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Chapter 8: Learning
1 – Name two scientists famous for their studies of classical conditioning
2– What scientist first studied operant condition by examining the behavior of rats in a box with levers that gave them rewards?
3 – As a child, you were playing in the yard one day when a neighbor’s cat wandered over. Your mother (whose has a terrible fear of
animals) screamed and snatched you into her arms. Her behavior caused you to cry. You now have a fear of rats. What is the
4 – In Pavlov’s original experiment with dogs, the meat served as the (UCS, UCR, CS or CR)?
5 – During extinction, the _________ (UCS, UCR, CS, or CR) must be omitted.
6 – Bill once had a blue car that was in the shop more than it was out. Since then he will not even consider owning blur or green cars.
Bill’s aversion to green cars is an example of ___________.
7 – In Garcia and Koelling’s studies of taste-aversion learning, rats learned to associate taste with sickness, but not the shape of food.
8 – Give an example of operant conditioning.
9 – What is one difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning?
10 – What do we call the type of operant conditioning in which the subject is rewarded for behaviors that are ever closer to the desired
11 – What type of response is the following: You instruct your child to put on their coat when they go outside because it is cold
12 – Jack finally takes out the garbage in order to get his father to stop pestering him. This is an example of _________________.
13 – Give an example of positive reinforcement.
14 – Which will lead to faster learning – immediate or delayed reinforcement?
15 – What is secondary (or conditioned) reinforcement?
16 – Gambling on a slot machine is an example of what type of reinforcement schedule?
17 – Lars, a shoe salesman, is paid every two weeks. He is paid on what type of reinforcement schedule?
18 – Tom receives a commission for every 5 pairs of shoes he sells. He is paid on what type of reinforcement schedule?
19 – Why is punishment considered to be less effective than reinforcement in many cases?
20 – Kim’s mother decides to reward her daughter’s enjoyment of karate by paying her 75 cents for each hour that she practices.
Eventually, Kim stops enjoying karate. What is this called?
21 – After watching coverage of the Olympics on TV recently, Lynn and Susan have been staging their own “summer games”. What
does this behavior represent?
22 – Modeling another’s desirable behavior is called ____________.
23 – What is latent learning?
24 – What is a cognitive map?
25 – What scientist studied observational learning with the famous “Bobo doll” experiment?
26 – In order to obtain a reward, a monkey learns to press a lever when a 1000-Hz tone is on but not when a 1200-Hz tone is on. What
kind of training is this?
1 – Pavlov and Watson (there are others, of course; these were the two mentioned in class)
2 – Skinner
3 – mom’s scream
4 – UCS
5 – UCS
6 – generalization
7 – rats are biologically predispositioned to associate sickness with taste over shape.
8 – Any example in which a behavior is increased or decreased with rewards or punishment.
9 – classical (involuntary behaviors, stimulus precedes behavior), operant (voluntary behaviors, stimulus follows behavior, rewards
and punishments, trial and error)
10 – shaping
11 – negative reinforcement
12 – negative reinforcement
13 – any example in which a stimulus is presented to increase the frequency of a behavior.
14– immediate
15– It is a reinforcer that is not innately satisfying, but that we have learned is satisfying.
16 – variable ratio
17 – fixed interval
18 – fixed ratio
19 – Any of the following: the subject is not given a new behavior that they are aiming for, behavior is not forgotten and may
reappear, punishment may cause fear of the punisher, punishment teaches aggression
20– overjustification effect
21– observational learning
22 – prosocial learning
23 – learning in the absence of a reward or punishment; for example, you put rats in a maze with no reward and they will explore and
24 – it is a mental representation of an area.
25 – Bandura
26 – discrimination