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INTRODUCTION TO SURVEYING 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Definition, Object and uses of Surveying Primary divisions in Surveying Fundamental Principles of Surveying Classification of Surveying Plans and Maps Scales Types of Graphical Scales Units of Measurements Surveying is the art of measuring distances, angles and positions on or near the surface of the earth. Surveying is used to the measurement of objects in their horizontal positions. Measurements to determine their relative vertical positions is known as Levelling. OBJECTS AND USES OF SURVEYING Plans for property lines of private, public and government lands Maps for states, districts, countries Road Maps for travellers Topographic Maps showing natural features like rivers, streams, hills, forest Planning and estimating project works like roads, bridges, railways, airports, water supply, waste water disposal. Marine and hydro graphic Survey Military Survey Mine Survey Geological Survey Archaeological Surveys Astronomical Surveys PLAN It is the vertical projection or top view of any object on paper. The area to be represented is small. Distortion is less. Large Scales are used. Mostly include manmade objects. Eg. Plan of Hospital, Building, etc MAP It is graphical representation of the features on paper. The area to be represented is large. Distortion is more. Small Scales are used Mostly include natural objects. Eg. Hill, River, etc PLANE SURVEYING The surveying in which curvature and spherical shape of the earth is neglected and the surface of the earth is assumed to be flat is called plane surveying. Small area and small distances are covered. Degree of accuracy is comparatively low. GEODETIC SURVEYING The surveying in which curvature and spherical shape of the earth is not neglected and the surface of the earth is assumed to be spherical is called geodetic surveying. Large area and large distances are covered. to determine precise positions on the surface of earth. Refined Instruments and Methods are used. Conducted by Government agencies. CLASSIFICATION OF SURVEYING Nature of the survey field. Object of Survey Instruments used Methods employed NATURE OF SURVEY FIELD Land Survey : Various objects on land. It includes Topographic Survey, Cadestal Survey and City Survey 1. Topographic Survey : Natural features like rivers, lakes, forests, hills and manmade features like roads, railways, towns, etc. 2. Cadestal Survey : For making boundaries of municipalities, villages, talukas, districts, states, etc. 3. City Survey : Made in connection with streets, water supply and sewage lines. Marine of Hydrographic Survey : Conducted to find depth of water at various points in bodies of water like sea, river and lakes. Finding depth of water at specified points. Astronomical Survey: Observations made to heavenly bodies like stars, sun, etc to locate absolute positions of points on earth and for purpose of calculating local time OBJECT OF SURVEY Engineering Survey : Data for designing purpose like design of roads, railways, irrigation, water supply and sewage disposals. It is further divided into 1. Reconnaissance Survey : Feasibility and estimation of scheme. 2. Preliminary Survey : For collecting more information to estimate cost of project 3. Location Survey : To set work on the ground. Military Survey : Plans for strategic importance. Mine Survey : Mineral Wealth Geological Survey : Different Strata of earth crust. Archaelogical Survey : Unearthing relics of antiquity. INSTRUMENTS USED Chain Survey Compass Survey Plane Table Theodolite Tacheometric Survey Modern surveys using electronic distance meters and total station Photographic and Aerial Survey METHODS EMPLOYED Triangulation: Control Points are established through a network of triangles. Traversing : Control Points are established which are connected in series through linear and angular measurements. If last line meets the starting point it is called as closed traverse and if it does not meet it is called as open traverse. CLOSED TRAVERSE OPEN TRAVERSE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF SURVEYING Work from whole to part Extra care in fixing new control points. it is always desirable to carryout survey work from whole to part. This means, when an area is to be surveyed, first a system of control points is to be established covering the whole area with very high precision. Then minor details are located by less precise methods. The idea of working this way is to prevent the accumulation of errors and to control and localize minor errors which, otherwise, would expand to greater magnitudes if the reverse process is followed, thus making the work uncontrolled at the end.