – The Pituitary Gland
Hormones Produced and Released by the Anterior Pituitary - CONTINUED
TSH – Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
Is produced and released by the anterior pituitary.
It causes the thyroid gland to secrete thyroxine (T4). The role of thyroxine is to increase the rate at which
the body metabolizes fats, proteins, and carbohydrates for energy.
The thyroid gland lies directly below the larynx (voice box) and has two lobes one on either side of
trachea (windpipe).
Thyroxine is controlled by a negative feedback loop.
1) The anterior pituitary releases TSH, thyroid stimulating hormone.
2) This causes the thyroid to secrete thyroxine.
3) When thyroxine levels in the blood increase it feeds back to the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary.
4) TSH secretion is suppressed which supresses thyroxine.
Hypothryroidism – extremely low amounts of thyroxine, adults feel tires, slow pulse, weight gain, and
hair lose.
Hyperthyroidism – over production of thyroxine, stimulate metabolism, releases energy as ATP.
Symptoms include anxiety, insomnia, weight lost, irregular heartbeat.
ACTH – Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
Hormone synthesized by the anterior pituitary gland to target the adrenal cortex and regulate the
production of glucocorticoids.
FSH – Follicle Stimulating Hormone
Reproductive hormone produced by the anterior pituitary that stimulates the development of the sex
organs and gamete (haploid reproductive cell egg (ovum) and sperm) production in males and females.
LH – Luteinizing Hormone
Reproductive hormone produced by the anterior pituitary.
In the ovaries it triggers ovulation, stimulates the formation of the corpus luteum, and with FSH
stimulates estrogen production.
FYI – Need to know this for the next unit REPRODUCTION
Ovulation – in females the process by which a single follicle in an ovary matures and then ruptures,
releasing the ovum (egg) into the oviduct, usually occurs at the midpoint (day 14) of a 28-day menstrual
Corpus Luteum – yellowish gland like structure that develops from a follicle that has matured and
released its egg (ovum), it produces progesterone and some estrogen, if pregnancy doesn’t occur it
In the testes, stimulates the release of testosterone.
PRL - Prolactin
Stimulates milk production from the mammary glands.
Hypothalamic releasing and
inhibiting hormones
Anterior Pituitary
hGH – human growth hormone
TSH – thyroid stimulating
ACTH – adrenocorticotropic
FSH – follicle stimulating
LH – luteinizing hormone
PRL – prolactin
Effect on Target
Regulates anterior pituitary
Posterior Pituitary
ADH – antidiuretic hormone
OCT – oxytocin
Thyroxine (T4)
Stimulates cell division,
bone, muscle growth,
and metabolic functions
Stimulates the thyroid
Stimulates the adrenal
cortex to secrete
Stimulates the
production of ova and
Stimulates sex hormone
production from the
ovaries and testes
Stimulates milk
production from the
mammary glands
Promotes the retention of
water by the kidneys
Stimulates uterine
muscle contraction and
release of milk by the
mammary glands
Affect all tissues,
increases metabolic rate
and regulates growth and
Targets bones and
kidneys to lower blood
calcium by inhibiting
release of calcium from
bone and reabsorption of
calcium by the kidneys.