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History and Evidence for Evolution Notes Part 1- History Evolution – Theory – 1. Jean Batiste de Lamarck (1809) a. Acquired Characteristics – b. Example 2. Charles Lyell (1797 – 1875) a. 3. Charles Darwin (1836) a. Natural Selection – 1. 2. 3. 4. Variations must exist Some variations are more advantageous for survival and reproduction Organisms produce more offspring than can survive Offspring of survivors will make up a large % of the population b. Example 4. Alfred Wallace (1823 – 1913) a. Biogeography Part II. Mechanisms of Evolution A. Changes in genetic Equilibrium 1. _________________ are changes in genetic material of an organism. Provides new genetic material in a species. 2. __________________ is the change in allele frequencies of a population as a result of chance processes. i. example 3. _____________________ is the movement of genes in and out of the gene pool. B. Patterns of evolution 1. divergent 2. convergent 3. adaptive radiation - Part III. Evidence 1. Fossil a. found in sedimentary rocks b. organisms buried in layers of mud and/or sand. 2. Types: a. Imprint i. Definition ii. Example b. Mold i. Definition ii. Example c. Cast i. Definition ii. Example d. Petrified i. Definition ii. Example 3. Relative Dating a. Definition b. Example 4. Absolute dating a. The use of radio active isotopes b. A radioactive isotope isc. example Part IV. Evidence 1. Homologous Structures a. Definition b. Example c. Why do scientist use this as evidence of evolution? 2. Vestigial Structures a. Definition b. Example c. Why do scientist use this as evidence of evolution? 3. Analogous Structures a. Definition b. Example c. Why do scientist use this as evidence of evolution? 4. Embryonic development a. Gill slits and tail in human embryo b. Similarities of embryos of dissimilar organisms c. additional info: d. Why do scientist use this as evidence of evolution? 5. DNA/RNA comparison between species and other biochemical comparisons like cytochrome C. a. comparison of nucleic acid sequences show many similarities. c. Example d. Why do scientist use this as evidence of evolution?