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What do you think?
I. What does marketing channels mean?
II. What does marketing channels do?
III.What are the important changes in
marketing channels?
Ch. 1
Marketing Channels:
Structure and Functions
Key Topics:
1. Economic Rationales for Marketing Channels
2. Functions and Flows in Marketing Channels
3. How Would You Study Marketing Channels?
4. Service Output Demand
Marketing Channels
Originally defined as:
Paths through which
goods or materials
can move from
producers to users.
Middleman or Intermediaries
create value by reducing
the spatial separation –
the physical distance
between the point of
production and point of
consumption
Ch. 1 - 1
Marketing Channels: Overview
I. Introduction
• Definition: A set of interdependent
organizations involved in the process of
making a product of service available for
consumption or use.*
• Four Types of Utility: Form, Time, Place,
and Possession utility
Marketing Channels Act as
Exchange Facilitators
We define a Marketing
Channel as exchange
relationships that
create customer value
in the acquisition,
consumption, and
disposition of products
and services
Ch 1-2
The Economic Rationales for Marketing Channels
• The Efficiency Rationale for Intermediaries
(Figure 1-1)
• The Discrepancy of Assortment and Sorting
• Routinization
• Searching
FIGURE 1.1: CONTACT COSTS TO REACH THE MARKET
WITH AND WITHOUT INTERMEDIARIES
Selling Directly
Manufacturers
40 Contact
Lines
Retailers
FIGURE 1.1: CONTACT COSTS TO REACH THE MARKET
WITH AND WITHOUT INTERMEDIARIES
Selling Through One Wholesaler
Manufacturers
Wholesaler
Retailers
14 Contact
Lines
FIGURE 1.1: CONTACT COSTS TO REACH THE MARKET
WITH AND WITHOUT INTERMEDIARIES
Selling Through Two Wholesalers
Manufacturers
Wholesalers
Retailers
28 Contact Lines
FIGURE 1-1: CONTACT COSTS TO REACH THE MARKET WITH AND WITHOUT
INTERMEDIARIES
Manufacturers
Selling Directly
40 Contact Lines
Retailers
Manufacturers
Selling Through One Wholesaler
Wholesaler
Retailers
Manufacturers
14 Contact Lines
Selling Through Two Wholesalers
Wholesalers
28 Contact Lines
Retailers
Ch. 1-3
Functions and Flows in Marketing Channels*
A. Functions in Marketing Channels
–
–
–
–
–
Carrying Inventory
Demand generation
Physical distribution
After-sale service
Extending credit to customers
B. Flows in Marketing Channels (Figure 1-2)
- Physical Possession
- Promotion
- Financing
- Ordering
- Ownership
- Negotiation
- Risking
- Payment
FIGURE 1.2: MARKETING FLOWS IN CHANNELS
Producers
Physical
Possession
Ownership
Physical
Possession
Ownership
Physical
Possession
Ownership
Promotion
Promotion
Promotion
Negotiation
Negotiation
Negotiation
Financing
Financing
Financing
Wholesalers
Retailers
Risking
Risking
Risking
Ordering
Ordering
Ordering
Payment
Payment
Payment
Commercial Channel Subsystem
Consumers
Industrial
and
Household
Ch 1-4
How Would We Study Marketing Channel?
• Marketing Channels as a Network of Systems
- Interdependent and Interrelated systems
- Open systems
• Service Outputs as Determinants of
Marketing Channel Structure
- Spatial Convenience
- Lot size
- Waiting or delivery time
- Product variety and assortment
- Customer Service
Ch 1-4
How Would We Study Marketing Channels (Cont’d)
• Marketing Cost as a Determinant
ex) Transaction Cost Analysis
• Cost and Benefit as Determinants
ex) Governance Value Analysis
• Additional Considerations: Technological,
Cultural, Geographic, and Social
FIGURE 1-3: FRAMEWORK FOR CHANNEL DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION
Channel Design Process:
Channel Management Process:
SEGMENTATION:
Recognize and respond to target customers’
service output demands
Decisions About
Efficient Channel Response:
CHANNEL STRUCTURE:
What kinds of intermediaries are in my
channel?
Who are they?
How many of them?
SPLITTING THE WORKLOAD:
With what responsibilities?
DEGREE OF COMMITMENT:
Distribution alliance?
Vertical integration/ownership?
GAP ANALYSIS:
What do I have to change?
CHANNEL POWER:
Identify sources for all
channel members
CHANNEL CONFLICT:
Identify actual and potential
sources
MANAGE/DEFUSE
CONFLICT:
Use power sources strategically,
subject to legal constraints
GOAL:
Channel Coordination
INSIGHTS FOR SPECIFIC CHANNEL INSTITUTIONS:
Retailing, Wholesaling and Logistics, Franchising
FIGURE 1-4: ORGANIZATION OF THE TEXT
Channel Design
Process:
Channel Management
Process:
SEGMENTATION: Chapter 2
CHANNEL POWER:
Chapter 6

CHANNEL CONFLICT:
Chapter 7
Decisions About
Efficient Channel Response:
MANAGE/DEFUSE
CONFLICT:
Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
CHANNEL STRUCTURE:
Chapter 4
SPLITTING THE WORKLOAD:
Chapter 3
DEGREE OF COMMITMENT:
Chapters 8, 9
GAP ANALYSIS:
Chapter 5
GOAL:
Channel Coordination
INSIGHTS FOR SPECIFIC CHANNEL INSTITUTIONS:
Chapters 11, 12, 13