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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
World History
Curriculum Support
Document
Pacing Guide
Essential Questions
Activities
Resources
New Hanover County Schools © 2007
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
Table of Contents
Introduction
Important Features of the Document
Ideas about Teaching World History
Comparative Approach
Regional Approach
Chronological Approach
Modern-Day Problem Approach
Thoughts on Teaching the Entire Globe
Thoughts on Using Movies
Using Primary Sources in the Classroom
Using Secondary Sources
Using Literature in the Classroom
Suggested Pacing Guide
Standards for Honors World History
Notes on the Format of this Document
Standard Course of Study Skill Goals
Standard Course of Study for World History
Goal 1 - Historical Tools
Goal 2 - Emerging Civilizations
Goal 3 - Monarchies and Empires
Goal 4 - Revolution and Nationalism
Goal 5 - Global Wars
Goal 6 - Patterns of Social Order
Goal 7 - Technology and the Emerging Global Order
Goal 8 - Patterns of History
Appendices
Graphic Organizers in Social Studies – Thinking Maps
Teaching Reading in Social Studies
Designing Effective Performance Assessments
Suggested World History Pacing – Chronological Approach
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
Introduction
The original form of this document was written by the teachers of New Hanover County in June 2002.
The leadership team that coordinated the writing was composed of Tina Cotton, Stephanie Bartlett, Jeff
Holcomb, Marc Whitehead, Dave Spencer, Marcus Skipper, Richelle Dombroski, David Holden, Larry
Bray, Matt Stapleton, Mary Paul Beall, and Amanda Hobbs.
The North Carolina Department of Public Instruction published their own curriculum support document in
2003 and an updated version including material for honors world history courses in 2004. This revised
edition is an attempt to combine all the materials into one handy guide.
Important Features of the Document
Major concepts, key terms, and suggested activities are identified for the goals and objectives. To
connect all of the information together, essential questions have been suggested. Essential questions
help to focus attention on important issues in world history and also help to connect the content. Simply
memorizing the key terms and doing a few concepts without putting emphasis and attention on larger
critical issues through essential questions will make the world history experience meaningless and
probably boring. The essential questions, therefore, help to bring relevance and critical inquiry to the
world history experience. Students should not leave a world history course thinking that they just plowed
their way through thousands of years of human history meeting hundreds of historical characters and
learning about thousands of events, none of which they will remember in a few weeks (or even a few
minutes). Instead, they should think about how humankind has solved (and not solved) its problems over
time. The issues that we face today are in many ways similar to issues that our ancestors faced in
different times and different cultures.
Ideas about Teaching World History
Covering thousands of years of history of the world is a daunting task. How does a teacher do it unless
he or she mentions hundreds of people, places, and events at a dizzy pace, knowing that students won’t
retain what they’ve learned after the course is over? There are several approaches to teaching world
history.
The Comparative Approach – This way of teaching world history focuses on the issues that
civilizations have faced over time. For example, the problem of creating a government to order
relationships within a society and to determine rights, responsibilities, and the allocation of
resources has been faced by every group since the dawn of time. A comparative approach would
look at how government was instituted at the beginning of civilization and why the river valley
civilizations approached ruling through theocratic and autocratic means. The development of
representative governments would be traced from Greece until the modern day, highlighting all
the various forms of dealing with governance, from the feudalism of Japan and medieval Europe
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to the socialism of the 19 century. A drawback to the comparative approach is that it tends to
isolate features of a society from the other problems that society faced. While studying
government, it is easy to forget how the arts, culture, literature, religion, and economics played a
role in governing issues.
The Regional Approach – This way divides the world into regions and the regional history is
taught from its origins to the modern day. For example, Asia might be taught as a region from the
origins of river valley civilizations in China up through the present. The teacher would then
approach Africa, Europe, North America, the Middle East, and South America from the same
perspective. A drawback to this method is that it can often limit seeing how different regions have
interacted over time. Another problem is the difficulty of defining a region – is the Middle East
part of Asia or part of Europe? What countries do we include in the Middle East?
The Chronological Approach – This approach focuses clearly on describing the events of world
history as they happened. Most textbooks combine this approach with a regional focus. The
history of a region will be taught for a specific time period, followed by the history of another
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
region for the same time period. The chronological approach has the advantage of presenting
change over time – development as it occurs. However, its drawback is that it can be difficult to
get a clear picture of what is happening across the entire globe at one period of time.
The Modern-Day Problem Approach – This method looks at problems, issues, and concerns of
the present and asks students to investigate what happened in the past to cause those problems.
For example, the problem of ethnic cleansing in Bosnia has a long history dating back to Muslim
invasions during the Middle Ages. The ethnic tensions were shaped by historical circumstances
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as European monarchs took the territory, as proto-nationalist movements in the 19 century led
the peoples of the area to seek self-determination, and as the expansion of the iron curtain
across Europe claimed the territory for the USSR. A drawback to this method is that students
may not get a solid overview of the past since modern-day issues will determine which history
gets investigated. This makes the past only relevant to present interests and may lead to
interpreting that past through the experiences of the modern-day (this is a historical fallacy known
as “presentism”).
A good world history course will probably have elements of all of these approaches. In any case, the
teacher will have to make judicious choices about what content to include and what content to leave out.
The following list contains some suggestions to aid in those choices:
1. Teach concepts that will appear in Civics and Economics as well as US History – Since
Civics and Economics and US History are tested, World History teachers can provide important
and critical background information to students. Teaching Civics and Economics, for example,
will be much easier if a world history course has already dealt with important terms related to
government such as democracy, republic, representation, oligarchy, socialism, and the like. To
help with this suggestion, these concepts will be underlined when they appear in this document.
2. Resist covering large lists of vocabulary that contain specific people, places, and events –
Focus your attention on larger conceptual terms and only the key people, places, and events
needed to explain those conceptual terms. It would be more important, for example, for students
to know and explain the thinking behind Wilson’s 14 Points rather than be able to recite all 14 of
them.
3. Connect multiple examples of a phenomenon to a larger process – Instead of presenting
many cases of process, teach the process and one or two examples. A good instance of this
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would be the process of nationalism in the 19 century. It is not important to learn every detail
about German and Italian unification, but it is important to know what nationalism is, why it
happened in the 1860s and 1870s, and what the consequences of the process were for the entire
world. One concept – nationalism – can link together many different examples.
4. Ask yourself, “why is it important to understand _____?” Does the person, place, event, or
idea have something to do with problems we face now? Do we need to know this person, place,
event, or idea in order to understand how we got here?
Thoughts on Teaching the Entire Globe
Many world history teachers often leave out civilizations and culture with which they are not comfortable.
Oftentimes, this includes China, India, Japan, Africa, and South America. This is what is known as the
western civilizations approach to world history. However, this approach is short-sighted and damaging to
our students.
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As events of the 20 century have shown, countries that were once thought to be second and third world
countries have proved grown to be important players on the world’s scene. India, often neglected by
world history teachers, has become a powerful modern state with nuclear technology. China, with its long
history, is an important player in the international scene. It seems ridiculous to only mention these
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countries in the 20 century when so much of their past explains their present. China’s attitudes toward
western powers are historical – long ago, the Chinese adopted a position of insularity toward the world
(after the voyages of Zheng He) and called themselves the “Middle Kingdom.” The treatment of the
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Chinese at the hands of European powers in the 19 century (from the Opium War to the Boxer
Rebellion) helps to explain why this insular country distrusts the West.
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
It takes careful planning to teach the entire globe. This sometimes means leaving out those favorite
subjects and not spending an entire month on Greece or Rome. It means making a plan to include
something from all parts of the globe. If no plan is made and no commitment exists, then chances are
that we, when faced with decreasing class time as the end of the semester draws near, will leave out
certain segments of the world that deserve attention.
Thoughts on Using Movies
Movies and videos can bring the world to students and help them really see different cultures around the
world. However, it is rarely justifiable to show and entire movie to a class. Effective use of movies and
videos can be made if teachers follow these recommendations:
1. Use clips from movies to illustrate a point, provide background knowledge, to spark
discussion – A short segment (12-15 minutes) is all that is needed to provide the information
necessary to get students engaged in history. Follow the clip up with a discussion of what
students saw, how it helps them understand the past, and its relevance to what they are reading
and studying.
2. Connect clips to reading and writing – Movie clips are someone else’s version of what
happened in the past. It is, therefore, important to engage students in discussing the biases in
the clips. This can be done by comparing the clip to accounts (primary sources or secondary
sources) and discussing the similarities and differences. Questions to ask students: What story
is the filmmaker trying to tell? With whom do his sympathies lie? How does he or she use
images and sounds to convey a message? Have students investigate these questions through
group discussions and writing activities.
3. Break instructional videos into segments – If you plan to show an entire instructional video
(not a commercial movie), break it into meaningful chunks where students are required to write or
discuss what they’ve seen. This can be useful if you are giving a lecture because your lecture
can be interspersed with clips to illustrate your major points. You can even use clips that provide
information that disagrees with your lecture so that you can engage students in discussing
various viewpoints on the past.
4. Preview the video or movie – Give students an idea of what to look for or what you expect them
to gain from the video or movie. This can be in the form of written questions or one large
question that has to be answered after the video is concluded. Be careful not to include so many
questions that students cannot keep up with the video and be careful not to use too many lowlevel knowledge (fact-recall) questions that focus the students only on lower-level thinking skills.
If you do not have expectations for the video or the movie, then you cannot really be sure that
students will actively engage in studying it. Always require a product so that they can
demonstrate their engagement.
5. Extend student learning through authentic products – Have students write critiques of movies
or instructional videos and give them rubrics to evaluate it. Have students rewrite the script of a
movie or video to improve it or have students create their own version of the same topic that
improves on the original. If it is a commercial movie, have them compose a “Director’s
Commentary” to explain what is going on in each scene as well as to offer comments about the
historical accuracy of the information or the particular choices the director made in making the
movie.
Using Primary Sources in the Classroom
It is vitally important to engage students in using the tools of history. This includes a through examination
of the uses of primary sources in investigating the past. Students who are thoroughly familiar with
primary sources will do well in Civics and US History, especially when the EOCs assess their ability to
read primary source documents.
Using Primary Sources: A Quick-Reference
Historians analyze historical sources in different ways. First, historians think about where, when and why
a document was created. They consider whether a source was created close in location and time to an
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
actual historical event. Historians also think about the purpose of a source. Was it a personal diary
intended to be kept private? Was the document prepared for the public?
Some primary sources may be judged more reliable than others, but every source is biased in some way.
As a result, historians read sources skeptically and critically. They also cross-check sources against other
evidence and sources. Historians follow a few basic rules to help them analyze primary sources. Read
these rules below. Then read the questions for analyzing primary sources. Use these rules and questions
as you analyze primary source documents yourself.
Time and Place Rule
To judge the quality of a primary source, historians use the time and place rule. This rule says the closer
in time and place a source and its creator were to an event in the past, the better the source will be.
Based on the time and place rule, better primary sources (starting with the most reliable) might include:
• Direct traces of the event;
• Accounts of the event, created at the time it occurred, by firsthand observers and participants;
• Accounts of the event, created after the event occurred, by firsthand observers and participants;
• Accounts of the event, created after the event occurred, by people who did not participate or
witness the event, but who used interviews or evidence from the time of the event.
Bias Rule
The historians' second rule is the bias rule. It says that every source is biased in some way. Documents
tell us only what the creator of the document thought happened, or perhaps only what the creator wants
us to think happened. As a result, historians follow these bias rule guidelines when they review evidence
from the past:
• Every piece of evidence and every source must be read or viewed skeptically and critically.
• No piece of evidence should be taken at face value. The creator's point of view must be
considered.
• Each piece of evidence and source must be cross-checked and compared with related sources
and pieces of evidence.
Questions to Ask:
1. Who created the source and why? Was it created through a spur-of-the-moment act, a routine
transaction, or a thoughtful, deliberate process?
2. Did the recorder have firsthand knowledge of the event? Or, did the recorder report what others saw
and heard?
3. Was the recorder a neutral party, or did the creator have opinions or interests that might have
influenced what was recorded?
4. Did the recorder produce the source for personal use, for one or more individuals, or for a large
audience?
5. Was the source meant to be public or private?
6. Did the recorder wish to inform or persuade others? (Check the words in the source. The words may
tell you whether the recorder was trying to be objective or persuasive.) Did the recorder have reasons
to be honest or dishonest?
7. Was the information recorded during the event, immediately after the event, or after some lapse of
time? How large a lapse of time?
Using Secondary Sources
Students must also be exposed to different secondary sources. Oftentimes, they get the idea that there is
only one account of what happened in the past and only one way to interpret the past. This sometimes
comes from an over-reliance on a single textbook. One way to get past this problem is to keep copies of
other textbooks in the classroom. Students can be divided into groups and each group can use a
different textbook as a source for discovering information. The various points of view can then be
compared and contrasted
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
Another way to incorporate secondary sources is to use short articles from popular publications and even
newspapers to engage students in reading a wide variety of source material. Often, online versions of
these materials exist, making it possible to reformat them in such a way as to save space (copies are
always limited) and to edit out material that you consider irrelevant to the focus of the class discussion.
Using Literature in the Classroom
Students can benefit tremendously from pairing good fiction with their study of history. Fiction can
engage the emotions and create a connection to past events which might otherwise seem dry or dull.
Here are some suggestions for using fiction:
1. Visit your librarians and find out what historical fiction is available in your library. Compile
this list and use it to assign book reports, book studies, or to create literature study groups in your
classroom.
2. If you select works for the entire class to read, make sure to find works which will be close
to the reading abilities of your students. A work which is written at the college level will likely
frustrate your students and cause you much heartache. In order to find out the reading levels of
different works, you can use lexiles. Lexiles are numbers assigned to texts that indicate difficulty
levels. A good range for world history students is between 1000 and 1200 on the lexile scale. Of
course, if you have students who are reading below grade level, you may have to go outside of
this range.
3. Assign different groups in your class to read different works. Instead of using the wholegroup method of studying a piece of literature, break the class into small groups and give each
group its own work to study. As they study the work, they can offer their insights to the rest of the
class. The whole class then benefits from everyone’s wide reading experience. When possible,
try to pair the works together so that they deal with the same problem, theme, or topic.
Suggested Pacing Guide
This pacing guide is only a suggestion. It is one way to teach World History and may have to be modified
to meet individual circumstances. A suggested possible syllabus that is not divided by goals and
objectives is suggested in the appendices.
Goal
45-55 Minute Period
90 Minute Period
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Subtotal
Testing/Flex
Total
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26
26
26
26
20
20
13
169
11
180
6
13
13
13
13
10
10
6
84
6
90
Standards for Honors World History
If you are teaching an honors level of World History, you will have to write a curriculum guide that
demonstrates that your course has the sufficient rigor and depth to merit the designation, “honors.” The
following is the state definition for Honors World History and the expected standards for rigor in the
course:
World History at the ninth grade level is a survey course that gives students the opportunity to explore
recurring themes of human experience common to civilizations around the globe from ancient to
contemporary times. An historical approach will be at the center of the course. The application of the
themes of geography and an analysis of the cultural traits of civilizations will help students understand
how people shape their world and how their world shapes them. As students examine the historical roots
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
of significant events, ideas, movements, and phenomena, they encounter the contributions and patterns
of living in civilizations around the world. Students broaden their historical perspectives as they explore
ways societies have dealt with continuity and change, exemplified by issues such as war and peace,
internal stability and strife, and the development of institutions. To become informed citizens, students
require knowledge of the civilizations that have shaped the development of the United States. World
History provides the foundation that enables students to acquire this knowledge which will be used in the
study of Civics and Economics and United States History.
Honors World History provides the opportunity for advanced work, rigorous study, and systematic study of
major ideas and concepts found in the study of global history. The course is challenging and requires
students to take greater responsibility for their learning by participating in problem-seeking, problemsolving, scholarly and creative processes, critical analysis and application, and reflective thinking.
Although the goals and objectives are the same as those found in the Standard Course of Study, the
material is taught with greater complexity and reflects a differentiated curriculum.
Strands: Geographic Relationships, Historic Perspectives, Economic and Development, Government and
Active Citizenship and Political Culture, Global Connections and Processes, Technological Influences and
Society, Individual Identity and Development, Change and Continuity, Social and Gender Structure,
Periodization, Cultural and Intellectual Developments, Interpretation of Documents.
Syllabus
Each teacher will produce their own syllabus which will be approved by the local administration.
Each syllabus must contain the following information:
• Course description with a listing of the topics/goals/objectives to be covered in the course
• Expectations of performance for students
• Required materials
• Time tables and deadlines for the course
• Issues particular to the course
• Purpose of individual, formative, and summative assessments
Curriculum Expectations
• The course curriculum is specifically designed as an honors course that is more rigorous,
experiential, investigative and/or accelerated than a standard course.
Instruction
• The instructor requires students to read and/or interact to a wide spectrum of more challenging,
thought provoking, relevant instructional materials including, but not limited to, multiple texts,
primary sources and multimedia.
• The instructor utilizes appropriate pacing.
• The instructor requires evidence of higher level thinking from students.
• The instructor uses appropriate technology.
• The instructor encourages students to take greater responsibility and increase self-direction in
their own learning.
• The instructor includes opportunities for a variety of activities, such as panels, debates,
reaction/reflection groups, scholarly dialogue, group investigations, and seminars.
• The instructor requires students to engage in self-directed, advanced historical research.
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
• The instructor provides multiple opportunities for real world and experiential learning
opportunities.
• The instructor requires students to develop and defend a position on a historical issue.
Assessment
• There are multiple types of assessment, including formal and informal evaluation.
• Assessment can be conducted by a variety of individuals, including self, peers, instructor, and
outside experts.
The curriculum guide written by each teacher should demonstrate adherence to these standards by
attaching evidence as examples. Teachers are expected to update honors curriculum guides periodically
and these guides may also be reviewed by Department of Public Instruction staff.
Notes on the Format of the Document
Both the skills curriculum for K-12 Social Studies and the World History curriculum are printed below
as a quick reference. The skills curriculum is not meant to be taught separately from the rest of the social
studies curricula; instead, it is to be taught throughout each course.
The vocabulary lists below offer some suggestions for vocabulary, but are not meant to be taken as a
required set of words which must be taught. The work of Robert Marzano on vocabulary has indicated
that teachers should focus on only about 10 words per week and these words should be oriented towards
concepts rather than specific names and events. Teachers will have to make judicious choices about
their use of vocabulary. Key conceptual terminology is boldfaced. Words that are repeated in other
social studies courses are underlined.
The performance expectations detail standards that students should be able to meet as a result of
studying the material. They are not activities or suggestions for classroom work per se, but are meant to
indicate what a student should be able to know and do as a result of the world history course.
The activities are suggestions for things that teachers can do in the classroom in order to cover the
material. They are not required and teachers are free to revise and reconfigure them in ways that make
sense for their students.
The resource list is not exhaustive but is meant to show some readily available materials that would
enhance the teaching of world history.
References to graphic organizers throughout the text refer to Thinking Maps, the county-wide adopted
graphic organizer language. See the appendices for more information on Thinking Maps.
The appendices contain additional information about teaching world history, including information on
classroom management and instructional design, teaching reading through world history, designing
authentic products for assessment, and creating rubrics.
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES SKILL COMPETENCY GOALS: K-12
In all social studies courses, knowledge and skills depend upon and enrich each other while emphasizing
potential connections and applications. In addition to the skills specific to social studies, there are skills
that generally enhance students' abilities to learn, to make decisions, and to develop as competent, selfdirected citizens that can be all the more meaningful when used and developed within the context of the
social studies.
It is important that students be exposed to a continuum of skill development from kindergarten through
grade twelve. As they encounter and reencounter these core skills in a variety of environments and
contexts that are intellectually and developmentally appropriate, their competency in using them
increases.
SKILL COMPETENCY GOAL 1: The learner will acquire strategies for reading social studies
materials and for increasing social studies vocabulary.
Objectives
1.01
1.02
1.03
1.04
1.05
1.06
1.07
1.08
Read for literal meaning.
Summarize to select main ideas.
Draw inferences.
Detect cause and effect.
Recognize bias and propaganda.
Recognize and use social studies terms in written and oral reports.
Distinguish fact and fiction.
Use context clues and appropriate sources such as glossaries, texts, and dictionaries to
gain meaning.
SKILL COMPETENCY GOAL 2: The learner will acquire strategies to access a variety of sources,
and use appropriate research skills to gather, synthesize, and report information using diverse
modalities to demonstrate the knowledge acquired.
Objectives
2.01
2.02
2.03
2.04
2.05
2.06
Use appropriate sources of information.
Explore print and non-print materials.
Utilize different types of technology.
Utilize community-related resources such as field trips, guest speakers, and interviews.
Transfer information from one medium to another such as written to visual and statistical
to written.
Create written, oral, musical, visual, and theatrical presentations of social studies
information.
SKILL COMPETENCY GOAL 3: The learner will acquire strategies to analyze, interpret, create, and
use resources and materials.
Objectives
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
Use map and globe reading skills.
Interpret graphs and charts.
Detect bias.
Interpret social and political messages of cartoons.
Interpret history through artifacts, arts, and media.
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
SKILL COMPETENCY GOAL 4: The learner will acquire strategies needed for applying decisionmaking and problem-solving techniques both orally and in writing to historic, contemporary, and
controversial world issues.
Objectives
4.01
Use hypothetical reasoning processes.
4.02
Examine, understand, and evaluate conflicting viewpoints.
4.03
Recognize and analyze values upon which judgments are made.
4.04
Apply conflict resolutions.
4.05
Predict possible outcomes.
4.06
Draw conclusions.
4.07
Offer solutions.
4.08
Develop hypotheses.
SKILL COMPETENCY GOAL 5: The learner will acquire strategies needed for effective
incorporation of computer technology in the learning process.
Objectives
5.01
Use word processing to create, format, and produce classroom assignments/projects.
5.02
Create and modify a database for class assignments.
5.03
Create, modify, and use spreadsheets to examine real-world problems.
5.04
Create nonlinear projects related to the social studies content area via multimedia
presentations.
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
NINTH GRADE WORLD HISTORY
World History at the ninth grade level is a survey course that gives students the opportunity to explore
recurring themes of human experience common to civilizations around the globe from ancient to
1
contemporary times. An historical approach will be at the center of the course. The application of the
themes of geography and an analysis of the cultural traits of civilizations will help students understand
how people shape their world and how their world shapes them. As students examine the historical roots
of significant events, ideas, movements, and phenomena, they encounter the contributions and patterns
of living in civilizations around the world. Students broaden their historical perspectives as they explore
ways societies have dealt with continuity and change, exemplified by issues such as war and peace,
internal stability and strife, and the development of institutions. To become informed citizens, students
require knowledge of the civilizations that have shaped the development of the United States. World
History provides the foundation that enables students to acquire this knowledge which will be used in the
study of Civics and Economics and United States History.
Strands: Geographic Relationships, Historic Perspectives, Economics and Development,
Government and Active Citizenship, Global Connections, Technological Influences and Society,
Individual Identity and Development, Cultures and Diversity
COMPETENCY GOAL 1: Historical Tools and Practices - The learner will identify, evaluate, and
use the methods and tools valued by historians, compare the views of historians, and trace the
themes of history.
Objectives
1.01
Define history and the concepts of cause and effect, time, continuity, and perspective.
1.02
Analyze and interpret primary and secondary sources to compare views, trace themes,
and detect bias.
1.03
Relate archaeology, geography, anthropology, political science, sociology, and
economics to the study of history.
1.04
Define the themes of society, technology, economics, politics, and culture and relate
them to the study of history.
1.05
Trace major themes in the development of the world from its origins to the rise of early
civilizations.
1.06
Examine the indicators of civilization, including writing, labor specialization, cities,
technology, trade, and political and cultural institutions.
COMPETENCY GOAL 2: Emerging Civilizations - The learner will analyze the development of early
civilizations in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas.
Objectives
2.01
Trace the development and assess the achievements of early river civilizations, including
but not limited to those around the Huang-He, Nile, Indus, and Tigris-Euphrates rivers.
2.02
Identify the roots of Greek civilization and recognize its achievements from the Minoan
era through the Hellenistic period.
2.03
Describe the developments and achievements of Roman civilization and analyze the
significance of the fall of Rome.
2.04
Examine the importance of India as a hub of world trade and as a cultural and religious
center during its Golden Age.
2.05
Assess the distinctive achievements of Chinese and Japanese civilizations.
2.06
Describe the rise and achievements of the Byzantine and Islamic civilizations.
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This World History course can be taught (1) in order of the goals, (2) chronologically, or (3) thematically.
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
2.07
2.08
Describe the rise and achievements of African civilizations, including but not limited to
Axum, Ghana, Kush, Mali, Nubia, and Songhai.
Evaluate the achievements of the major civilizations of the Americas during the preColumbian epoch including, but not limited to, the Aztecs, Incas, and Mayas.
COMPETENCY GOAL 3: Monarchies and Empires - The learner will investigate significant events,
people, and conditions in the growth of monarchical and imperial systems of government.
Objectives
3.01
Trace the political and social development of monarchies and empires including, but not
limited to, the Ming and Manchu dynasties, the Mongol Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the
Moghul Empire, and the British Empire.
3.02
Describe events in Western Europe from the fall of Rome to the emergence of nationstates and analyze the impact of these events on economic, political, and social life in
medieval Europe.
3.03
Trace social, political, economic, and cultural changes associated with the Renaissance,
Reformation, the rise of nation-states, and absolutism.
3.04
Examine European exploration and analyze the forces that caused and allowed the
acquisition of colonial possessions and trading privileges in Africa, Asia, and the
Americas.
3.05
Cite the effects of European expansion on Africans, pre-Columbian Americans, Asians,
and Europeans.
3.06
Compare the influence of religion, social structure, and colonial export economies on
North and South American societies.
3.07
Evaluate the effects of colonialism on Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Europe.
COMPETENCY GOAL 4: Revolution and Nationalism - The learner will assess the causes and
effects of movements seeking change, and will evaluate the sources and consequences of
nationalism.
Objectives
4.01
Analyze the causes and assess the influence of seventeenth to nineteenth century
political revolutions in England, North America, and France on individuals, governing
bodies, church-state relations, and diplomacy.
4.02
Describe the changes in economies and political control in nineteenth century Africa,
Asia, Europe, and the Americas.
4.03
Evaluate the growth of nationalism as a contributor to nineteenth century European
revolutions in areas such as the Balkans, France, Germany, and Italy.
4.04
Examine the causes and effects of the Russian Revolution and its effect on Russia and
the world.
4.05
Evaluate the causes and effectiveness of nineteenth and twentieth century nationalistic
movements that challenged European domination in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
COMPETENCY GOAL 5: Global Wars - The learner will analyze the causes and results of twentieth
century conflicts among nations.
Objectives
5.01
Analyze the causes and course of World War I and assess its consequences.
5.02
Assess the significance of the war experience on global foreign and domestic policies of
the 1920s and 1930s.
5.03
Analyze the causes and course of World War II and evaluate it as the end of one era and
the beginning of another.
5.04
Trace the course of the Cold War and assess its impact on the global community
including but not limited to the Korean War, the satellite nations of Eastern Europe, and
the Vietnam War.
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
5.05
Examine governmental policies, such as the Kellogg-Briand Pact, which were established
and the role of organizations including the League of Nations, and the United Nations to
maintain peace, and evaluate their continuing effectiveness.
COMPETENCY GOAL 6: Patterns of Social Order - The learner will investigate social and
economic organization in various societies throughout time in order to understand the shifts in
power and status that have occurred.
Objectives
6.01
Compare the conditions, racial composition, and status of social classes, castes, and
slaves in world societies and analyze changes in those elements.
6.02
Analyze causes and results of ideas regarding superiority and inferiority in society and
how those ideas have changed over time.
6.03
Trace the changing definitions of citizenship and the expansion of suffrage.
6.04
Relate the dynamics of state economies to the well being of their members and to
changes in the role of government.
6.05
Analyze issues such as ecological/environmental concerns, political instability, and
nationalism as challenges to which societies must respond.
6.06
Trace the development of internal conflicts due to differences in religion, race, culture,
and group loyalties in various areas of the world.
COMPETENCY GOAL 7: Technology and Changing Global Connections - The learner will
consider the short- and long-term consequences of the development of new technology.
Objectives
7.01
Assess the degree to which discoveries, innovations, and technologies have accelerated
change.
7.02
Examine the causes and effects of scientific revolutions and cite their major costs and
benefits.
7.03
Examine the causes and effects of industrialization and cite its major costs and benefits.
7.04
Describe significant characteristics of global connections created by technological
change, and assess the degree to which cultures participate in that change.
COMPETENCY GOAL 8: Patterns of History - The learner will assess the influence of ideals,
values, beliefs, and traditions on current global events and issues.
Objectives
8.01
Trace developments in literary, artistic, and religious traditions over time as legacies of
past societies or as cultural innovations.
8.02
Compare major Eastern and Western beliefs and practices, including but not limited to
Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and Shintoism, and
locate their regions of predominance.
8.03
Classify within the broad patterns of history those events that may be viewed as turning
points.
8.04
Characterize over time and place the interactions of world cultures.
8.05
Analyze how the changing and competing components of cultures have led to current
global issues and conflicts, and hypothesize solutions to persistent problems.
8.06
Analyze the meanings of “civilization” in different times and places and demonstrate how
such meanings reflect the societies of which they are a part.
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
Goal 1: Historical Tools
The learner will recognize, use, and evaluate the methods and tools valued by historians, compare the views
of historians, and trace the themes of history.
Essential Questions:
Why do we study the past?
Can the past truly be known?
What skills best help historians uncover the past?
Do things stay the same the more that they change?
What does it mean to be civilized?
Objectives
Major Concepts and Terms
Performance Expectations
Resources
1.01 Define history
and the concepts of
cause and effect, time,
continuity, and
perspective.
1.01
cause and effect
continuity
documents
epigraphs
history
multiple causation
periodization
perspective
time
a. identify and assess causes and effects for
events
WEBSITES
“Why Study History
Through Primary
Sources?”
1.02
bias
literature
myths
oral history
primary source
secondary source
e. distinguish themes and biases in historical
records
1.02 Analyze and
interpret primary and
secondary sources to
compare views, trace
themes, and detect
bias.
1.03 Relate
archaeology,
geography,
anthropology, political
science, sociology, and
economics to the study
of history.
1.03
anthropology
archaeology
artifacts
geography (inc. 5 themes)
political science
sociology
1.04 Define the
themes of society,
technology, economics,
politics, and culture and
relate them to the study
of history.
1.04
5 themes of history
culture
economics
politics
society
technology
b. explain the differences between oral and
written history
c. construct and interpret timelines
“How to Read a
Primary Source”
d. examine the differing perspectives of
firsthand accounts and historical revisions
* see below for full
addresses
f. use primary sources, secondary sources,
and economic data to develop generalizations
g. evaluate the themes of geography as
factors in history
h. examine how societies address the issues
of scarcity and choice
i. demonstrate an understanding of how and
why humans established settled communities
and experimented with agriculture
BOOKS/ARTICLES
“The Iceman’s
Secrets” (Time,
October 26, 1992)
“Where Did We Come
From” (National
Geographic, October
1988)
LITERARY WORKS
Dom and Va
The Mammoth Hunters
1.05 Trace major
themes in the
development of the
world from its origins to
the rise of early
civilizations.
1.06 Recognize and
examine the indicators
of civilization, including
writing, labor
specialization, cities,
technology, trade, and
political and cultural
institutions.
1.05
agriculture
civilization
Cro-Magnon
domestication
Homo sapiens
hunting and gathering
Ice Age
migration
Neanderthal
Stone Age
1.06
command economy
cultural diffusion
family
government
interdependence
market economy
surplus
j. explain how and why humans established
settled communities and experimented with
agriculture
Clan of the Cave Bear
The Memory String
Activities
Cave Beyond Time
k. examine the issues involved in using
“civilization” as an organizing principle in
history; write an editorial supporting or
opposing the use of the term
l. write an acrostic poem using the word
HISTORY – describing why history is
important and why its study is important
m. have students identify 10 personal events
and place them on a timeline; add events
from world and national history to help
develop perspective on time and chronology
n. use a specific event to model the concepts
of time, cause and effect, perspective, and
continuity; pick a current event to make the
connection strong for students
o. use the game “Telephone” to illustrate how
information can be changed over time; after
students have played, debrief with a
discussion about the way stories change as
MULTIMEDIA
The World: A
Television History
(“Human Origins,”
“Agricultural
Revolution,” “The Birth
of Civilization”)
(Network Television
Production)
The Making of
Mankind (BBC)
Toward Civilization
(Discovery Channel)
The Cavemen (History
Channel)
Ice Mummies (NOVA)
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
traditional economy
they are repeated and the difference between
primary and secondary sources
p. create a Tree Map to illustrate the
relationship between history and archaeology,
geography, anthropology, political science,
sociology, and economics
Mysteries of Mankind
(National Geographic)
The Origins of
Civilization
(Schlessinger)
q. divide the class into 5 groups; have each
group define a term – society, technology,
economics, politics, and culture and present
their definitions to the class.
h. have students imagine that they are
stranded on an island and have to create a
society from scratch – have them brainstorm
how they would develop rules, divide tasks,
and use resources
i. have students record what they throw away
for a week and then analyze what
archaeologists would be able to tell about
modern life from our garbage
j. have students debate the merits of the
hunter-gatherer lifestyle versus the sedentary
agricultural lifestyle
k. provide students examples of Neolithic art
and ask them to make inferences about the
beliefs of early mankind from the examples
l. have students debate the origins of gender
roles (males versus females in huntergatherer and agricultural societies)
m. have students research the evidence for
the origins of mankind in Africa and the
diffusion of hominids from Africa to the rest of
the world
Full Web Addresses
“Why Study History through Primary Sources?”: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/robinson-sources.html
“How to Read a Primary Source”: http://www.bowdoin.edu/~prael/writing_guides/primary.htm
Origins of Humankind: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/humans/humankind/
The Cradle of Humankind: http://www.cradleofhumankind.co.za/theme/cradle.html
Bridging World History: http://www.learner.org/channel/courses/worldhistory/units.html
World History for Us All: http://worldhistoryforusall.sdsu.edu/dev/default.htm
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
GOAL 2: Emerging Civilizations
The learner will analyze the development of early civilizations in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas.
Essential Questions:
Why did early civilizations develop?
What causes the decline of a civilization?
What aspects of civilizations are common across time and location?
What happens when civilizations interact?
Objectives
Major Concepts and Terms
Performance Expectations
Resources
2.01 Trace the
development and
assess the
achievements of early
river civilizations,
including but not limited
to those around the
Huang-He, Nile, Indus,
and Tigris-Euphrates
rivers.
2.01
Ashurbanipal
Assyria
Babylonia
bureaucracy
city-state
class systems
covenant
cuneiform
dynastic rule
Fertile Crescent
Hammurabi
hieroglyphs
Judaism
Mandate of Heaven
matriarchy
Mesopotamia
patriarchy
Persians
pharaoh
Phoenicians
satrap
Semitic peoples
Sumer
ziggurat
Zoroastrianism
a. locate the civilizations and identify the
influence of geography on the culture and
its development
WEBSITES
Rosetta Stone’s site
2.02 Identify the roots
of Greek civilization
and recognize its
achievements from the
Minoan era through the
Hellenistic period.
2.03 Describe the
developments and
2.02
Alexander the Great
Archimedes
aristocracy
Aristotle
Athens
classicism (art)
democracy
Draco
Euclid
Hellenism
Homer
Macedonia
monarchy
monotheism
oligarchy
Peloponnesian War
Pericles
Persian War
phalanx
philosopher
Plato
polis
polytheism
Socrates
Sparta
tyranny
2.03
apostle
b. trace the establishment of government
and systems of law
c. describe social organization, education,
and the role of women
d. list accomplishments in the arts,
literature, religion, and philosophy
e. describe technological, mathematical,
and scientific innovations
everyday life in
Ancient Greece
Alexander defeats the
Persians
Tacitus on the burning
of Rome
Pliny on the
destruction of Pompeii
BOOKS/ARTICLES
f. outline significant patterns of events in
the history of the civilizations
g. map and chart migrations, cultural
diffusion, wars, and conflicts
h. identify important leaders and achievers
i. identify production, consumption, and
distribution of goods, services, and wealth
in civilizations
j. list causes and results of the rise and
decline of civilizations
See articles in Calliope
magazine, National
Geographic, or the
Nextext Readers
Series (McDougall
Littell) on Greece,
Rome, and the Ancient
Americas
LITERARY WORKS
Nectar in a Sieve
The Iliad
Activities
The Odyssey
k. Have students generate a list of the 5
greatest contributions from Egypt and the
Fertile Crescent and then rank them in
order of importance.
l. Break students into groups and have
them use a Tree Map to summarize the
written language, politics, economics,
religion, technology, and arts/culture of
Egypt, the Fertile Crescent, India or China;
each group will then use powerpoint to
create and deliver a presentation on their
civilization; assess groupwork and
presentation using rubrics
m. Students will design a brochure on the
“Golden Age of Greece” – using the
internet to find pictures to illustrate the
golden age in terms of architecture, art and
sculpture, philosophy, literature, religion,
and government
n. Students can design resumes for key
historical figures such as Aristotle, Homer,
The Aeneid
The Bahagavad Gita
The Analects
Thousand and One
Nights
Fire from Heaven
The Last of the Wine
Song for a Dark
Queen
MULTIMEDIA
Secrets of Lost
Empires – Inca,
Colosseum (NOVA)
Mysteries of Egypt
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
achievements of
Roman civilization and
analyze the
significance of the fall
of Rome.
2.04 Examine the
importance of India as
a hub of world trade
and as a cultural and
religious center during
its Golden Age.
2.05 Assess the
distinctive
achievements of
Chinese and Japanese
civilizations.
2.06 Describe the rise
and achievements of
the Byzantine and
Islamic civilizations.
aqueduct
Augustus Caesar
Christianity
Coliseum
consul
dictator
disciple
Etruscans
Goths
Huns
inflation
Jesus
Julius Caesar
martyr
mercenary
messiah
patrician
Paul
Pax Romana
plebeian
republic
senate
Stoicism
tribune
triumvirate
veto
2.04
Buddhism
caste
Gupta Empire
Hinduism
Indo-Europeans
Mauryan Empire
monsoon
Mughals
reincarnation
Siddhartha Gautama
Silk Road
untouchables
Vedic poetry
2.05
clan
Confucianism
Daoism
Genghis and Kublai Khan
Han dynasty
kamikaze
Lao-tzu (Laozi)
Marco Polo
Mongols
Qin dynasty
samurai
Shang dynasty
Shintoism
shogun
steppe
zen
Zhou dynasty
2.06
Allah
Bedouins
Byzantium
czar
Greek Orthodox Church
iconoclastic
Islam
jihad
Pericles, or Alexander the Great
(National Geographic)
o. Students can design personals ads for a
famous Greek person (keep them g-rated).
p. Have students write a short speech in
which they argue for the most important
cause of the fall of Rome and justify their
reasoning.
Mummies and
Wonders of Ancient
Egypt (A&E)
q. Have students complete a Tree Map
summarizing the contributions of the
Romans in art, architecture, science,
engineering, literature, and law.
Rome Power and
Glory (Questar)
r. Students can create a Tree Map on the
rise of Christianity with categories such as
early leaders, major beliefs or doctrines,
organization, persecution, and steps
toward toleration
Ben-Hur
s. Students can create a chart of Roman
emperors starting with Augustus, noting
their effect on the Roman empire (both
good and bad). Then have students rank
the emperors in order from best to worst.
Lost Kingdoms of the
Maya (National
Geographic)
t. Have students create a Double Bubble or
Venn Diagram comparing and contrasting
Hinduism and Buddhism.
u. Have students debate whether the caste
system is an acceptable or unacceptable
form of governing social relations.
p. Have students compare and contrast
aspects of the caste system with social
designations used in America (such as
jocks, rednecks, punks, upper class,
middle class, lower class, etc.); lead them
to investigate why societies have such
social systems for classifying their
members
q. Break students into groups to develop a
powerpoint presentation on the
contributions of Indian society in terms of
art, literature, mathematics, science, and
religion
Troy (National
Geographic)
Spartacus
Mexico’s Great
Pyramids (History
Channel)
The Great Wall
(History Channel)
The Roots of African
Civilization
(Knowledge Unlimited)
Byzantium (Discovery
Channel)
The Mongol Empire
(Maryland Public
Television)
Explorers of the World:
Marco Polo (Library
Video)
Destiny Determined:
Power and Ritual in
Asia (Discovery
Channel)
r. Have students construct an annotated
timeline of important events in Chinese
history and the dynasties in which they
happened.
s. Have students construct a comparison
between Japan and China in terms of
politics, economics, religion, technology,
arts, and culture; the comparison could be
in the form of a graphic organizer or as a
written essay
t. Have students describe the significance
of each of the 5 Pillars of Islam using
visuals accompanied by text.
u. Make a mobile on Islamic contributions.
On one side, have an illustration and
heading, and on the other side, a brief
description and/or significance of
contribution.
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
Justinian
minaret
mosaic
mosque
Qu’ran
Rus
schism
Shi’ites
Sufites
Sunnites
The 5 Pillars
v. Develop a brochure for Constantinople
and include the following: society, religion,
art and architecture, and government.
2.07 Describe the rise
and achievements of
African civilizations,
including but not limited
to Axum, Ghana, Kush,
Mali, Nubia, and
Songhai and analyze
the reasons for their
decline.
2.07
animism
griot
matrilineal
Nubia
patrilineal
savanna
stateless society
subsistence farming
Swahili culture
trade systems
x. Construct a Tree map to show
contributions of Africa to:
2.08 Evaluate the
achievements of the
major civilizations of
the Americas during the
pre-Columbian epoch,
including but not limited
to the Aztecs, Incas,
and Mayas.
2.08
calendar (Mayan/Aztec)
chinampas
Columbian Exchange (3.05)
conquistadors (3.05)
epidemic (3.05)
longhouse
maize
Mesoamerica
pueblo
quipus
tepee
time
tribute
w. On a map of Africa, locate its early
empires and trading states.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
a)
b)
c)
Axum and Kush
Ghana
Mali
Songhai
Namibia
art and sculpture
music
literature
y. Draw a map of Africa including the 5
climate zones and major geographical
features.
z. Draw a picture, submit a journal entry,
and/or make up a poem to describe the
Middle Passage.
aa. On a comparison matrix, summarize
religious beliefs, arts, and government of
the Maya, Aztec, and Inca civilizations.
bb. On a 5x8 plain index card, design a
postcard. On one side, have an illustration.
On the other side, write a message a
conquistador may have sent back to a
friend or family in Spain.
cc. Use a paper plate to draw a caricature
of a ruler from the Americas. On the other
side of the paper plate, list three clues to
share with the class in guessing his
identity.
Full Website Addresses:
Rosetta Stone’s site: http://www.clemusart.com/archive/pharaoh/rosetta.htm
Everyday Life in the Golden Age of Greece: http://www.ibiscom.com/ancientgreece.htm
Alexander defeats the Persians: http://www.ibiscom.com/alexander.htm
Tacitus on the burning of Rome: http://www.ibiscom.com/rome.htm
Pliny on the destruction of Pompeii: http://www.ibiscom.com/pompeii.htm
Lectures on Ancient and Medieval History: http://www.historyguide.org/ancient/ancient.html
World History Connected: http://worldhistoryconnected.press.uiuc.edu/index.html
World History Teaching Sources: http://chnm.gmu.edu/worldhistorysources/whmteaching.html
World History Links: http://webtech.kennesaw.edu/jcheek4/world_history.htm
History World: http://www.historyworld.net/default.asp
World History Course Material Online: http://killeenroos.com/index.html
History Teacher Net: http://www.historyteacher.net/index.htm
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
GOAL 3: Monarchies and Empires
The learner will investigate significant events, people, and conditions in the growth of monarchical and
imperial systems of government.
Essential Questions:
What is a nation-state?
How do nations grow and expand?
What led to the rise of monarchical and imperial systems of government?
Can individuals change the course of history?
What causes massive social change?
What happens when nations colonize other areas?
What drives colonization?
What happens culturally and socially when different groups meet for the first time?
Objectives
Major Concepts and Terms
Performance Expectations
Resources
3.01 Trace the
political and social
development of
monarchies and
empires, including but
not limited to the Ming
and Manchu dynasties,
the Mongol Empire, the
Ottoman Empire, and
the Moghul Empire.
3.01
Akbar
Delhi Sultanate
dynasty
empire
Genghis Khan
Golden Horde
Janissaries
Kublai Khan
monarchy
Samurai
Shinto
Shogunate
Suleyman the Lawgiver
Taj Muhal
The Forbidden City
Zen Buddhism
a. explain how the feudal and manorial
systems provided a foundation for political
and social relationships in Europe
WEBSITES
Reclaiming Genghis
Khan
Kublai Khan in Battle
3.02
Bayeux Tapestry
Black Death
Charlemagne
chivalry
Crusades
feudal relationships
Feudalism
guilds
Hundred Years’ War
Joan of Arc
Magna Carta
Manorialism
money economy
nation states
Norman conquest
Parliament
rise of the middle class
Romanesque and Gothic
architecture
sacraments
scholasticism
serfs
troubadours
Vikings
f. cite the importance of scientific and
technological developments
3.02 Describe events
in Western Europe from
the fall of Rome to the
emergence of nationstates and analyze the
impact of these events
on economic, political,
and social life in
medieval Europe.
3.03 Trace social,
political, economic, and
cultural changes
associated with the
Renaissance,
Reformation, the rise of
nation-states, and
3.03
absolutism
Anabaptists
Babylonian Captivity
Black Death
capital
Church of England
b. analyze the extent to which religion
affected society in medieval Europe (e.g.,
the Crusades, Moors, the arts)
c. identify the roots and impacts of
developing philosophies in medieval and
Renaissance Europe
Norman Conquest
portrayed by the
Bayeux Tapestry
Magna Carta
Middle Ages exhibit
Black Plague
d. analyze major changes in the agrarian
and commercial economies of Europe in
the context of drastic population decline
Crusaders capture
Jerusalem
Ninety-five Theses
e. identify important leaders and achievers
African Voices
Aboard a Slave Ship
Bartolomé de Las
Casas
g. map European expansion
BOOKS/ARTICLES
h. assess the impact of the Columbian
Exchange
i. describe the benefits of mercantilism in
theory and in practice and explain its
decline
See articles in Calliope
magazine, National
Geographic, or the
Nextext Readers
Series (McDougall
Littell)
Activities
k. Students will hold a historical costume
party for the Ming, Mongols, Ottomans,
Moghuls, and the Japanese. Pick
historical characters such as Genghis
Khan, Emperor Hongwu, Shogun
Minamoto Yoritomo, Suleyman the
Lawgiver, and Kublai Khan. Students will
research the characters they choose and
explain to the class what the costumes
represent about the person.
l. Students will construct a timeline of the
major Chinese dynasties and list the
accomplishments and developments of
each dynasty.
A World Lit Only by
Fire
1491
Guns, Germs, and
Steel
Salt: A World History
LITERARY WORKS
Grendel
Beowulf
The Fire-Brother
m. Students will construct a chart that
compares the social, religious, and political
developments of empires in Goal 3. Then
The Marsh King
20
World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
absolutism.
Council of Trent
Counter Reformation
Divine right of Kings
English Renaissance
Erasmus
French Renaissance
Galileo
Great Schism
Henry VIII
Holy Roman Empire
humanism
Hundred Years’ War
Inquisition
Italian Renaissance
Jan Hus
Johann Gutenburg
John Calvin
John Knox
John Wycliffe
joint-stock company
Martin Luther
Medicis
Northern Renaissance
printing press
Reformation
Renaissance
sects
sovereignty
students will select categories of
comparison and prepare a powerpoint
presentation to be delivered to the class to
highlight their findings.
Sons of the Steppe
n. Using an article on a modern nation
influenced by the empire building of this
time period, students will create a graphic
organizer or write an essay showing that
they comprehend the article and the effect
of empire building on modern history.
The Legend of Tarik
o. Students will create a map labeling
locations of the major nation-states in
Europe: England, France, Germany, the
Middle East (Jerusalem, Acre), Kievan
Russian, Byzantine Empire, Islamic
Empire.
p. Using selected passages from Grendel
to illustrate the warrior ethic, the teacher
and students will engage in a class
discussion of the life of a warrior and the
social values of this time period.
q. Students will construct a diagram
illustrating the various people within feudal
society and their roles.
r. Students will read and complete a feudal
contract. Compare the feudal contract to a
modern contract using a graphic organizer.
3.04 Examine
European exploration
and analyze the forces
that caused and
allowed the acquisition
of colonial possessions
and trading privileges in
Africa, Asia, and the
Americas.
3.04
colonialism
conquistadors
Dutch India Companies
exploration
Indentured servitude
Line of Demarcation
Northwest Passage
Prince Henry of Portugal
Treaty of Tordesillas
3.05 Cite the effects of
European expansion on
Africans, preColumbian Americans,
Asians, and
Europeans.
3.05
imperialism
Middle Passage
Silk Road
triangular trade
3.06 Compare the
influence of religion,
social structure, and
colonial export
economies on North
and South American
societies.
3.06
Anglican
Bartolomé de Las Casas
cash crops
encomienda
gentry
Jesuits
Navigation Acts
Pilgrim
Puritan
Quaker
Spanish colonial social system
Spanish hierarchy
Spanish missions
v. Students will prepare a speech
Columbus might have given when
requesting funds from Ferdinand and
Isabella.
3.07
Berlin Conference, 1884
Boer War
Boxer Rebellion
Columbian exchange
Commercial Revolution
dependent colonies
y. Students will construct a chart
comparing Catherine the Great, Peter the
Great, Louis the XIV, Ivan the Terrible,
Henry VIII, Elizabeth I, and Charles I.
3.07 Evaluate the
effects of colonialism
on Africa, the
Americas, Asia, and
Europe
s. Students will complete a cause and
effect graphic organizer to show why the
power of the Catholic church waned from
1000 to 1500.
t. Students will complete a timeline or a
chart showing the development of
government in England and France during
the Middle Ages.
u. Show film clips of Monty Python and the
Holy Grail and ask students to identify
features of medieval life that are parodied
in the film.
w. Students will nominate a person of the
year from this list: Shakespeare,
Columbus, Magellan, or Copernicus.
Students will justify their nomination with a
written report.
The Second Mrs.
Giaconda
The Sign of the
Crysanthemum
Annie John
Cromwell’s Boy
The Sun, He Dies
The Amethyst Ring
The Agony and the
Ecstasy
A Flight of Swans
Harrow and Harvest
Things Fall Apart
Brunelleschi’s Dome
MULTIMEDIA
Monty Python and the
Holy Grail
Joan of Arc
Civilisation: Man—
The Measure of All
Things (BBC)
Civilisation: The Hero
as Artist (BBC)
Civilisation: Protest
and Communication
(BBC)
The Renaissance
(Goldhil)
The Reformation
(Goldhil)
Crusades (BBC)
Marco Polo (A&E)
Genghis Khan (A&E)
x. Students will assume the role of Martin
Luther writing to the Pope to explain his
actions at Wittenburg.
Christopher Columbus
(A&E)
Ponce de Leon (A&E)
Henry VIII (A&E)
Ivan the Terrible (A&E)
z. Students will read excerpts from
Machiavelli’s The Prince to answer the
Elizabeth I (A&E)
21
World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
extraterritoriality
Matthew Perry
mercantilism
protectionism
Sepoy Mutiny
settlement colonies
question – “Would Absolute Monarchs
approve of Machiavelli’s ideas?”
aa. Students will make a packing list for
conquering and colonizing another land.
Compare to actual lists taken by settlers of
the New World.
bb. Students will construct a play or a
presentation on the African slave trade to
highlight the experiences of slaves in the
Middle Passage.
cc. Students will develop a chart showing
the positive and negative effects of
colonization on peoples in Africa, Asia, and
the Americas.
dd. Students will debate which explorer of
the New World had the greatest impact on
colonization and the indigenous peoples.
Shakespeare in Love
1421: The Year China
Discovered America?
(PBS)
Shogun
Life in the Middle Ages
(Schlessinger)
Galileo’s Battle for the
Heavens (WGBH)
Becket
Martin Luther (PBS)
Explorers of the World
(Schlessinger)
A Man for All Seasons
ee. Students will select a role from colonial
American society (American Indian, gentry,
religious dissenter, indentured servant,
slave, woman) and write a speech
describing their life without mentioning their
role. Classmates will guess the role being
described.
Castle (PBS)
Cathedral (PBS)
Kingdom of Heaven
The New World
ff. Students will work with partners to
prepare a map and survey tour of a
colonial American colony. Tour brochures
should highlight features of the colony that
would attract settlers.
Elizabeth
Peter the Great
gg. Students will debate – “Was
mercantilism harmful or helpful to the
colonies?”
hh. Students will complete a comparison
chart on the various religious groups that
settled colonial America.
ii. Students will create a graph showing the
demographics of the colonial period –
including decline in American Indian
populations as well as increases in
European and African populations.
Full Website Addresses:
Reclaiming Genghis Khan: http://www.mnh.si.edu/exhibits/mongolia.html
Kublai Khan in Battle: http://www.ibiscom.com/khan.htm
Norman Conquest portrayed by the Bayeux Tapestry: http://www.ibiscom.com/bayeux.htm
Magna Carta (modern translation): http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/magnacarta.html
Middle Ages exhibit (from Annenberg/CPB): http://www.learner.org/exhibits/middleages.html
Black Plague: http://www.ibiscom.com/plague.htm
Vikings: The North Atlantic Saga: http://www.mnh.si.edu/vikings.html
Crusaders Capture Jerusalem: http://www.ibiscom.com/crusades.htm
Martin Luther’s Ninety-five Theses: http://www.iclnet.org/pub/resources/text/wittenberg/luther/web/ninetyfive.html
African Voices (from the National Museum of Natural History): http://www.mnh.si.edu/africanvoices.html
Aboard a Slave Ship: http://www.ibiscom.com/slaveship.htm
Bartolomé de Las Casas, Brief Account of the Devastation of the Indies:
http://www.swarthmore.edu/SocSci/bdorsey1/41docs/02-las.html
22
World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
GOAL 4: Revolution and Nationalism
The learner will analyze the causes and effects of movements seeking change and will evaluate the sources
and consequences of nationalism.
Essential Questions:
What causes people to seek economic, political, social, or religious change?
What ideologies have supported the rise of revolutions and nationalism?
What was the effect of industrialization and urbanization on the world?
Which method is more effective at promoting change: violent or nonviolent resistance?
What makes a nation?
Under what circumstances does a revolution occur?
Objectives
Major Concepts and Terms
Performance Expectations
Resources
4.01 Analyze the
causes and assess the
influence of
seventeenth to
nineteenth century
political revolutions in
England, North
America, and France
on individuals,
governing bodies,
church-state relations,
and diplomacy.
4.01
balance of power
blockade
cabinet
coalition
Congress of Vienna
constitution
constitutional monarchy
Continental System
coup
English Bill of Rights
Enlightenment
executive
exile
federal estates
free trade
Glorious Revolution
Great Fear
guerrilla
judicial
laissez-faire
legislative
market economy
Metternich
Napoleon
National Assembly
Old Regime
power, legitimacy and authority
Puritan commonwealth
radical
Reign of Terror
Restoration
separation of powers
Seven Years’ War
social contract
a. identify specific examples of economic,
philosophical, political, and scientific ideas
that were the foundation of the
Enlightenment
WEBSITES
4.02 Describe the
changes in economies
and political control in
nineteenth century
Africa, Asia, Europe,
and the Americas.
4.02
bourgeoisie
British Empire
capitalism
conservatism
crop rotation
diplomacy
enclosure
entrepreneur
factory
imperialism
industrialization
liberalism
Mexican independence
Monroe Doctrine
proletariat
radicalism
b. demonstrate the impact of the
Enlightenment on segments of society
c. evaluate to what extent revolutions in
North America and France brought about
expectations of liberty, equality, fraternity,
and justice
d. describe how European commercial
networks were replaced with political
domination or spheres of influence
e. cite examples of nationalism and explain
how it and other factors (including but not
limited to class status, eighteenth-century
philosophical ideas, and industrialization)
contributed to revolutionary changes
English Bill of Rights
Locke, A Letter
Concerning Toleration
Locke, Two Treatises
of Government
Montesquieu, The
Spirit of the Laws
Rousseau, The Social
Contract
Smith, The Wealth of
Nations
Declaration of
Independence
Tennis Court Oath
Declaration of the
Rights of Man
Execution of Louis XVI
Boer War
White Man’s Burden
f. explain the long- and short-term causes
of the Russian Revolution and how they
led to the establishment of the Soviet state
Balfour Declaration
Gandhi, Indian home
rule
g. connect the causes and the
effectiveness of revolutions to end colonial
domination in Africa, Asia, and Latin
America
BOOKS/ARTICLES
h. describe the makeup of government
systems and how they changed as a result
of revolution
See articles in Calliope
magazine, National
Geographic, or the
Nextext Readers
Series (McDougall
Littell)
Activities
LITERARY WORKS
i. Students will create an annotated
timeline showing the revolutions of 1649,
1688, 1776, and 1789 identifying the key
individuals involved and the outcomes of
each revolution.
A Tale of Two Cities
Les Miserables
A Passage to India
j. Students will read excerpts from John
Locke’s Two Treatises on Government and
compare them with the Declaration of
Independence. Use a venn diagram to
record observations.
Nectar in a Sieve
The Scarlet Pimpernel
The Mills Down Below
k. Students will create a chart that
compares the ideas of John Locke,
Montesquieu, and Jean Jacques
Great Expectations
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
realism
socialism
suffrage
utilitarianism
4.03 Evaluate the
growth of nationalism
as a contributor to
nineteenth century
European revolutions
(e.g., in the Balkans,
France, Germany, and
Italy).
4.04 Examine the
causes and effects of
the Russian Revolution
for Russia and the
world.
4.05 Evaluate the
causes and
effectiveness of
nineteenth and
twentieth century
nationalistic
movements that
challenged European
domination in Africa,
Asia, and Latin
America.
4.03
Austro-Prussian War
Berlin Conference
Boxer Rebellion
Camillo di Cavour
counterrevolution
Crimean War
Franco-Prussian War
Frederick Wilhelm
Giuseppe Garibaldi
legitimacy
Napoleon III
nationalism
Otto von Bismarck
Pan-Slavism
pogroms
radicalism
realpolitik
romanticism
Social Darwinism
sphere of influence
Suez Canal
Treaty of Frankfurt
Victor Emmanuel II
discrimination
4.04
Alexander Kerensky
atheism
autocrat
Bolsheviks
collectivization
command economy
communism
czar
Great Purge
Karl Marx
Mensheviks
nihilism
provisional government
soviet
totalitarianism
Vladimir Lenin
4.05
apartheid
ayatollah
Balfour Declaration
boycott
Chiang Kai-shek
civil disobedience
Cultural Revolution
developing nation
fundamentalism
industrialized nation
intifada
Jawaharlal Nehru
José de San Martin
Kuomintang
liberation theology
Mao Zedong
Mau Mau
Miguel Hidalgo
Mohandas Gandhi
nationalize
Rousseau.
Hard Times
l. Students will compare the American and
French Revolutions in terms of dates,
causes, changes in politics, religion, the
economy, and society.
The Leopard
m. Students will map European and
American expansion into territories in
Africa and Asia.
Mountain Light
n. Students will create a chart comparing
European colonization of Africa and Asia.
Include name of countries under control,
types of administration, economies, and
relationship to colonial peoples.
The Wild Children
Rebels of the
Heavenly Kingdom
The Good Earth
How Green Was My
Valley
Dr. Zhivago
o. Students will write speeches in the guide
of a British official either supporting or
disagreeing with the effects of colonialism.
MULTIMEDIA
p. Students will create a venn diagram
comparing British imperialism in China and
India.
Marie Antoinette
q. Students will create an acrostic poem
NATIONALISM, using the letters to
describe 19th century nationalism in the
Balkans, Italy, and Germany.
Napoleon (PBS)
Marie Antoinette (A&E)
Germinal
Vladimir Lenin (A&E)
r. Students will create a parallel timeline
showing steps toward nationalism and
unification in Germany and Italy.
s. Students will create newspapers
announcing the assassination of Archduke
Franz Ferdinand. The newspapers will be
from various points of view – Russian,
Serbian, Austrian, French, and British.
t. Students will create an annotated
timeline of events in Russia from 1800 to
1935 emphasizing changes in society and
government which led to the Russian
Revolution.
Mahatma Ghandi
(A&E)
Chiang Kai Shek
(A&E)
Nicholas and
Alexandra
Ghandi
Master and
Commander
Oliver Twist
u. Students will generate a list of causes of
the Russian Revolution and then
categorize them – economic, social, or
political.
v. Students will write essays in the
characters of Trotsky, Rasputin, Nicholas
II, Lenin, a Russian Peasant, or a
Bolshevik describing their lives.
w. Students will complete an annotated
timeline of events leading to the Chinese
Revolution including key dates (1900,
1912, 1915, 1919, 1925, 1927, 1931, 1934,
and 1937).
Vanity Fair
The Madness of King
George
Frankenstein
Amistad
The Charge of the
Light Brigade
Shaka Zulu
Zulu
x. Map Japanese imperialism in Asia from
1900 to 1942 with dates that reflect key
events.
Out of Africa
Reds
y. Use film clips from Ghandi to study the
technique of nonviolent resistance.
z. Students will do a comparative map
24
World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
nonunification
nonviolent resistance
passive resistance
protectorate
Russo-Japanese War
sanctions
Sepoy mutiny
Simón de Bolívar
subsistence farming
terrorism
Toussaint L’Ouverture
Zionism
study of Africa from 1914 to 1975 noting
the years in which various countries
received independence.
aa. Students will create a timeline
illustrating the steps leading to the creation
of the modern state of Israel.
Full Website Addresses:
English Bill of Rights: http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/england.htm
John Locke, A Letter Concerning Toleration: http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/D/1651-1700/locke/ECT/toleraxx.htm
John Locke, Two Treatises of Government: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1690locke-sel.html
Baron de Montesquieu, The Spirit of the Laws: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/montesquieu-spirit.html
Jean Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/Rousseau-soccon.html
Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/adamsmith-summary.html
Declaration of Independence: http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/charters_of_freedom/declaration/declaration.html
Tennis Court Oath: http://www.wise.virginia.edu/history/wciv2/tennis.html
Declaration of the Rights of Man:
http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~wldciv/world_civ_reader/world_civ_reader_2/rights_of_man.html
Execution of Louis XVI: http://www.ibiscom.com/louis.htm
Boer War: http://www.boondocksnet.com/cartoons/mc32.html
Rudyard Kipling, The White Man’s Burden: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/Kipling.html
Balfour Declaration: http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1917/balfour.html
Mohandas K. Gandhi, Indian Home Rule:
http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~wldciv/world_civ_reader/world_civ_reader_2/gandhi.html
Tokugawa Japan: http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/TOKJAPAN/CONTENTS.HTM
The Scientific Revolution: http://web.clas.ufl.edu/users/rhatch/pages/03-Sci-Rev/SCI-REV-Home/
The European Enlightenment: http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ENLIGHT/ENLIGHT.HTM
LIBERTY! The American Revolution (PBS): http://www.pbs.org/ktca/liberty/
Links on the French Revolution: http://userweb.port.ac.uk/~andressd/frlinks.htm
Internet Modern History Sourcebook: The Industrial Revolution:
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook14.html
The Nationalism Project: http://www.nationalismproject.org/
Romanticism: http://www.artcyclopedia.com/history/romanticism.html
Realism: http://www.artcyclopedia.com/history/realism.html
Colonialism & Nationalism in Southeast Asia: http://www.seasite.niu.edu/crossroads/wilson/colonialism.htm
The Political Heritage of Colonization in Africa:
http://exploringafrica.matrix.msu.edu/curriculum/lm10/student/stuactthree.html
WebQuest: The (New) Passage to India: http://webpages.shepherd.edu/ltate/WebQuestIndia.htm
Latin America and the Conquistadors: http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/eurvoya/Latin.html
Japan: Memoirs of a Secret Empire: http://www.pbs.org/empires/japan/
The Dawn of the Chinese Revolution: http://www.chinavoc.com/history/public/dawn.htm
The Story of India’s Freedom Struggle: http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/freedom/
25
World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
GOAL 5: Global Wars
The learner will analyze the causes and results of twentieth century conflicts among nations.
Essential Questions:
Why were there global conflicts in the twentieth century?
How were global conflicts in the twentieth century resolved?
What factors seem to be constant in global war?
What is the impact of global war on a global society?
Have global issues largely overridden local concerns in the twentieth century?
Objectives
Major Concepts and Terms
Performance Expectations
Resources
5.01 Analyze the
causes and course of
World War I and
assess its
consequences.
5.01
militarism
alliances
imperialism
nationalism
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
propaganda
Treaty of Versailles
trench warfare
Triple Alliance
Triple Entente
a. investigate the military strategies employed
during World War I and World War II and the
impact of technology on them
5.02
existentialism
fascism
totalitarianism
Great Depression
Adolf Hitler
Benito Mussolini
Joseph Stalin
Weimar Republic
e. evaluate the importance of economic
competition in the Cold War era
WEBSITES
5.01
Assassination of the
Archduke
“Blank Check”
U-boat attack
Gas attack
Lawrence of Arabia
Fourteen Points
1919 Treaty of
Versailles
5.03
Nazi occupation of
Poland
Blitzkrieg
Fall of Berlin
5.04
Cold War (British)
5.05
Universal Declaration
of Human Rights
5.03 Analyze the
causes and course of
World War II and
evaluate it as the end
of one era and the
beginning of another.
5.03
isolationism
appeasement
g. Students will complete a graphic organizer
on WWI – classifying the causes as long-term
or immediate. Students will then rank the
causes in order of importance and identify
which causes have led to more conflict in the
20th century.
5.04 Trace the course
of the Cold War and
judge its impact on the
global community
(including but not
limited to the Korean
War, the satellite
nations of Eastern
Europe, and the
Vietnam War).
5.04
Cold War
containment
Iron Curtain
Superpower
brinkmanship
deterrent
domino theory
NATO
satellite nations
Warsaw Pact
5.02 Assess the
significance of the war
experience on global
foreign and domestic
policies of the 1920s
and 1930s.
5.05 Examine
governmental policies
and the role of
organizations
established to maintain
peace and judge their
continuing
effectiveness (including
but not limited to the
Kellogg-Briand Pact,
the League of Nations,
and the United
5.05
peacekeeping missions
Kellogg-Briand Pact
League of Nations
United Nations
b. map European boundaries and compare
the changes that resulted from World War I
and World War II
c. analyze the rise of totalitarian governments
d. identify important leaders and achievers
f. assess the impact of changing European
ideologies on the global conflicts of the
twentieth century (communism, nationalism,
imperialism, capitalism)
Activities
h. Students will debate the question – “Was
Germany responsible for WWI?”
i. Students will study examples of propaganda
posters from WWI and create their own
examples.
ARTICLES
See articles in Calliope
magazine, National
Geographic, or the
Nextext Readers
Series (McDougall
Littell)
LITERARY WORKS
A Frost in the Night
j. Students will generate maps of the
boundaries of European nations before and
after WWI.
Night
k. Student will read excepts from All Quiet on
the Western Front and A Farewell to Arms to
write a journal about the experiences of a
soldier in the war.
Empire of the Sun
l. Students will discuss: “What if the United
States had ratified the Versailles Treaty?”
Dangerous Journey
Diary of Anne Frank
Children of the
Resistance
A Farewell to Arms
m. Students will create a comparison
organizer of the rise of totalitarian
governments in Europe and Asia in the 1920s
and 1930s.
For Whom the Bell
Tolls
Catch 22
n. Students will complete a venn diagram
comparing Communism and Fascism.
Number the Stars
26
World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
Nations).
o. Students will create a newspaper of the
1920s including significant events, cultural
changes, and social life from the period.
p. Students will create a timeline of the 1930s
highlighting important events leading to WWII.
Snow Falling on
Cedars
All Quiet on the
Western Front
Dawn
q. Students will write a comparison essay on
the causes of WWI and WWII. The essay will
conclude with specific recommendations on
how to avoid a future war.
r. Students will read The Diary of Anne Frank
or Night and write a biopoem about one of the
characters in the play.
s. Students will map significant battles of
WWII and then create a chart to accompany
the map listing the battle, the date, and the
significance of the battle.
The Gates of the
Forest
The House of the
Spirits
No Longer at Ease
The Day of the Bomb
Hiroshima
The Peacock Spring
t. Students will create a venn diagram
comparing the League of Nations to the United
Nations.
The Quiet American
The Ugly American
u. Students will map significant events of the
Cold War (U2, Korean War, Hungarian Revolt,
Bay of Pigs, Suez Crisis, Berlin Wall, Vietnam
War, Prague Spring). Students will write a
brief description of the importance of this
event.
v. Students will debate: “Who started the Cold
War – the US or Russia?”
Smoke over Golan
Cry the Beloved
Country
One Day in the Life of
Ivan Denisovich
Exodus
w. Students will write a dialogue between a
Soviet and a US citizen on key events during
the Cold War: the Korean conflict, the Berlin
Wall, the Invasion of Hungary, and Vietnam
MULTIMEDIA
Nelson Mandela (A&E)
x. Students will create a newsletter
highlighting peace keeping efforts in the 20th
century – include the League of Nations, the
Kellogg Briand Pact, the 5 and 9 Power
Treaties, the Washington Naval Conference,
and the United Nations.
Fidel Castro (A&E)
All Quiet on the
Western Front
Lusitania (A&E)
y. Students will debate: “What is the most
effective way to bring peace to the world?”
Crucial Turning Points
of World War II
(Reader’s Digest)
Dear Home: Letters
from the World Wars
(A&E)
The Diary of Anne
Frank
Triumph of the Will
Judgment at
Nuremburg
Schindler’s List
Shoah
Animal Farm
27
World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
Lord of the Flies
Gallipoli
The Grapes of Wrath
Mrs. Miniver
The Longest Day
Saving Private Ryan
Fat Man and Little Boy
Mandela
Gate of Heavenly
Peace
The Blue Kite
Inherit the Wind
Dr. Strangelove
We Were Soldiers
Good Morning,
Vietnam
Platoon
Munich
All the King’s Men
Assassination of the Archduke: http://www.ibiscom.com/duke.htm
“Blank Check”: http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/blankche.html
U-boat attack: http://www.ibiscom.com/sub.htm
Gas attack: http://www.ibiscom.com/gas.htm
Lawrence of Arabia: http://www.ibiscom.com/lawrence.htm
Woodrow Wilson, Fourteen Points: http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1918/14points.html
1919 Treaty of Versailles: http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/imt/menu.htm
Nazi occupation of Poland: http://www.ibiscom.com/poland.htm
Blitzkrieg: http://www.ibiscom.com/blitzkrieg.htm
Fall of Berlin: http://www.ibiscom.com/berlin.htm
National Archive’s Learning Curve: Cold War (British): http://learningcurve.pro.gov.uk/coldwar.htm
Universal Declaration of Human Rights: http://www.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/b1udhr.htm
WWI: http://www.schoolhistory.co.uk/lessons/wwi/objectives_wwi.html
The Great War: http://www.pbs.org/greatwar
The Russian Revolution Links:http://www.barnsdle.demon.co.uk/russ/rusrev.html
Nazi Germany: http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/Nazi%20Germany.htm
World War II: http://www.teacheroz.com/wwii.htm
United States Holocaust Memorial: http://www.ushmm.org/
MLC Museum of Tolerance: http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/index.html
Race for the Superbomb: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/bomb/
Vietnam Online: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/vietnam/
Battlefield: Vietnam: http://www.pbs.org/battlefieldvietnam/
CNN Interactive: The Cold War: http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/
The Cold War Museum: http://www.coldwar.org/
The United Nations Website: http://www.un.org/
28
World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
GOAL 6: Patterns of Social Order
The learner will investigate social and economic organization in various societies throughout time in order to
understand the shifts in power and status that have occurred.
Essential Questions:
How is power obtained and maintained over time?
What has led to the changing nature of social order over time?
What are the major social order issues of the twenty-first century?
What is the relationship between economics and the structure of a society?
Objectives
Major Concepts and Terms
Performance Expectations
Resources
6.01 Compare the
conditions, racial
composition, and status
of social classes, castes,
and slaves in world
societies and analyze
changes in those
elements.
6.01
class
wage slavery
apartheid
British rule
a. compare slavery in emerging civilizations
with serfdom and with African slavery
throughout the world in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
WEBSITES
6.02 Analyze causes and
results of ideas of
superiority and inferiority
in society and how those
ideas have changed over
time.
6.02
discrimination
elitism
ethnic cleansing
ethnocentrism
gender issues
Armenian genocide
Holocaust
Hutus and Tutsis
Nazism
6.03
citizenship
suffrage
Dreyfus Affair
6.04 Relate the dynamics
of state economies to the
well-being of their
members and to changes
in the role of government
(including but not limited
to the enclosure
movement, the Great
Depression, and the rise
of the welfare state).
6.04
state economies
business cycle
Fidel Castro
Cuba
enclosure movement
European Union
Great Depression
Labour party
most favored nation status
NAFTA
state capitalism
welfare state
6.05 Analyze issues such
as ecological and
environmental concerns,
political instability, and
nationalism as
challenges to which
societies must respond.
Dreyfus Affair
b. analyze the factors that brought an end to
systems of forced labor
6.03 Trace the changing
definitions of citizenship
and the expansion of
suffrage.
6.05
sustainable development
acid rain
Argentina
Jean-Bertrand Aristide
Cambodia
Congo
Duvaliers
global warming
Haiti
Khmer Rouge
Organization of African Unity
Organization of American
States
Mein Kampf
BOOKS/ARTICLES
c. analyze the cause and impact of changes
in the Indian caste system in the twentieth
century
See lists above.
d. trace changes in the role and status of
women over time
See lists above.
LITERARY WORKS
MULTIMEDIA
e. identify the impact of ideas of superiority
and inferiority in Nazi Germany and in events
such as genocide and apartheid
See lists above.
f. evaluate the causes, course, and results
of civil wars (e.g., Africa, Asia, Latin
America)
g. define the business cycle and cite its
effects on domestic and international policies
h. evaluate the role of economic and political
organizations in promoting cooperation (e.g.,
North American Free Trade Association,
European Union, Organization of American
States, Organization of African Unity)
i. compare the effects of the Great
Depression on the world powers of the
1930s
Activities
j. Students will design a comparison chart of
the class systems of France, India, the
United States, Ancient Greece and Rome,
Russia, and South Africa.
k. Students will create a graphic organizer
that identifies the events leading to the Dred
Scott decision and the consequences of the
Supreme Court’s decision.
l. Teachers will provide a timeline of
important Supreme Court cases that relate to
citizenship in the United States. In groups,
students will research the cases and create
an annotated timeline.
k. Students will write an essay explaining the
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
Juan and Eva Perón
Peru
6.06 Trace the
development of internal
conflicts due to
differences in religion,
race, culture, and group
loyalties in various areas
of the world
6.06
civil war
Afghanistan
Chechnya
Contras and Sandinistas
Kashmir
Nigeria
Palestinian Liberation
Organization
Six-Day War
South Africa
Taliban
Tibet
Yugoslavia
various roles on a manor in relation to the
feudal system.
l. Students will read excerpts from the
Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen, the
Magna Carta, the Communist Manifesto, and
the United Nations Universal Declaration of
Human Rights and discuss how these pieces
define the basic rights of humans and how
those rights have changed over time.
m. Students will create a graphic organizer
showing the relation between social
Darwinism and economics, birthright, race,
and government structure.
n. Students will compare and contrast the
impact of Jim Crow legislation with civil rights
legislation in the United States.
o. Students will define propaganda and
identify how leaders (such as Hitler) have
used propaganda to further notions of racial
superiority.
p. Students will identify Amendments to the
US Constitution that have increased
citizenship and voting rights. They will
create graphic organizers to illustrate the
effects of each amendment on citizenship.
q. Students will research historical examples
of traditional, command, market, and mixed
economies and prepare a report on how
those economics have answered the basic
questions of what should be produced, how
should it be produced, and for whom should
it be produced. Students should then select
one type of economy and write a persuasive
essay on why is the best economic system.
r. Students will research the causes of
World War I, World War II, and the Cold War
to determine the extent to which economics
played a role in bringing about war.
s. Students will research an event that has
posed ecological, environmental, religious,
medical, or national sovereignty concerns.
They will prepare a 3 to 5 minute speech on
how governments responded to the event
and whether or not the response was
appropriate. Suggested events: AIDS
epidemic, Chernobyl, Hiroshima, Exxon
Valdez, the Bubonic Plague,
Protestant/Catholic conflict in Britain, the
unification of Italy, the formation of Israel.
t. Students will complete a comparison
diagram illustrating how racial conflicts have
arisen and been dealt with in the United
States, South Africa, and India.
u. Students will complete a comparison
diagram illustrating how religious conflict has
arisen and been dealt with in
Israel/Palestine, India, Afghanistan, and
Britain.
v. Students will identify the major political
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
parties of several nations and create a
graphic organizer illustrating how the two
parties differ on issues.
w. In a discussion, students will define the
terms culture, subculture, and counterculture
and explore how conflict can arise in a
society.
Dreyfus Affair: http://www.boondocksnet.com/cartoons/mc32_b.html
Universal Declaration of Human Rights: http://www.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/b1udhr.htm
South Africa Photography http://www.ic-creations.com/SouthAfrica/Pages/southafricapicturegallery.html
Resources for Teaching on South Africa http://www.bu.edu/africa/outreach/materials/handouts/safrica.html
The British Empire http://www.britishempire.co.uk/
Why Teach Genocide? http://www.teachgenocide.org/
European Welfare States: Information and Resources http://www.pitt.edu/~heinisch/eusocial.html
Fidel Castro: Further Reading http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/castro/filmmore/fr.html
Image Archive of the Eugenics Movement: http://www.eugenicsarchive.org/eugenics
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
World History
GOAL 7: Technology and the Emerging Global Order
The learner will analyze the short- and long-term consequences of the development of new technology.
Essential Questions:
How has technology impacted world history?
What are the limits of technology?
How can technology be both harmful and helpful to a society?
Objectives
Major Concepts and Terms
Performance Expectations
Resources
7.01 Assess the degree
to which discoveries,
innovations, and
technologies have
accelerated change.
7.01
technology
alchemy
astrolabe
Francis Bacon
Robert Boyle
Chinese astronomers
computers
Nicolaus Copernicus
René Descartes
Galileo Galilei
William Harvey
Indian and Muslim
mathematicians
irrigation
Johannes Kepler
Antoine Lavoisier
Isaac Newton
nuclear weapons
paper
Joseph Priestley
printing press
smelting iron
space technology
Andreas Vesalius
wheel
a. identify important contributions to the fields
of science and technology
WEBSITES
7.02 Examine the
causes and effects of
scientific revolutions
and cite their major
costs and benefits.
7.02
deductive reasoning
deism
inductive reasoning
natural law
scientific method
genetic engineering
7.03 Examine the
causes and effects of
industrialization and
cite its major costs and
benefits.
7.03
labor unions
mass production
urbanization
Industrial Revolution
7.04 Describe
significant
characteristics of global
connections created by
technological change
and assess the degree
to which cultures
participate in that
change
7.04
Pacific Rim
“green revolution”
Internet
Organization of Petroleum
Exporting Countries
See lists above.
b. analyze the cultural, religious, and scientific
impact of astronomical discoveries and
innovations from Copernicus to Newton
BOOKS/ARTICLES
See lists above.
c. assess the impact of competition among
nations in the fields of space exploration,
nuclear technology, and natural resource
utilization
d. examine revolutionary changes in
agriculture and medicine
e. describe changes in social organization
and efforts for political reform that occurred as
a result of industrialization
LITERARY WORKS
Hard Times
Oliver Twist
Songs of Innocence
and Songs of
Experience
MULTIMEDIA
f. study the ways in which technology has
contributed to global connections and contrast
its effects on urban and rural populations (e.g.,
airplanes, satellites, computers, cell phones
See lists above.
Activities
g. Students will engage in a class discussion
to generate criteria for identifying
characteristics of a significant invention or
discovery. As a class, they then will generate
a list of the most significant discoveries and
innovations. In groups, students will rank the
inventions in order and write a justification for
their ranking.
h. Students will create a timeline of major
innovations for different categories
(transportation, communication, medicine,
architecture, weaponry, etc.). They will
annotate the timeline to indicate the
significance of the inventions.
i. As a class, develop a set of interview
questions to ask an older person about the
technology he or she has seen change during
his or her lifetime. Students will conduct
interviews and present findings to the class.
j. Students will create a parallel timeline that
shows the development of the industrial
revolution in the United States and England.
k. Students will select a famous person whose
invention or discovery changed the world and
write either a BIOPOEM or a Resume for the
person.
l. Students will generate criteria for judging the
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
“Scientist of the Millennium.” After doing
research in groups, they will then nominate a
scientist to receive the honor of Scientist of the
Millennium and justify their selection to the
class. Suggested scientists: Copernicus,
Bacon, Boyle, Darwin, Kepler, Decartes,
Harvey, Einstein, Galileo, Newton, Vesalius,
Hawking, Watson and Crick.
m. Students will create a chart of the major
scientific developments of the 20th century and
note the costs and benefits of each
development. Students will then select one
development and write an essay that
considers how the world would be different if
the development had never occurred.
n. Students will create a cause and effect
chart for one or more of the following: steam
engine, lateen sails, gunpowder, radio,
printing, internal combustion engine, electric
motor, sextant, astrolabe, flight, television,
personal computer, internet.
o. Students will identify a scientific
development in the news and create a
cause/effect chart that illustrates the steps that
led to the development or innovation as well
as the possible consequences.
p. Students will simulate the Sadler
Commission (1833) by having the following
testify before Parliament: coal miner, factory
owner, twelve-year old factory worker, coal
mine owner.
q. In small groups, students will design an 18th
century factory that mass-produced a
particular product. The plan should include
the floor plan of the factory outlining how the
product will be made, where the labor will
work, as well as how the raw materials and the
finish products are transported and stored.
r. Students will read excerpts from William
Blake’s Songs of Experience and Songs of
Innocence and discuss how these works
reflect the costs and benefits of industrialism.
s. Students will write a paper defending or
refuting the statement: “The world is
becoming Americanized.”
Full Website Addresses:
My Ecological Footprint http://www.myfootprint.org/
Science, Technology, Invention in History: Impact, Influence and Change
http://www.archives.gov/digital_classroom/history_day/bright_ideas/bright_ideas.html
Internet Resources for History of Science and Technology http://www2.lib.udel.edu/subj/hsci/internet.htm#topics
Deism: Reason and Spirituality http://www.deism.org/frames.htm
The Industrial Revolution http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1981/2/81.02.06.x.html#b
Muslims Contribution to the World of Science: http://www.islamtomorrow.com/science2.asp
The Green Revolution: http://edugreen.teri.res.in/explore/bio/green.htm
Middle East Policy Council: Resources: http://www.mepc.org/public_asp/resources/educational.asp
Descartes: http://www.msu.org/intro/content_intro/texts/descartes/descartes.html
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
World History
GOAL 8: Patterns of History
The learner will analyze important current global events and issues to show an understanding of the ideals,
values, beliefs, and traditions at the heart of these events and issues.
Essential Questions:
What is culture?
How do beliefs, values, and ways of thinking shape the decisions people make?
What major cultural revolutions have shaped the world?
What happens when cultures collide?
How do people integrate two very different cultures into their lives?
Is there a global culture?
Who determines what culture is acceptable and what is not?
Objectives
Major Concepts and Terms
Performance Expectations
Resources
8.01 Trace developments in
literary, artistic, and religious
traditions over time as
legacies of past societies or
as cultural innovations.
8.01
innovation
impressionism
realism
romanticism
surrealism
a. analyze causes of large-scale
population movements from rural areas
to cities
WEBSITES
See lists above.
8.02 Compare major Eastern
and Western beliefs and
practices, including but not
limited to Buddhism,
Christianity, Confucianism,
Hinduism, Islam, Judaism,
and Shintoism, and locate
their regions of
predominance.
8.02
religion
Buddhism
Christianity
Confucianism
Hinduism
Islam
Judaism
Shintoism
c. identify issues that affect the entire
world (e.g., terrorism, acid rain,
apartheid, drug trafficking) as well as
issues that involve the entire world
(e.g., AIDS, global warming, World
Trade Organization)
8.03 Classify within the broad
patterns of history those
events that may be viewed as
turning points.
8.03
turning point
atomic weapons
development
Congress of Vienna
domestication of plants and
animals
15th century exploration
Great Depression
Hundred Years’ War
printing press
b. examine the movement of people
and the cultural diffusion that resulted
BOOKS/ARTICLES
See lists above.
LITERARY WORKS
8.04 Characterize over time
and place the interactions of
world cultures.
8.04
geopolitical continuality
global market
cartels
drug trade
World Bank
World Trade Organization
8.05 Analyze how the
changing and competing
components of cultures have
led to current global issues
and conflicts and hypothesize
solutions to persistent
problems.
8.05
cultural conflict
biowarfare
home rule
intifada
Pan-Arabism
terrorism
8.06 Analyze the meanings of
“civilization” in different times
and places and demonstrate
how such meanings reflect
the societies of which they
are a part
8.06
civilization
progress
rural
urban
d. analyze the root causes of cultural
conflicts, such as those found in the
Middle East, Ireland, Quebec, the
Congo, Eastern Europe, Indonesia, etc.
e. determine the impacts of evolving
definitions of “civilization”
f. compare the religious beliefs and
practices of major world religions
g. describe the differences between the
concept of civilization and civilized
behavior
Activities
h. In groups, students will select 10
major pieces of world literature that
reflect different regions over time and
create a poster that represents the
legacy of those pieces of literature and
how they reflect the society in which
they were created.
i. Students will select a region and a
time period and research the art that
was produced at that time. Students
will create a powerpoint presentation
describing the cultural context for the
art and how it reflected and critiqued
the time period in which it was created.
j. Students will create a table or
database of major world religions,
gathering information about the beliefs,
practices, history, sacred texts,
founders, number of modern adherents,
Lord of the Flies
Selections from Major
Religious Texts
MULTIMEDIA
Religions of the World
(Schlessinger)
Inside Mecca (National
Geographic)
Inside Islam (History
Channel)
The Hajj (ABC News)
Islam: Empire of Faith
(PBS)
Jerusalem: Within
These Walls (National
Geographic)
The 50 Years War:
Israel and the Arabs
(WGBH)
Religions of the World
(United
Learning/Discovery)
In the Footsteps of
Jesus (History
Channel)
Who Wrote the Bible?
(History Channel)
Christianity (History
Channel)
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
and traditional geographic location of
each major world religion.
k. Students will define the term “turning
point” by comparing several historical
events such as the defeat of the Moors
at Tour, the voyages of Columbus, the
signing of the Magna Carta, the
publication of the Communist
Manifesto, the bombing of Hiroshima,
the invention of the printing press, the
publication of Darwin’s Origin of
Species, the French Revolution, the
Great Depression, the defeat of the
Spanish Armada, and the Treaty of
Versailles (1919). Students will classify
these turning points as political, military,
scientific, cultural, or economic. They
will then generate additional examples
of each kind of turning point and justify
their selections in a presentation.
l. Students will define the term “turning
point” and then each submit a written
justification of a significant turning point
in history to be voted on by the entire
class.
m. Students will discuss cultural clash
in a high school (regional, economic,
social, linguistic, religious, and other
differences) and make generalizations
about how cultural clash operates at the
national level.
n. Students will look at “hallmark
cultures” in world history and determine
the methods by which these cultures
spread their ideas around the world.
They will create a cause/effect chart to
show which culture had the greatest
influence on the rest of the world.
Suggested cultures: classical Greece,
ancient Rome, Islamic golden age,
Renaissance Italy, British Empire, 20th
century America.
o. Students will view video clips from
several films to find examples of how
cultures interact. Suggested videos:
1492, Not Without My Daughter, The
Wind and the Lion, and Ghandi.
p. Students will select a current issue
and trace the underlying causes of the
issue in an essay. They will then find
an example of a historical event which
has the same underlying causes and
create a comparison chart between the
two events.
q. Students will prepare a chart
illustrating how the following items have
led to specific conflicts: religion, need
for energy, environmental concerns,
world peace, land ownership,
distribution of resources, ethnic
discrimination, and terrorism.
r. Students will read acceptance
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
speeches from Nobel Prize Winners
and take notes about the solutions
these recipients have made to world
problems. In a discussion, students will
analyze the proposed solutions and
evaluate their effectiveness.
s. In small groups, students can
prepare a panel discussion about a
world issue such as the Arab-Israeli
conflict, the AIDS crisis, immigration, or
terrorism. Students can act in different
roles in the panel discussion to illustrate
how different groups view the same
issue.
t. Students will debate the definition of
civilization by reading the definitions
that have been proposed by historians.
They will then write a summary
definition of their own.
u. Students will write a letter to the
editor about “American civilization” by
selecting the point of view of one of the
following: Congo tribesman, American
Indian, Vietnamese peasant, Iranian
fundamentalist, English banker,
American World War II veteran, Cuban
refugee in Miami.
v. Students will research and prepare
presentations on those groups which
have rejected Western civilization: Lost
Generation, Beatnicks, Hippies,
Counter-Culture Movement.
Full Website Addresses:
World Religious Texts: http://davidwiley.com/religion.html
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
Graphic Organizers in Social Studies
What is the district’s graphic organizer program and why was it selected?
New Hanover County Schools has adopted Thinking Maps® as its universal language of
graphic organizers. Having a universal language of graphic organizers means that all students
use the same graphic thinking patterns throughout their entire K-12 experience. This
consistency from grade to grade, and even from school to school, is an enormous benefit to
students.
Thinking Maps was selected as the universal language of graphic organizers
because they are constructed as a graphic language. Instead of running off
pre-made graphic organizers from the teacher’s materials, students are taught
to associate a visual pattern with a thinking pattern. The association of those
two patterns helps students to be able to use Thinking Maps on their own as
they are constructing knowledge. Therefore, students draw the graphic
organizers themselves, eliminating the need to copy pre-made forms.
Thinking
Maps: a
universal
language of
graphic
organizers.
Thinking Maps have several features that make them one of the best instructional tools for
visually organizing students’ thinking. Thinking Maps are:
• based on fundamental thinking skills
• a consistent graphic language
• flexible for use in a variety of contexts
• easily transferred across disciplines
• centered on student activity
The fundamental thinking skills on which Thinking Maps are based are types of thinking found in
all subjects and disciplines. The maps help students to define concepts, to describe objects, to
compare and contrast, to classify information, to examine parts and wholes, to
sequence events, to explore cause and effect relationships, and to visualize
Thinking
analogies. The visual for each type of thinking remains the same, so a
Maps:
consistent format can be used every time a type of thinking is needed.
based on
Because the visual format remains the same, the student sees a consistent
essential
pattern to represent a way of thinking. However, even though the maps are
thinking
consistent, they are flexible enough to be combined to illustrate more complex
skills.
forms of thought. The thought patterns that define each thinking map can
appear in every subject and content area, allowing for integration of thinking
across disciplines. Finally, because Thinking Maps are designed for students to generate on
their own, they become a tool to help students be more responsible for their own learning.
Why should I use graphic organizers in teaching social studies?
As a discipline, social studies in content-heavy. There are countless names, dates, people,
concepts, ideas, terms, and events to learn. All of this information is learned so that students
can make generalizations about the past and the world around them. However, many students
get drown in an endless sea of facts. Students often read textbooks and have difficulty knowing
what is significant to remember and what can be forgotten. They take lecture notes only to
realize that they have copied everything verbatim and still do not know what is important.
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
Thinking
Maps:
focused on
visual
patterns
Graphic organizers help students make sense of the plethora of information
that they have to process. An organizer helps to bring all the information
together into a visual pattern that helps the brain to see the larger picture.
After all, the brain is primarily a visual pattern seeker: we see images,
shapes, and patterns in the world around us. Graphic organizers like
Thinking Maps help the brain to make sense of the information that students
encounter.
Graphic organizers also appear on North Carolina end-of-course assessments. When students
are familiar with the thinking processes that graphic organizers are trying to use, they will be in a
much better position to interpret those testing items. While the state does not exclusively use
Thinking Maps for its graphic organizers, students who have been trained in Thinking Maps will
be in a much better position to interpret unfamiliar organizers than students who have no
experience with graphic organizers at all. Teachers can aid in this process by occasionally
using unfamiliar organizers and asking students to match them to the Thinking Maps that they
know.
What are the Thinking Maps?
There are eight Thinking Maps. The chart below shows each, along with its definition, and
questions to ask.
Map
Name
Circle Map
Bubble Map
Double
Bubble Map
Function
Questions to Ask
defining a topic,
brainstorming,
uncovering prior
knowledge
What do you know about
____?
describing with
adjectives,
describing with the
five senses, listing
qualities of objects
How are you describing
____?
comparing and
contrasting,
discussing
similarities and
differences
How are ___ and ___ alike
and different?
How are you defining this
thing or idea?
What adjectives best
describe ____?
Is ___ and ___ more
similar or different? How
so?
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
Flow Map
Multi-Flow
Map
Tree Map
Brace Map
sequencing events,
putting steps in
order, showing the
steps in a cycle or
process, ordering
items by quantity or
quality
What happened?
showing causeeffect relationships,
making predictions,
identify
consequences
What are the causes and
effects?
classify, sort,
group, categorize,
organize, illustrate
a generalization
and supporting
details
What are the main ideas,
supporting ideas, and
major details?
show the parts of
an object, to take
apart an object,
illustrate the
structure of an
object
What are the parts of this
object?
show relationships,
create analogies
What is the analogy?
Bridge Map
What is the sequence of
events?
What is the process or
cycle?
What might happen next?
How can you classify ___?
How are ___ and ___
related?
How can teachers use Thinking Maps in Social Studies?
Map Name
Circle Map
Ways to Use it in the Classroom
• defining important words or concepts (“isms,” forms of government, etc.)
• show a blank circle map at the beginning of a unit and ask students to tell
you what they already know about a topic
• use a circle map at the end of the period to review the day’s material
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
Bubble Map
Double Bubble
Flow Map
Multi-Flow Map
Tree Map
Brace
Bridge
• after student read a textbook selection, have them brainstorm what they
remember from the reading; using their ideas, help them to write a “main
idea” statement for the selection
• remind students that they can only use adjectives to describe historical or
social science topics – this is limiting, but it also forces students to
analyze their choices (for example, some people would say that George
Washington was courageous for his leadership during the Revolution, but
a coward because he wouldn’t free his slaves during his lifetime)
• use the map to generate the qualities of a generic category such as the
qualities of a good leader or a good law (then have them apply the
qualities to actual historical cases)
• compare and contrast leaders, battles, wars, elections, states, cultures,
time periods, etc.
• ask students to compare two ideas or terms which are similar but have
fine differences in meaning (socialism vs. communism, latitude vs.
longitude)
• ask students to justify if two things are more alike than they are different
or vice versa based on their double bubble maps
• sequence events in order (timeline)
• show the sequence in a process (how a bill becomes a law)
• have students rank people or events by importance (from most important
to least important)
• have students show causes and effects for events; have students justify
the most important cause and most important effect for events
• have students map a historical decision but do not fill in the effects; ask
students to predict what they think will happen and then confirm by
reading about what actually happened
• break down causes by looking at short-term and long-term
• classify the advantages and disadvantages of two sides in a war
• categorize details about the foreign and domestic policies of a leader
• outline a chapter or section of a document (main idea, subcategories,
supporting details)
• categorize the characteristics of a time period or civilization (economic,
political, religious, etc.)
• sort vocabulary terms into groups based on common categories
• sort multiple causal factors of events into categories (social causes,
political causes, economic causes, etc.)
• examine the parts of a map or chart
• break apart the structure of historical documents like the Constitution
• illustrate the parts of a government or agency
• illustrate the relationships between leaders
• define terminology (the relating factor is “is defined as”)
• examples of possible relating factors: was stated by, was president
during, is the leader of, is a symbol for, led to, is famous for, took place
during, is associated with, is the author of, was elected in, led to the
downfall of, is a part of...
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World History Curriculum Guide © 2007 New Hanover County Schools
What is the purpose of the Frame of Reference?
Each map can be surrounded by a rectangular box called a Frame of Reference. This frame of
reference is used by the student to define how he or she knows the information. This “thinking
about our thinking” is known as metacognition. It is the process of being aware of what we think
and even how we think so that we become aware of our own perspectives and biases.
The frame of reference allows students to write down where they got their
information – where in the book, the exact quote that supports the
information, or the name of the authority who stated the information. It can
also be used to force students to think about another perspective. The
colonization of the Americas by Europeans from the American Indian
perspective is very different than from the European perspective. So the
teacher could have students construct two maps from both perspectives so
that the frame of reference defines the point-of-view.
Thinking Maps:
helping students
to think about
their thinking
Here is an example of how a frame of reference could be used:
How do Thinking Maps relate to Classroom Instruction that Works?
New Hanover County Schools also has a district-wide initiative in Classroom Instruction that
Works. In that work, Robert Marzano focuses on six common visual patterns that are also
based on thinking skills. Marzano’s six patterns can be translated into Thinking Maps by looking
at the following chart:
Marzano’s Pattern
Concept Patterns
Definition and Functions
Related Thinking Maps
• a concept is a word or phrase
that covers classes or
categories of specific persons,
places, things, or ideas
• examples include democracy,
chair, president
• to define a concept, you need to
look at examples, nonexamples, and characteristics of
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the concept
Descriptive
Patterns
• a description is composed of
facts about specific persons,
places, things, or ideas
• description can be composed of
noun phrases, adjectives, or
adverbs
Time Sequence
Patterns
• a time sequence is composed of
events in the order of when they
happened
• a time sequence can include
descriptive information about
the events
• a cause/effect pattern shows
events, what caused them, and
the results
• a process pattern can show
cause/effect relationships or can
simply be written in the order
the process is completed
Cause/Effect and
Process Patterns
Episode Patterns
• an episode is basically a story,
with a plot, a setting, people, a
time sequence, cause/effect
relationships, and events
• episode patterns are very
common in fiction, but anything
that can be narrated can be an
episode
• this type of pattern can be used
with all the Thinking Maps used
in combination
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Generalization and
Principle Patterns
• a generalization is a statement
that can be proven or
demonstrated with examples
• principles are a sub-type of
generalization that involves
general statements about cause
and effect relationships or
correlations between events
• generalizations often require
deep investigation
How do teachers use Thinking Maps in the classroom?
1. Teach the students each Thinking Map. At the secondary level, one map may be
introduced per week.
2. Teach each new map by using familiar content. NEVER teach a new process with new
content.
3. Model how to use the maps and ask students to work independently to create their own.
Give feedback on their progress.
4. Each time a new map is introduced, briefly review the other maps. Ask students to
begin to look for ways that every map could be used in class.
5. Use the maps to assess what students know. If students can show how much they have
learned using a map, it is acceptable to use it as evidence of student learning.
6. Ask the students to use the maps in combination. For each complex thinking process,
many maps may help students reach a conclusion.
7. Ask the students to do something with the information in their maps – make a
presentation, write a paper, or create an authentic product.
8. When doing a lecture, use Thinking Maps to show important ideas in the lecture
graphically.
9. Give students partially completed maps and gradually move toward having them
generate their own without help (especially good for students with special needs).
10. Use maps to outline units and daily lessons so students can see the “big picture” of
where the unit or lesson is going.
When using Thinking Maps it is important to remember that the ultimate goal is to have students
be able to use the maps on their own. When they are reading or taking notes, they should
begin to see material and think, “that’s a tree map,” or “that’s a multi-flow map.” Though the
teacher may have to provide strong support in the beginning to help students see these
patterns, by the end of the course the patterns should be firmly entrenched in the students’
brains. Each visual should be wired to a fundamental thinking process.
For more information on Thinking Maps, contact someone at the central office to find out about
training opportunities.
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Teaching Reading in Social Studies
Introduction
“I teach social studies. I don’t have time to teaching reading. That should have been taught in
the lower grades. I don’t know anything about phonics.”
Despite these recurring comments about reading from teachers, reading is a fundamental skill
that is important to all subject areas. Every subject has its own special vocabulary and its own
special way of writing. Therefore, it stands to reason that the best person to teach reading in a
subject like social studies is the social studies teacher. When we consider that the tests our
students take are largely tests of reading, it becomes even more critical that social studies
teachers teach reading strategies to their students. There is no one more poised to make
reading in social studies work for students other than the social studies teacher. And there are
a few simple techniques that can help any social studies teacher make better readers of her
students.
How to Prepare for Teaching Reading Skills
There are four critical areas in preparation for teaching reading in social studies:
Assessing Prior Knowledge
Find out what students already know about certain topics.
Find out how well students can already read.
Teachers can use surveys, brainstorms, short quizzes, or class discussions to gather
information about what students already know about a topic. What students already
know about a topic is the single biggest predictor of how much new information they will
learn about that topic.
Activating and Creating of Prior Knowledge
Teachers can get students to activate prior knowledge about a topic.
Teachers can provide students background knowledge on a topic.
Activation of prior knowledge means getting students to think about what they already
know. When students have very little knowledge about a topic, the teacher can provide
important background by choosing memorable experiences to teach it. There are
several techniques for doing this:
• Using a story, vignette, or example to highlight a theme or idea
• Showing a short movie clip to illustrate the topic
• Showing a picture, graph, or other visual to generate interest
• Doing a field trip (either real or virtual) to get a sense of the place
• Showing historical artifacts or items
• Engaging in a simulation to create the experience
• Highlighting a similar experience in the student’s own lives (for example,
comparing colonization of the New World to a student who moves to a new
neighborhood)
Anticipating Words and Concepts that May Prove to Be Difficult
Background knowledge manifests itself primarily in vocabulary knowledge.
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Students must be exposed to the multiple meanings of concepts over time.
Vocabulary and concepts must be taught in the context they are used.
A limited list of vocabulary and concepts (no more than 10 per week) is best.
The background knowledge that we have is primarily stored in the brain in the form of
vocabulary words (and their associated visuals in the brain). Teachers have to
anticipate what words might prove to be a challenge in comprehending texts and preteach those words before reading. When those words are concepts – complex words
with multiple shades of meaning that describe whole classes or categories (like
democracy, freedom, or power) – they require even more strategic teaching because a
concept is very abstract. Concepts usually require multiple exposures to the ways words
can be used so that students build up their knowledge over time. It is best to teach
these words in the context they will be used, rather than using isolated vocabulary lists.
It does not promote deep learning if students are simply looking up words in the
dictionary or glossary and then doing a crossword puzzle. Teach the words as they are
found in the text. Because it is better to have a deep understanding of key concepts, it is
best to limit vocabulary lists to no more than 10 words per week. These vocabulary
words should be made up of the central concepts of that unit or lesson – and not be lists
of dates, people, places, or events.
Developing A Purpose for Reading
Reading social studies texts is different from reading fiction.
A purpose for reading establishes what will be gained from the text.
A purpose for reading activates prior knowledge.
Predicting what information can be found in a text increases comprehension.
Social studies texts belong to the category of informational texts – we read them to find
out information. Unlike fiction, which is read for pleasure, informational texts are read
primarily to provide specific facts, details, and ideas. It is therefore important to set a
purpose for reading each social studies text so that students do not get lost in the details
but leave the text with a solid comprehension of the major ideas. Setting a purpose for
reading also helps the student activate his or her prior knowledge about the topic and
can even be used to get a student to predict what information is likely to be found by
reading. Prediction especially can be helpful in promoting comprehension. There are
several key techniques for setting a purpose and using prediction:
• Provide questions to students before reading or ask students to generate their
own questions.
• Using the text features – headings, subheadings, captions, etc. – to generate
predictions about what information will be found in the text.
• Teach students that there are several kinds of questions we can ask at various
levels so that they can get beyond the basic who, what, when, and where to ask
why and how questions as well.
Strategies for Teaching Comprehension
Once a teacher has done the necessary background preparation to prepare students for
reading, there are a number of strategies and techniques which can be used to help students
comprehend the text during all the stages of reading. The following two strategies cover the
entire reading process and may be called meta-strategies.
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One of the most powerful strategies for teaching comprehension is known as “Squeepers” or
SQP2RS. Here are the stages of Squeepers:
This strategy can be done individually, in small groups, or as a whole class.
Here are specific instructional directions for each stage:
Survey
Give students 1 minute to look at the text.
They should be looking at the text features – heading, captions, boldfaced words,
subheadings, etc.
Question
Students should write 1-3 questions that they think can be answered in the text.
Students should use the text features to write those questions.
Share the questions as a class.
Honor students’ questions even when they do not relate to a text feature.
Group similar questions together and focus on answering those.
Predict
Students should write 1-3 statements (full sentences) they think that the text will
teach.
These statements should be answers to the questions.
Share statements as a class.
Read
Read the assigned sections of the text.
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Reading tasks can be done individually, in small groups, or as a whole class. (A
good technique for covering a large chunk of text is to divide it among groups for a
jigsaw).
Respond
Have students answer their questions.
Have students compare their predictions to the answers. What predictions were
wrong? Which were right?
Share responses with the class.
Summarize
Have students write a short summary of the text that incorporates all of their
learning from the predictions and answers to the questions.
Share summaries with the class.
If these steps are taught to students, they then can internalize them and use them on their own
when they are reading.
Students often find it difficult to summarize material. As Robert Marzano says in Classroom
Instruction that Works, summary requires that students eliminate some material, keep some
material, and substitute specific words for more general concepts. This is more difficult than it
seems because students often cannot recognize what should be kept and what should be
eliminated. A strategy that helps with summary is called “See Jacuzzis” or CGQCES. Here
are the steps:
Like Squeepers, See Jacuzzis can be taught so that students internalize the stages. It can also
be done as an individual, whole-class, or small group activity. There are different instructional
techniques that can be used at each stage:
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Circle Repeated Words
Students should read a selection and then circle the words
that they see repeated often.
Boldfaced words should indicate important vocabulary.
Students should note words that mean nearly the same.
If students encounter an unfamiliar word, it should be noted
for further investigation.
Group Circled Words
Students should try to make groups out of the words that they
have circled. What words go together?
A Tree Map is a useful tool for grouping words.
Question the Text
Students should identify facts about these groups of words –
who, what, when, where, why, and how?
Students can use text features – headings, captions, and
subheadings – to judge what facts might be important.
Collapse the Categories
Students should try to collapse their tree maps into the fewest
number of categories possible by grouping the most closely
alike material together.
If material cannot fit into a grouping, students should decide
whether or not it should be eliminated. A small category on its
own might indicate that it is trivial or irrelevant information.
Evaluate and Analyze the Facts
Students should analyze the patterns that they see in the
groupings that they have made.
What seems to be important? What is mentioned most?
Is there a judgment about the information? Does something
appear to be bad or good?
Summarize the Pattern
Students should write a summary sentence or paragraph
about the patterns that they have observed.
Students should re-read the text to see if their summary
makes sense in light of the text.
Though these two strategies can help students in comprehension and summarization, there are
a number of other strategies that can be employed. These strategies are divided into categories
depending on what stage in the reading process they can be used: pre-reading, during reading,
or after reading. These strategies, however, are not necessarily limited to these stages – some
can be used in more than one stage of the reading process.
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Pre-Reading
•
•
•
•
Help students
activate prior
knowledge
Help students
build prior
knowledge
Help students
build vocabulary
knowledge
Help students
generate a
purpose for
reading
Anticipation Guide
Write a series of True/False statements based on the reading.
Have students write their responses before they read and then
go back and review their responses after they read.
KWLHS
Create a divided circle map and label the sections (a) What do
you know? (b) What do you need to know? (c) What have you
learned? (d) How do you know what you learned is right? and
(e) What do we still want to learn?
Dramatic Role Play
Either find, write, or have students write a dramatic role-play of a
specific event. There are reader’s theater scripts available for
many famous events.
Alphabet Brainstorm
Give students a topic. Then have them brainstorm as many
things as possible about that topic using the letters of the
alphabet to start each sentence or phrase.
Concept Mapping
Use a circle or tree map to diagram a concept such as freedom
or democracy. To diagram a concept, you must describe (a)
what is, (b) what it is not, (c) examples of the concept, (d) nonexamples of the concept, and (e) the category to which the
concept belongs.
Free Write
Give students a topic and a predetermined amount of time to
write about it. Have students continue to write until their time is
up. Have them share their writing or collect the writing to read
(but not for a grade).
List-Group-Label
Give students a list of vocabulary from a reading assignment and
have them group the words into categories of their own design
based on what they already know. Have them write to the side
words which they do not already know. To encourage debate,
have students work in groups to sort the words.
Predict-O-Gram
Give students a list of vocabulary from a reading assignment and
have them make predictions about the reading based on the
vocabulary. Have students revise their predictions after they
have completed the reading.
Story Impressions
Give students the vocabulary from a text and have them create a
story with the words. You may have to give them some
background for them to be able to make reasonable guesses
about the content.
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During Reading
•
•
•
•
•
Help students
monitor
comprehension
Help students
organize details
Help students
focus on important
information
Help students deal
with problems they
might encounter in
the text
Help students
locate the main
idea
Questions Game
Each student reads the text and writes down three questions he
or she would like answered. Students exchange their questions
with a partner and try to answer each others questions.
Students then discuss their answers and write three new
questions to exchange with another two person team. The
process repeats, forming larger teams after each round.
Post-It Response Notes
As students read the text, have them write responses or make
notes about what they’ve read using post-it notes in the text.
The notes can be for highlighting important information, for
marking answers to comprehension questions, or for recording
personal responses to the material.
Coding Text
Students can use post-it notes to record symbols in their texts.
The symbols can be used to note (a) something that is important,
(b) something that was already known, (c) something that does
not make sense, or (d) something that is interesting. Students
can design their own symbols so that they have personal
meaning.
Think-Aloud
The teacher and the students read a text together. While
reading, the teacher “thinks aloud” the process of
comprehending the text so that students can hear what is going
on in the mind of the teacher. Students should practice this
strategy, which helps them to become more aware of their own
thinking while reading.
Sketching My Way Through the Text
This is an alternative form of note-taking in which students draw
symbols, cartoons, stick figures, or anything which can help them
recall the information in the text. The emphasis in this form of
note-taking is nonlinguistic representation of information.
Double-Entry Note-Taking
Students divide a sheet of paper into two parts. On one side,
they record notes from the text. The other side can be used for
many purposes. One purpose is to write questions that should
be answered from the text to guide note-taking. Another would
be to record personal responses to the information or to make
connections to something already learned. Students can also
summarize the text that they have read in a short paragraph at
the bottom of the other column.
Post Reading
•
•
Help students
reflect on their
reading
Help students
clarify the main
idea
Exit Slips or 3-2-1
Before students can leave class, require them to turn in an “exit
slip” recording something important that they have learned from
their reading. One form of an exit slip is 3-2-1, which asks
students to write down 3 important facts they learned, 2 key
vocabulary concepts in their reading, and 1 big idea that
encompasses the entire reading. The 3-2-1 can be modified to
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•
•
•
Help students
share their reading
Help students to
analyze,
synthesize, and
evaluate the text
Help students
make connections
between
themselves, the
text, other texts,
and the world
do other tasks from reading and is designed primarily for the
teacher to take stock of what students learned. It is not for a
grade.
Written Conversation
In this activity, students take turns writing their thoughts about a
text rather than sharing them orally. Each student writes down a
response to the text and then trades with a partner. Each
student responds to his or her partner’s thoughts by writing a
response. The conversation keeps going until the teacher calls
for the papers to be turned in (not for a grade) or for a wholeclass oral discussion.
RAFT
A RAFT is a writing assignment in which students take a ROLE,
writing to an AUDIENCE, in a specific FORMAT, on a specific
TOPIC that relates to the reading. For example, students
reading about the dropping of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima in
1945 might be asked to write a letter as Albert Einstein to
President Truman on the uses of nuclear technology. RAFT
works best when there are several choices for students to pick
from, so another example might be an editorial from a NY Times
staff writer to the public on rumors of an American secret
weapon that could end the war.
Dramatic Re-Write
After reading a text, ask students to write a reader’s theater
version of the text to be performed in class.
Get in Character
After reading a text, ask students to take the role of a character
or even a non-human object from the reading and write a
monologue, journal entry, or some other form of writing from the
perspective of that character. An example of a non-human
object would be to ask students to assume the role of the
bubonic plague and describe how you have affected the course
of European history.
BIOPOEM
A Biopoem consists of eleven lines that describe a character
from a text. The lines can be changed to suit the purposes of the
class. Here is a standard layout for a biopoem:
Line 1 name
Line 2 four traits that describe the character
Line 3 relative of. . . .
Line 4 lover of (list three things or people)
Line 5 who feels (3 items)
Line 6 who needs (3 items)
Line 7 who fears (3 items)
Line 8 who gives (3 items)
Line 9 who would like to see (3 items)
Line 10 resident of
Line 11 last name
To require students to think more historically, teachers can
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substitute lines and use such phrases as “who changed the
course of history by,” “who should be remembered because,” or
“who believed in. . . .”
Using Thinking Maps to Teach Comprehension
Thinking Maps are an excellent tool for building reading comprehension. Because the
graphic organizers can help students sort and prioritize information from the text, they help
students focus on the main ideas. A very commonly used Thinking Map with reading support is
the Tree Map, whose branches can be used to organize information about the chunks of
information located under each heading in a text. Because different types of texts suggest
different Thinking Maps, the next section will discuss text types and suggest Thinking Maps that
support each type.
Informational Text Patterns
Every text that we read has a layout or pattern that is generally common to the purpose
of that text. These patterns, if the reader is aware of them, can help in promoting
comprehension because they indicate what information is likely to appear in each kind of text.
For instance, a text that discusses cause and effect relationships will use certain words and
phrases to indicate that some event or events led to others. If these words (such as caused, led
to, influenced, made possible, etc.) are recognized as cause-effect words, then the reader will
understand what the passage is trying to say without getting lost in superfluous details.
It is important to note that social studies texts weave together many different types of
text structures within the same section and sometimes even within the same paragraph. A
paragraph might start out with a description of the event but then end with a discussion of its
causes and effects. Very often, discussions of cause and effect involve chronological text
structures since, by their very nature, causes appear before the effects. Students will, therefore,
need explicit guidance in reading some of the most complicated texts in order to separate out
the most important ideas. Below you will find charts of the most common text structures, trigger
words that indicate that they are being used, and suggested Thinking Maps for each.
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Problem/Solution
Cause/Effect
Questions:
• What is the
problem?
• What are the
limits on
resources?
• What are possible
solutions?
• How effective is
each solution?
Questions:
• What is the
event?
• What are the
causes?
• Are some causes
more important
than others?
• What are the
effects?
• Are some effects
more important
than others?
Signal Words:
• for example
• above all
• granted that
• suggests
• indicates
• problem
• solution
• solves
• conclude that
• fix
• issue
• remedy
• resolve
Signal Words:
• because
• since
• resulted
• created
• accordingly
• this leads to
• then
• therefore
• as a result
• so
• thus
• due to
• give rise to
Comparison
Description
Questions:
• What are the
features of the
objects?
• How are they
alike?
• How are they
different?
• What
conclusions
can be drawn
from the
comparison?
Questions:
• What is the
object?
• What are its
attributes?
• Where can it be
found?
• Describe it with
the five senses.
• What is its
classification?
Signal Words:
• also
• compared to
• like
• similarly
• than
• as well as
• in the same
way
• conversely
• likewise
• in contrast to
• differing from
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Signal Words:
above
as in
between
looks like
outside
appears to be
in front of
on the left/right
such as
also
further
moreover
besides
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Persuasion
Questions:
• What are you
trying to prove?
• What facts
support your
ideas?
• Is the
conclusion
logical?
• Can the
opposite be
argued?
Chronology/Procedure
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Signal Words:
because
for this reason
therefore
in conclusion
so that
since
Questions:
• What is the topic?
• How did it begin?
• When did it
begin?
• What happened
to it over time?
• What are the
steps to follow?
• How did it end?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Signal Words:
finally
first
afterwards
before
second
next
meanwhile
then
last
presently
to begin
previously
later
Concept/Definition
Questions:
• What is the
concept?
• How is it
defined?
• What are
examples?
• What are nonexamples?
• To what
category does
it belong?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Signal Words:
for example
specifically
for instance
such as
which is
like
additionally
typically
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A Balanced Reading Diet
Textbooks, Textbooks, Textbooks. It seems that schools were designed for the sole
purpose of keeping textbook companies in business. While it is important that students learn to
read a textbook, they must be exposed to other types of writing. Articles, newspaper accounts,
primary sources, brochures, web-based materials, and other types of texts comprise the types
of texts that students will have to read in their lives beyond school. It is important to acquaint
students with these sources so that they will have practice with all types of writing.
It is important to note here that the definition of text includes non-print materials such as
photographs, documentaries, videos, and even artifacts. Students must learn techniques for
interpreting these materials as well as for reading a good old-fashioned paragraph. Visual and
digital literacy is just as important in the 21st century as text-bound literacy has been since the
invention of movable type. Plan to include these various types of materials in your teaching
repertoire and give students practice with analyzing and evaluating a wide variety of print and
non-print materials.
Practices to Increase/Practices to Decrease
Finally, to summarize what is known about reading instruction and especially contentarea reading instruction, peruse the following chart that clarifies the practices that need to be
increased as well as those that need to be eliminated in reading.
Increase
Students should be reading a wide-range of
real materials, both print and non-print.
Decrease
Students should not be relying on textbooks
for all of their reading.
Teachers should engage in teaching reading
strategies to help students navigate texts.
Teachers should not be merely assigning
reading, hoping that “the students will get
something out of it.”
Students should have choices in what the
read.
Students should not be limited to an approved
list or only the “classics.”
Students should have more opportunities to
read in class.
Students should not have to do all of their
reading outside of class.
Students should be discussing their readings
in small groups.
Discussions of texts should not be limited to
whole-class discussions.
Students should practice reading as a
community, sharing reading of texts and what
they learn with each other.
Students should not be limited to reading as a
individual activity where they are not allowed
to share their learning with others.
Students should be reading multiple works.
Students should not spend many weeks on a
single work.
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Performance Assessment
What are Performance Assessments?
By their very name, performance assessments imply that students are doing a complex task. The
focus of a performance assessment is to see how well a student can apply his or her knowledge of
content by using the skills that he or she has learned. The best performance assessments have several
strong characteristics:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
They mirror real-world tasks.
They require the student to take on a role with an audience.
They involve the sophisticated use of content knowledge.
They require the student to demonstrate knowledge of discipline-specific
skills.
They allow students to personalize the task by involving student choice in
the content or the product.
They allow students to see the grading criteria and performance standards
at the beginning of the task.
They focus on important issues.
They involve rigorous work.
Each characteristic must be present in order for the performance task to have meaning and value as a
tool for uncovering what students really know, understand, and can do. Let us look at each characteristic
individually to explore what it means.
They mirror real-world tasks. A good performance assessment asks the student to use the content
knowledge in the same way that an expert in that field would use it. Obviously, we do not expect
students to have the same level of sophistication that an expert would have. Yet, the performance
tasks can mirror or mimic what an expert would do.
They require the student to take on a role with an audience. The student must act as though he
or she is performing the same role as an expert in the field. In a way, this prepares students for the
real-world by giving them the opportunity to practice what experts really do in each content area. The
student learns to see the task as the expert would see it, and considering the potential audience
makes the student learn how to shape products for different groups.
They involve the sophisticated use of content knowledge. Students in a performance
assessment are not asked merely to regurgitate facts. Instead, they must analyze, synthesize, and
evaluate content material at a deep level to show that they have more than memorized the content.
They require the student to demonstrate knowledge of discipline-specific skills. Students must
not only show that they have a deep understanding of content, but that they have the skills to use that
content. Reading, writing, and speaking skills are necessary for students to effectively communicate
information. Skills which are specific to a discipline—such as analyzing primary sources or
understanding causation—are also required in a good performance assessment.
They allow students to personalize the task by involving student choice in the content or the
product. A good performance assessment will allow a student to have some choice in how the
product is chosen or completed. Students must be given the opportunity to choose what topics
interest them, as well as how they present the information. This will require students and teachers to
consult to make the best choices for students by encouraging them to pick rigorous topics or products
that would stretch the students’ abilities.
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They allow students to see the grading criteria and performance standards at the beginning of
the task. It is critical that students understand the grading criteria and standards for the tasks at the
beginning of the task. This means handing out rubrics and/or showing exemplars of excellent work to
give students guides for improving their performance.
They focus on important issues. A good performance task must focus on the issues that are
critical and central to that discipline. Sometimes, assigned projects cover “favorite topics” that are not
central to the Standard Course of Study and do not provide students with the content knowledge
necessary for mastery of the course.
They involve rigorous work. Rigor is different for every child. What one student thinks is easy,
another might find difficult. Therefore, it is important to encourage students to engage in work that
will stretch their abilities. Yet, there has to be a minimum standard for rigor in selecting performance
tasks – if the task asks students to do something that is considered to have been part of an earlier
grade level, then the task should be re-evaluated.
How do you design a performance task?
There are several steps in designing a performance task.
Select an objective to
be measured by the
performance task.
Write out the expected
content learning
outcomes for the task.
Write out the expected
skill learning
outcomes for the task.
Use GRASPS to frame
the performance
expectations.
Use the 6 Facets of
Understanding to
check for depth and
rigor.
Write a rubric that
guides students to a
successful
performance.
Brainstorm a task that
tests the content and
the skills together.
Here are questions to ask for each of the steps.
1.
Select an objective to be measured by the performance task.
• What content does the objective measure?
• If a student has mastered this objective, what would that look like?
2.
Write out the expected content learning outcomes for the task.
• What are the most important facts that a student must know for this task?
• What big ideas and generalizations should a student show in the task?
3.
Write out the expected skill learning outcomes for the task.
• What skills should this task measure? Reading, writing, speaking?
• Do the skills in the task align with the content?
4.
Brainstorm a task that tests the content and skills together.
• What is a possible project that could be used?
• What projects have you used before that could be re-evaluated?
5.
Use GRASPS to frame the performance expectations.
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• Does the project mirror a real-world task?
• Does the project ask the student to mimic the role of an expert?
6.
Use the 6 Facets of Understanding to check for depth and rigor.
• Does the project ask students to regurgitate memorized information?
• Does the project involve deep understanding of the content?
7.
Write a rubric that guides students to a successful performance.
• Is the rubric clear and understandable?
• Could students use the rubric to self-evaluate their progress?
An important tool for framing a performance assessment is GRASPS. It helps to make sure that the task
is authentic and real-world. The following stem statements can help teachers write a good performance
task.
Goal
The central problem in the task.
Your task is to ________
The goal is to ________
The problem or challenge is _______
The obstacles to overcome are ______
Role
The “character” the student plays.
You are _______
You have been asked to ______
Your job is ______
Audience
The group who receives the performance.
Your clients are _______
The target audience is _______
You need to convince ________
Situation
The circumstances in which the
performance must take place.
The context you find yourself in is ______
The challenge involves dealing with ______
Product, Performance, Purpose
The outcome and the reason for doing it.
You will create a ______ in order to ______
You need to develop _____ so that ______
Standards and Criteria for Success
The measures of a good product or
performance.
Your performance must ________
Your work will be judged by _______
Your product must meet the following
standards ________
A successful result will ______
However, a performance assessment can be designed using GRASPS and yet there can be very little
rigor in the performance. Consider the following example:
You are opening a new museum on the Civil War designed to inform and engage young people.
Your task is to select a decisive Civil War battle, research the battle, and construct a diorama of
the battle. Attach an index card to your diorama containing the date of the battle, the names of the
opposing generals, the number of casualties on each side, and the victor. Finally, create a
topographical map to show an aerial view of the battlefield. Your map must be drawn to scale.
Spelling and neatness count.
While the project might be fun and engaging, the student is not being required to analyze the causes of
the war, the significance of the battle or even a series of battles, or to consider the outcome of the war. It
is likely that the student will spend an inordinate amount of time working on the diorama and have a very
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limited understanding of the war at the end of the project. A useful tool for checking for rigor in a
performance task is to apply the 6 Facets of Understanding to the task. These 6 facets describe the
depth that needs to be in an authentic assessment in order for it to truly measure deep understanding.
The following graphic organizer illustrates the 6 Facets of Understanding and is followed by examples of
what each facet would mean in a social studies project.
Explanation
Knowledgeable account of events,
actions, and ideas
Application
Use of knowledge in
new situations and
diverse contexts
What are the facts?
How does it work?
Why is it that way?
To what is this connected?
How can we prove it?
What explains this?
Where can this knowledge be
used?
How can I change it to fit new
situations?
Six
Facets
Empathy
Seeing a point of view from the inside
Interpretation
Providing meaning for
events, actions, and
ideas
Why does it matter?
What does it say about the human
experience?
Perspective
Critical and insightful points of view
about events, actions, and ideas
What do you think, feel, and
What are the views on this
believe?
subject?
What do I need to
What are my limits?
What are the assumptions?
experience in order to
What clouds my judgment?
What evidence
understand fully?
What are my biases?
supports each
view?
Knowing one’s own ignorance,
limitations, and biases
SelfSelf-Knowledge
Here are some examples for a possible project on slavery.
Explanation
Interpretation
Application
Perspective
Empathy
Self-Knowledge
In an essay, explain how the cotton gin ensured the growth of southern slavery.
In an oral presentation, highlight the debate over the legacy of slavery in
America.
Does slavery still exist? If so, where? Create a documentary on this topic.
Compare abolitionist tracts to pro-slavery literature in a brochure on the subject.
Perform or dramatize a spiritual that was about slaves escaping. Explain the
meaning behind the spiritual.
Write an essay that answers the questions “Am I enslaved? To what?”
Consider the following example which combines all of the facets and GRASPS into one meaningful
project:
The Public Broadcasting System (PBS) is doing a documentary on the history of North Carolina in
the period from 1860 to 1870. To prepare the publicity for the program, copies of hypothetical
documents by North Carolina citizens during this time are needed. (GOAL)
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You are a local historian (ROLE; EMPATHY); the public relations department for the producers
of this program have hired you. You have been contracted to write a speech and a diary entry,
both as might have been written by one person at two different points in time. They want you to
write from the perspective of a person of your choosing in North Carolina immediately prior to the
Civil War (EXPLANATION; INTERPRETATION; PERSPECTIVE; APPLICATION). The first
commentary will be a speech delivered on the eve of secession (PRODUCT). It should set for the
position of this person on the issue of secession. It should be historically justified and engaging to
the audience (AUDIENCE) it was intended for. (SITUATION)
The second piece will be a diary entry, written by the same person in 1867 (PRODUCT). This
should be a reflective piece commenting on the wisdom of the stand taken in the original speech.
The reflection should take into account the values of this person and the consequences of the Civil
War to the person and his or her family (EXPLANATION; INTERPRETATION;
PERSPECTIVE; APPLICATION). Here the narrative should be historically justified and
engaging (STANDARDS) to the audience that the producers of the documentary are trying to
attract as viewers. (SITUATION)
Since the producers are not historians, they have also asked you to write a third commentary, this
one setting out the historical rationale for the two documents and why you chose the person you
selected (INTERPRETATION; SELF-KNOWLEDGE). You realize that this piece will have to be
persuasive and clear. (STANDARDS) The contract calls for the submission of these three
documents in two weeks.
Using the 6 Facets of Understanding and GRASPS to frame a task can be a powerful way of making sure
that the task if authentic and rigorous.
How does a teacher prepare students for a Performance Assessment?
It is important to realize that a teacher cannot handout a sheet detailing and project and expect good
results if students are never shown how to do good work. The important skills that are demanded in the
performance assessment must be taught so that students have the opportunity to practice them before a
final project is due. If the project requires an oral presentation, then students must have time before the
final due date to practice oral presentation skills. And teachers must provide meaningful feedback to
students so that they can learn to be better at whatever skill the assessment measures. There are
several specific steps teachers can take to ensure that students will be successful on a performance
assessment.
Step 1 – Give clear
directions and goals.
Teachers should provide a clear set of directions for the project at the
beginning of a unit of study. These directions should describe the project,
the intended outcomes, any due dates for checking on progress, and the
standards for a good project.
Step 2 – Establish specific
times for monitoring
student progress.
Set dates in advance where students are required to submit drafts in
order to get feedback on their performance.
Step 3 – Use feedback to
guide progress.
Students, using rubrics, can self-evaluate their own work as well as
critique the work of their peers. Teachers must monitor to this process,
making sure that students understand the criteria for the project and are
faithfully evaluating themselves and others.
Teachers can also give feedback using rubrics, written comments, or
during one-on-one interviews with students. The feedback should be
specific, telling students what was acceptable in their work, what was not
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acceptable, and how to improve.
Step 4 – Address student
difficulties in mini-lessons.
If surveys of draft work show a particular weakness in an area, teachers
can do mini-lessons on that particular issue for the entire class. A minilesson might include specific ways to avoid making mistakes, a more
detailed explanation of the expectations for the project, or the use of
example work to illustrate how the project should be completed.
Step 5 – Use exemplars to
illustrate quality work.
Provide, whenever possible, samples of good work that show a range of
possibilities. Do not show just one sample as it will tend to limit students’
thinking and creativity. Whenever possible, find three samples for each
level on the rubric used to evaluate the project.
What does student choice have to do with performance assessments?
If the goal of education is to make life-long learners who are responsible for their own learning, then it
stands to reason that some element of choice should be introduced into any major assessment so that
the student has a vested interest in the outcome. There are a number of ways to introduce choice into
assessments.
Choice in Content – Whenever possible, allow students to suggest their own topics for investigation or
select their own research questions. This often requires teacher guidance so that a student does not
select something that is trivial or too easy. Teachers can provide suggested lists of topics and ideas, but
should be open to additional ones.
Choice in Process – How the student goes about doing the project may be negotiated with the teacher.
This process of negotiation might include flexible deadlines – after all, in the real world, deadlines are
negotiated because the interest is largely in a quality product and not necessarily always meeting time
constraints. This process might also include using outside experts or source material beyond what is
required in the project. If the student can show a reasonable justification for deviation from the project
rules, and if this deviation does not reduce the rigor or challenge in the project, then teachers should be
willing to listen. Both parties can write up the proposals in the form of a contract, which holds the student
responsible for the choices he or she makes.
Choice in Product – Students may show aptitude in certain areas and wish to display their learning in
forms other than written. This should be negotiated with the student as well, since there are occasions
when a written product should be demanded from all because it is an essential skill to learn. But if there
is room for choice, then the teacher and the student can write up a contract to lay out how the learning
will be delivered.
It is important to remember in all of this that students should have the right to fail and learn from their
mistakes. This is a part of life. Students must be encouraged to self-evaluate so that when they
encounter difficulties or find that some choice they made did not go as planned, they will not quit the
project. Provide guidance and be flexible to ask them to consider what went wrong and how it can be
fixed.
What is the best way to score a performance assessment?
The soundest method for scoring a performance assessment is to use a rubric. Unfortunately, the quality
of rubrics available varies widely and it is often difficult to find a useful rubric that will clearly communicate
how well the student has performed. There are several considerations when selecting and designing
rubrics.
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Is the rubric analytic or holistic?
An analytic rubric judges specific traits of a product and gives points for each trait. The points are
then added up to produce a total score. Analytic rubrics are great for giving solid feedback to
students and they are good for multi-part, complex products. Their major drawback is that they
are time-consuming to develop and use.
A holistic rubric judges the product as a whole and assigns one “overall” score for the product.
Rather than judging every specific part of the project, the judge sees the entire result, making this
type of rubric useful for evaluating large-scale assessments (such as AP exams). They provide
less specific feedback, but take less time to make and use.
A. Cell Parts
Data Table
B. Model
C. Intro to
Graphing
10 Points
7 Points
4 Points
0 Points
Functions
correct and
complete
Functions
correct
Functions and
Kingdoms not
complete or
not correct
No functions
or kingdoms
Kingdoms
correctly
identified
Answers show
understanding
of organelle
functions
Kingdoms
incorrect
Answers
copies from
book and
show no
understanding
Inaccurate
and hard to
interpret
No answers
Not 3-D and
cannot be
displayed
appropriately
Somewhat
creative or
materials don’t
correspond to
structure or
function
Problems
completed
No model
Accurate,
informative,
and easily
interpreted
3-D and able
to be
displayed
appropriately
Creative,
materials
correspond to
functions or
structure
All problems
completed,
answers show
understanding
of graphing
process
Answers show
some
understanding
of functions
Accurate and
informative
Not 3-D or
cannot be
displayed
appropriately
Creative,
materials
somewhat
correspond to
structure or
function
All problems
completed,
answers show
some
understanding
of graphing
process
An Analytic
Rubric
No model
No model
Problems not
completed
Totals
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The 8-9 Essay:
•
contains a well-developed thesis that addresses the effectiveness of the Roosevelt
administration’s responses to the problems of the Great Depression and how these
responses changed the role of the federal government
•
presents a strong analysis of several responses to the problems of the Great Depression,
evaluates their effectiveness and discusses changes in the role of the federal government
•
uses effectively a substantial number of documents
•
supports thesis with substantial and relevant outside information
•
may contain minor errors
•
is clearly organized and well written
A Holistic
Rubric
The 5-7 Essay:
•
contains a thesis that identifies the effectiveness of the Roosevelt administration’s responses to the
problems of the Great Depression and provides some connection to the changing role of the federal
government
•
states some responses to the problems of the Great Depression with limited analysis of their
effectiveness, and with some connection to the changing role of the federal government
•
uses effectively some documents
•
supports thesis with outside information
•
may have errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay
•
shows acceptable organization and writing, language err
The 2-4 Essay:
•
contains a limited or underdeveloped thesis
•
responds to the question in a general manner; simplistic treatment of responses to the problems of the
Great Depression, and/or simplistic presentation on the changing role of the federal government
•
merely refers to, quotes, or briefly cites documents
•
contains little outside information that is inaccurate or irrelevant
•
may have major errors
•
may be poorly organized and/or written
The 0-1 Essay:
•
lacks a thesis or simply restates the question
•
demonstrates an incompetent or inappropriate response
•
has little or no understanding of the documents, or ignores them completely
•
has substantial factual errors
•
is poorly organized, and/or poorly written
The – Essay:
•
is completely blank or off topic
What are the criteria to judge the product?
The criteria are the standards on which the product will be graded. In general, most criteria include
several key components:
•
•
•
•
Content – the information used in the product (facts, details, generalizations)
Quality – how well the product was put together (grammar, neatness, layout)
Process – how well the work was completed (deadlines, use of sources, time management,
interaction with group)
Impact – how the product as a whole worked together to inform or persuade an audience
There are a wide variety of criteria on which to judge projects and most of these criteria depend on the
type of project assigned. The specific criteria for a powerpoint would be different from a formal paper just
as speech would have different criteria than a brochure.
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What are the levels of performance for a product?
After selecting criteria for evaluating a product, it is important to decide how many levels of performance
there will be. In this regard, it is best to have a scale that has an even set of numbers (i.e., 1-4, 1-6, 1-8,
etc.) because odd-numbered scales create a tendency for teachers to use the middle score far too often
(this is called regression to the mean).
A typical set of levels would include:
0 – for work not completed or for elements missing
1 – for work that has major errors and demonstrates a need for thorough revision
2 – for work that has a few major errors and is developing
3 – for work that has met the minimal requirements of the project
4 – for outstanding or superior work with very few errors
Some teachers choose to label these levels (below standard, at standard, exceeds standard, developing,
intermediate, proficient, advanced, etc.) but others choose to use numbers only. One danger in using
labels that is overly negative labels (e.g. “minimally competent,” “abysmal,” or “unacceptable”) can often
discourage students and cause them to adopt the labels as fixed, accurate depictions of themselves.
One note on the number of levels: when designing an analytic rubric, the greater the number of levels,
the larger and more complicated the rubric. While a larger number of levels gives the teacher finer
discrimination between levels of performance, it can be unwieldy to use. Be aware of the trade-offs and
issues involved when selecting the number of levels for a rubric.
How does one write the descriptions for each level of performance?
It is best to start with the standard level of performance. What are the minimum expectations for each
criterion listed? What would an acceptable product or performance look like? Try writing a description of
this acceptable product or performance. Then work up to the next level by describing a product that goes
above and beyond the minimum requirements. Then work down by describing products that get
progressively weaker.
Keep your descriptions parallel. If the acceptable performance says “thesis is solid and defendable” then
the other levels must reference the thesis as well. Here is an example of a parallel set of descriptions:
1
Thesis is unclear and
unfocused such that it is
nearly impossible to be
defended.
2
Thesis is weak, leaving
doubt as to its ability to
be defended.
3
Thesis is defendable.
4
Thesis is imaginative,
creative, or unique as
well as defendable.
A common snag in writing descriptions is the use of adjectives that leave doubts about the quality of work
desired. In the examples above, a level two thesis is described as “weak.” What exactly does “weak”
mean? These descriptors may still not provide enough help to students seeking to understand what each
level of performance means in the real world. This requires the teacher to thoroughly explain and
demonstrate what such terms as “weak” and “outstanding” mean.
Tips for Using and Designing Rubrics
Tip 1
Tip 2
Use the same rubric for similar activities (all writing assignments should be
evaluated using the same rubric). This allows students to see their progress over
time on the same standards.
Write rubrics in student-friendly language. Do not assume that students know
what you mean.
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Tip 3
Tip 4
Tip 5
Tip 6
Provide the rubric at the beginning of the project and go through it to give students
a thorough knowledge of the expectations. Periodically review the rubric as
students work on the project to draw them back to the standards.
Allow students to self and peer assess with rubrics. Students should practice
evaluating their own work and the work of others so that they gain a deeper
understanding of the requirement of the project.
Show students exemplars. Provide samples of work at each of the levels of
performance so that students can “see” and “touch” a level 1, 2, 3, or 4 project. If
you save multiple exemplars for each level, it will discourage students from merely
copying one sample.
Separate the grading scale from the rubric. When using the rubric, students
should be focused on creating an excellent product, not on merely attaining a
grade.
Invest some time in gathering and creating excellent rubrics that you can use repeatedly. Each time you
design a new project, design or find a rubric to use with that project and, over time, you will build a
collection of rubrics. But, don’t forget that no rubric ever replaces the genuine comments and
constructive feedback that you, as a teacher, can provide. Conferencing with students about their work is
a great way to convey helpful information about student progress and to build relationships.
What are Possible Products?
Here is a list of products and performances that can be customized to create a specific project. Simply
choose a product or performance and then apply to a period of time or a topic (or let students choose).
Written Products
• advertisement
• biography
• book report/review
• brochure
• editorial
• essay
• experiment report
• historical fiction
• journal
• letter
• log
• magazine article
• memorandum
• newspaper article
• play
• poem
• position paper
• proposal
• research paper
• script
• story
• test
Oral Products
• audiotape
• conversation
• debate
• discussion
• dramatic reading
• dramatization
• interview
• oral presentation
• poetry reading
• puppet show
• radio script
• rap
• skit
• song
• speech
• teach a lesson
Visual Products
• advertisement
• banner
• cartoon
• collage
• computer graphic
• data display
• design
• diagram
• diorama
• drawing
• filmstrip
• flyer
• game
• graph
• map
• model
• painting
• photograph
• poster
• powerpoint
• questionnaire
• scrapbook
• sculpture
• storyboard
• video
• web site
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World History
Suggested Pacing
Unit
Objectives
The Ancient World
1.01, 1.02, 1.03, 1.04, 1.05, 1.06
2.01
8.01, 8.03, 8.06
1.01, 1.02, 1.03, 1.04, 1.05, 1.06
2.02
1.01, 1.02, 1.03, 1.04, 1.05, 1.06
2.03
1.01, 1.02, 1.03, 1.04, 1.05, 1.06
2.04, 2.05
6.01
8.02
1.01, 1.02, 1.03, 1.04, 1.05, 1.06
2.06, 2.07
8.02
1.01, 1.02, 1.03, 1.04, 1.05, 1.06
3.02
8.02
1.01, 1.02, 1.03, 1.04, 1.05, 1.06
2.05, 3.01
8.02
1.01, 1.02, 1.03, 1.04, 1.05, 1.06
2.08
Ancient Greece
Ancient Rome
Early India and China
Islam and Africa
Medieval Europe
China, Japan, Ottoman Empire, India
North and South American Civilizations
Midterm
Renaissance and Protestant Reformation
Wars of Religion, Absolutism, Colonization
Revolutions in Science, the Enlightenment,
American and French Revolutions
Industrial Revolution, Nationalism, and 19
Century Society
Imperialism, WWI, and the 1920s
Colonialism, WWII, and the Cold War
Post-WWII Societies – Global Changes
th
1.01, 1.02, 1.03, 1.04, 1.05, 1.06
3.03
8.03
1.01, 1.02, 1.03, 1.04, 1.05, 1.06
3.03, 3.04, 3.05, 3.06, 3.07
6.01
1.01, 1.02, 1.03, 1.04, 1.05, 1.06
4.01, 4.02
7.01, 7.02
1.01, 1.02, 1.03, 1.04, 1.05, 1.06
3.05, 3.07
4.02, 4.03, 4.05
6.03
7.03
1.01, 1.02, 1.03, 1.04, 1.05, 1.06
4.04, 5.01, 5.02
6.04
8.03
1.01, 1.02, 1.03, 1.04, 1.05, 1.06
4.02, 4.05
5.03, 5.04, 5.05
6.02, 6.04
8.03
1.01, 1.02, 1.03, 1.04, 1.05, 1.06
6.04, 6.05, 6.06
7.01, 7.02, 7.04
8.04, 8.05, 8.06
Days
7
6
5
5
5
5
4
4
5
6
6
6
8
5
5
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