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The Financial Accelerator, Globalization and Output Growth Volatility Bruno Ćorić and Geoff Pugh • Decline in GDP growth volatility has not been confined to the US. • Moderation took place in economies at all income levels (Ćorić, 2008). • Although we cannot dismiss the possibility that the explanation(s) is (are) unique for each country, consistency in findings for the US and for large number of other countries suggests the possibility of some common explanation(s). • Globalization and Financial Accelerator Change in aggregate economic activity 1 Change in net worth of economic agents 2 Change in external finance premium • The hypothesized mechanism depends on the assumption of asymmetric economic shocks (consistent with empirical evidence) • However, current downturn suggests considerable synchronization of national business cycles • Many researchers argue that synchronization is positively related to the trade and financial integration (Imbs, 2006; Baxter & Kouparitas, 2005; Calderon at al. 2007). • From this perspective, it is possible that globalization has given rise to offsetting processes: on the one hand the hypothesized moderating effects of international net worth diversification on GDP growth volatility; and, on the other, a tendency towards synchronization of national economic cycles that eventually may have attenuated these effects. • • • This suggests a further hypothesis; namely, that the moderating or stabilizing influence of net worth diversification may have been merely transient, as its capacity to stabilize the global economy was eventually undermined by the synchronizing effects of globalization. • Data limitations Empirical Model: • Data set construction: • • Panel of non-overlapping averages of annual data (85 countries, 1970-2004) To avoid arbitrary selection of time span we draws on Ćorić (2008). • The stock values of foreign direct investment (FDI) are used to construct a proxy for international diversification of economic agents’ net worth (NWD). • The NWD variable is constructed as the ratio of the sum of a country’s stocks of FDI assets and liabilities to its GDP. • Agents doing businesses in a particular country comprise both domestic and foreign economic agents. Hence, the net worth of all economic agents in that country would be more internationally diversified if domestic economic agents have more net worth outside of the country (measured by the country’s stock of FDI assets), and if foreign economic agents have more net worth in the country (measured by the country’s stock of FDI liabilities). • Control variables • We first test hypothesis that, in the decades preceding the current downturn international net worth diversification reduced GDP growth volatility. Robustness • Different measure of volatility: average GDP growth replaced with HP trend to allow for changes in mean GDP growth • Random effect estimation • Robust regression • Dynamic model specifications (Arellano & Bover, 1995, system GMM estimator) • Endogeneity: Instrumental variables estimations (2SLS, GMM, CUE, LIML) • Spurious regression – OLS estimates of the model in rates of change (all variables are differenced) Second hypothesis •The moderating effects of international net worth diversification on GDP growth volatility have been attenuated in recent years. Conclusion • • • Consistently negative and statistically significant coefficients on NWD suggest that international diversification of economic agents’ net worth is associated with lower GDP growth volatility. The significantly positive coefficients on inflation volatility and international trade suggest that higher monetary disturbances and increase in international trade are associated with higher GDP growth volatility. We report some limited evidence that moderating effect of NWD did not operate during the final years of our sample period. • 1. Implications: The reported evidence is consistent with the possibility that economic globalization, by promoting the international diversification of agents’ net worth, may have contributed to reduction in GDP growth volatility by reducing the strength of the FA 2. However, positive coefficients on international trade suggest that in this respect at least globalization may have increased volatility. Taken together, the results suggest that while globalization may have made national economies more exposed to external economic shocks it may helped to make them more resistant to economic shocks as well. 3. New line of enquiry: reduction in the strength of financial acceleration may have been a transient process whose attenuation contributed to the end of the Great Moderation.