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Transcript
INTRODUCTION TO SURVEYING
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Definition, Object and uses of Surveying
Primary divisions in Surveying
Fundamental Principles of Surveying
Classification of Surveying
Plans and Maps
Scales
Types of Graphical Scales
Units of Measurements

Surveying is the art of measuring
distances, angles and positions on or
near the surface of the earth.

Surveying is used to the measurement of
objects in their horizontal positions.
Measurements to determine their
relative vertical positions is known as
Levelling.
OBJECTS AND USES OF
SURVEYING
 Plans for property lines of private, public and
government lands
 Maps for states, districts, countries
 Road Maps for travellers
 Topographic Maps showing natural features like
rivers, streams, hills, forest
 Planning and estimating project works like roads,
bridges, railways, airports, water supply, waste
water disposal.
 Marine and hydro graphic Survey
Military Survey
Mine Survey
Geological Survey
Archaeological Surveys
Astronomical Surveys
PLAN
 It is the vertical
projection or top view
of any object on paper.
 The area to be
represented is small.
 Distortion is less.
 Large Scales are used.
 Mostly include
manmade objects.
 Eg. Plan of Hospital,
Building, etc
MAP
 It is graphical
representation of the
features on paper.
 The area to be
represented is large.
 Distortion is more.
 Small Scales are used
 Mostly include natural
objects.
 Eg. Hill, River, etc
PLANE SURVEYING
 The surveying in which
curvature and spherical shape
of the earth is neglected and
the surface of the earth is
assumed to be flat is called
plane surveying.

Small area and small distances
are covered.

Degree of accuracy is
comparatively low.
GEODETIC SURVEYING
 The surveying in which
curvature and spherical
shape of the earth is not
neglected and the surface
of the earth is assumed to
be spherical is called
geodetic surveying.
 Large area and large
distances are covered.
 to determine precise
positions on the surface of
earth.
 Refined Instruments and
Methods are used.
 Conducted by Government
agencies.
CLASSIFICATION OF SURVEYING




Nature of the survey field.
Object of Survey
Instruments used
Methods employed
NATURE OF SURVEY FIELD
 Land Survey : Various objects on land. It includes
Topographic Survey, Cadestal Survey and City
Survey
1. Topographic Survey : Natural features like rivers,
lakes, forests, hills and manmade features like
roads, railways, towns, etc.
2. Cadestal Survey : For making boundaries of
municipalities, villages, talukas, districts, states,
etc.
3. City Survey : Made in connection with streets,
water supply and sewage lines.
 Marine of Hydrographic Survey : Conducted to find
depth of water at various points in bodies of water
like sea, river and lakes. Finding depth of water at
specified points.
 Astronomical Survey: Observations made to
heavenly bodies like stars, sun, etc to locate
absolute positions of points on earth and for
purpose of calculating local time
OBJECT OF SURVEY
 Engineering Survey : Data for designing purpose
like design of roads, railways, irrigation, water
supply and sewage disposals. It is further divided
into
1. Reconnaissance Survey : Feasibility and
estimation of scheme.
2. Preliminary Survey : For collecting more
information to estimate cost of project
3. Location Survey : To set work on the ground.
 Military Survey : Plans for strategic importance.
 Mine Survey :
Mineral Wealth
 Geological Survey : Different Strata of earth crust.
 Archaelogical Survey : Unearthing relics of antiquity.
INSTRUMENTS USED
 Chain Survey
 Compass Survey
 Plane Table
 Theodolite
 Tacheometric Survey
 Modern surveys using electronic distance meters
and total station
 Photographic and Aerial Survey
METHODS EMPLOYED
 Triangulation: Control Points are established
through a network of triangles.
 Traversing : Control Points are established which
are connected in series through linear and angular
measurements. If last line meets the starting point
it is called as closed traverse and if it does not
meet it is called as open traverse.
CLOSED TRAVERSE
OPEN TRAVERSE
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF
SURVEYING
 Work from whole to part
 Extra care in fixing new control points.
 it is always desirable to carryout survey work from
whole to part. This means, when an area is to be
surveyed, first a system of control points is to be
established covering the whole area with very
high precision. Then minor details are located by
less precise methods.
 The idea of working this way is to prevent the
accumulation of errors and to control and localize
minor errors which, otherwise, would expand to
greater magnitudes if the reverse process is
followed, thus making the work uncontrolled at
the end.