Download Biodiversity

Document related concepts

Extinction wikipedia , lookup

African elephant wikipedia , lookup

Island restoration wikipedia , lookup

Biodiversity of New Caledonia wikipedia , lookup

Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary wikipedia , lookup

Pharmacognosy wikipedia , lookup

Tropical Andes wikipedia , lookup

Habitat conservation wikipedia , lookup

4 unit
Biodiversity refers to the variety and variability among
all groups of living organisms and the ecological
complexes of which they are a part
Units of Biodiversity
1)Genetic diversity
2)Species diversity
3)Ecosystem diversity
Genetic diversity
• Genes are the basic units of hereditary information
transmitted from one generation to other
• The genes found in organisms can form enormous
number of combinations each of which gives rise to some
• When the genes within the same species show different
versions due to new combinations, it is called genetic
• For eg, all rice varieties belong to the species Oryza
Sativa, but there are different varieties which differ in
their shape, size, aroma due to variations at the genetic
Species diversity
• This is the variability found within the
population of a species
• The richness of species in an ecosystem is
called species diversity
• The total number of living species is in the
range of 10-50 million. But till now only about
1.5 million species have been actually
described and given scientific names
Ecosystem diversity
• An ecosystem develops its own characteristic
community of living organisms depending
upon the availability of abiotic resources,
environmental conditions and other factors
• For eg, a pond possess different sets of flora
and fauna as compared to the river ecosystem
• This diversity has developed over millions of
years of evolution and is of great value that
must be kept intact
Biogeographical classification of India
• India has different types of climate and topography in
different parts of the country and these variations
have induces enormous variability in flora and fauna
• India has a rich heritage of biological diversity and
occupies the tenth position among the plant rich
nations of the world
• Based on the biodiversity, climate, topography India
has been classified into 10 biogeographic zones
India’s biographic zones
Biographic Zone
Biotic Province
Trans –Himalayan
Upper regions
North-west Himalayas, West Himalayas, Central
Himalayas, East Himalayas
Kutch, Thar, Ladakh
Central India, Gujarat-Rajwara
Western Ghats
Malabar Coast, Western Ghat mountains
Deccan Peninsula
Deccan plateau south, Central plateau, Eastern
plateau, Chotta Nagpur, Central highlands
Gangetic plain
Upper gangetic plain, Lower gangetic plain
North-East India
Brahmaputra valley, North-Easter hills
Andaman islands, Nicobar islands, Lakshadweep
West coast, East coast
Biogeographical classification of India
Value of biodiversity
The multiple uses of biodiversity value has been
classified by McNeely et al in as follows:
1) Consumptive use value
2) Productive use value
3) Social value
4) Ethical value
5) Aesthetic value
6) Optional values
7) Ecosystem service value
Consumptive use value
These are direct use values where the biodiversity product can be
harvested and consumed directly
e.g. fuel, food, drugs ,fibre etc
A large number of plants are consumed by human beings as food. About
90% of present day crops have been domesticated from wild tropical
Drugs and medicines:
75% of the world’s population depends upon plants or plant extracts for
Penicillin-Penicillium Quinine-Bark of cinchona
Vinblastin and Vincristine-Catharanthus
Forests have been used since ages for fuel wood. Fossil fuels are also
products of fossilized biodiversity
Productive use values
• These are commercially usable values where the
product is marketed and sold
• It may be lumber, wild gene resources
• Animal products like tusks of elephants, musk
from musk deer, wool from sheep
• Despite international ban on trade in products
from endangered species, smuggled hide, fur,
tusks worth millions of dollars are being sold
Social value
• Values associated with the social life, customs,
religion and psycho-spiritual aspects of people
• Many of the plants are considered holy and
sacred in our country (Tulsi, Peepal, Mango)
• Many animals like cow, snake, bull, peacock
also have significant place in our psychospiritual arena and thus hold special social
Ethical value
• Ethical values is also sometimes known as
existence value.
• It involves ethical issues like “all life must be
preserved” and the concept of “Live and let
• The ethical value means we may or may not
use a species, but we feel the existence of the
species is necessary
Aesthetic value
• Great aesthetic value is attached to biodiversity
• Stretches of barren lands with no signs of
visible life is not a pleasant sight
• Eco-tourism is based on the aesthetic value of
• Ecotourism is estimated to generate about 12
billion dollars of revenue annually
Optional values
• These include the potentials of biodiversity
that are presently unknown and need to be
• For eg, there is a possibility that we may have
potential cure for AIDS or cancer existing
within the depths of marine ecosystem, or
tropical ecosystem
Ecosystem service value
It refers to the services provided by ecosystem like
Prevention of soil erosion
Prevention of floods
Maintenance of soil fertility
Cycling of nutrients and water
Fixation of nitrogen
Role as carbon sinks
Different categories of biodiversity value clearly indicate
that ecosystem, species and genetic diversity have
enormous potential and a decline in biodiversity will lead
to huge economic, ecological and socio-cultural losses
India as a mega-diversity nation
• India is one of the 12 mega diversity countries in the
• The ministry of Environment and Forests, records
show 47,000 plant species and 89,000 animal species
• A large proportion of the India Biodiversity is still
• Due to diverse climatic conditions there is a complete
rainbow spectrum of biodiversity in our country
Distribution of species in India
Group-wise species distribution
Lower groups
Reasons for India as a mega-diversity nation
• Species which are restricted only to a
particular area are know as endemic.
• India shows a good number of endemic
species. About 62% amphibians 50% lizards
53% fresh water fishes 36%reptiles
10%mammals and 33% flowering plants are
endemic to India.
• Western ghats are the site of maximum
Reasons for India as a mega-diversity nation
2)Centre of origin
• A large number of species are know to have
originated in India
• Nearly 500 species of flowering plants have
their origin in India
• India has been the center or origin for 166
species of crop plants and 320 species of wild
relatives of cultivated crops
Reasons for India as a mega-diversity nation
3)Marine diversity
• The coastline of our country exhibits a rich
• Along 7500 km long coastline, in the
mangroves, coral reefs back waters etc,
different species are found
• The marine diversity is rich in mollusks,
crustaceans and several species of mangrove
plants and sea grasses are found
Biodiversity at global national and
local level
Global biodiversity :
Globally we have roughly identified
1,70,000 flowering plants
30,000 vertebrates
2,50,000 other groups of species
Terrestrial biodiversity :
Tropical rainforests,savannas,desert,tundra etc.
Tropical rainforests
• These are the earths largest storehouse of
• About 50 to 75% of global biodiversity lies in
these tropical rain forests.
• Of about 3000 plants identified by national
cancer research 70% is derived only from
tropical rain forests
• Extracts from one of the creeping vines in the
rain forests at cameroon have proved effective
in the inhibitioin of replication of AIDS virus
Temperate forests
Globally they have nearly
• 1,70,000 flowering plants
• 30,000 vertebrates
• 2,50,000 other groups of species.
Marine diversity
Marine diversity is even much higher than
terrestrial biodiversity but it is still less known
and described
Biodiversity at national level
• India is the second largest nation containing
5% of world’s biodiversity and 2% of the
earths surface
Hotspots of biodiversity
• Areas which exhibit high species richness as
well as high species endemism are termed as
hotspots of biodiversity
• To qualify as a biodiversity, a region must
meet two strict criteria:
1)It must contain at least 0.5% or 1,500 species
of plants as endemics,
2)It has to have lost at least 70% of its primary
Global hotspots of biodiversity
1)Tropical Andes
2)Mesoamerican forests
4)Brazil’s Atlantic forest
5)Western Ecuador
6)Brazil’s Cerrado
7)Central Chile
8)California Floristic Province
10)Eastern Arc and coastal
forest of Tanzania/Kenya
11)Western African Forests
12)Cape Floristic Province
13)Succulent Karoo
14)Mediterranean Basin
19) Eastern Himalayas
20)South-central China
21)Western-Ghats Sri Lanka
22)South-western Australia
23)New Caledonia
24)New Zealand
Salient features of Indian Hotspots
A)Eastern Himalayas:
• The eastern himalayan region encompasses Bhutan,
North east India, and south, central and eastern Nepal
• The region is home to 163 globally threatened species
including Asia’s
Three largest herbivores –the Asian elephant, the greater
one horned rhinoceros, and the wild water buffalo
Carnivore-The tiger
Birds-Vultures, Storks and hornbills
• Out of the world’s recorded flora, 30%are endemic to India
of which 35,000 are in the Himalayas
Salient features of Indian Hotspots
B)Western Ghats
• It extends along a 17000 strip of forests in
Maharashtra, Karnataka, TN and Kerala and has 40%
of total endemic plants
• The major centers of diversity are Agastyamalai Hills
and Silent valley-the New Amambalam reserve basin
• It is reported that only 6.8% of original forests are
existing today while the rest has been deforested or
Threats to Biodiversity
• Extinction or elimination of a species is a
natural process of evolution.
• The process of extinction has become
particularly fast in the recent years of human
• One of the estimates puts the figure of
extinction as 27/day
• If the present trend continues we would lose
1/3rd to 2/3rd of our current biodiversity by the
middle of 21st century
Loss of Habitat
• Destruction and loss of natural habitat is the single largest
cause of biodiversity loss
• Billions of hectares of forests and grasslands have been
cleared over the past 10,000 years for conversion into
agricultural lands, pastures, settlement areas or
development projects
• Thousand of species have perished due to loss of their
natural habitat
• A phenomenon known as habitat fragmentation have
resulted in loss on many singing birds
• As a result of human intervention marine biodiversity is
under serious threat due to large scale destruction of the
fragile breeding and feeding grounds
• Illegal trade of wildlife products by killing
prohibited animals, is a threat to wildlife
• Despite international ban on trade in products
from endangered species, smuggling of
wildlife items like furs, hides, tusks, etc
• The worse issue is that for every live animal
that gets into market, about 50 additional
animals are caught and killed
Man-wildlife conflicts
• When wild life causes immense damage and danger
to man , the conflict occurs
• In retaliation, the villagers electrocute or kill the
animals which sometimes exceed poaching
1) Dwindling of habitats and human encroachments
into the forest areas
2) The wild life corridors through which animals used
to migrate seasonally have been used for human
settlements and hence animals attack the settlements
Causes of man-animal conflict
3) The stopping of cultivation of paddy, sugarcane etc..
within the sanctuaries have led the animals to stray
4) The compensation paid by the government in lieu of
the damage caused to the crops is not adequate and
the agonised farmer gets revengeful and kills the
wild animals
5) Ususally the ill, weak and injured animals have a
tendency to attack man
Classification of species
Extinct species- A species is said to be extinct when it is
not seen in the wild for 50 years at a stretch. Eg Dodo,
passanger pigeon
Endangered species-When the number has been reduced
to a critical level or whose habitats have been drastically
reduced and when not protected and conserved they are
endangered species
Rare species-Species which are not endangered at
present, but are at risk are categorised as rare species
Endemic species-Species which are restricted to a
particular area is called as endemic species
Endangered species
• These are species which if not protected are likely
to become extinct in near future
• The International Union for Conservation of
Nature and Natural Resources(IUCN) publishes
the Red Data Book which includes the list of
endangered species of plants and animals
• In India nearly 450 plant species , 150 mammals
and 150 species of birds have been listed as
endangered species
Few endangered species of India
1) Reptiles :Green sea turtle, Tortoise, Python
2) Birds: Peacock, Great Indian Hornbill, Pelican,
Siberian White Crane
3) Carnivorous mammals: Indian wolf, red fox, tiger,
lion, red panda, leopard, striped hyena, desert cat,
4) Primates: Capped monkey, golden monkey, nilgiri
langur, hoolock gibbon
5) Plants:species of orchids, rhododendrons Santalum,
Cycas beddonei etc
Endemic species of India
• India has two biodiversity hotspots and thus
possesses a large number of endemic species
Endemic flora-Sapria himalayana, Uvaria lurida,
Nepenthes Khasiana, Pedicularis
perroter etc
Endemic animals-Varanus, reticulated python,
Indian Salamander, Viviparous
toad, nectophhryne
Red fox
Indian wolf
Capped langur
Hoolook gibbon
Nilgiri langur
Desert cat
Red panda
Golden langur
Cycas beddomei
Green sea turtle
Conservation of biodiversity
• The enormous value of biodiversity due to
their genetic, commercial medical, aesthetic
importance emphasize the need to conserve
• There are two approaches of biodiversity
– In situ conservation
– Ex situ conservation
In Situ conservation
• This is achieved by protection of wild flora and fauna
in nature Biosphere reserves, National parks,
Sancturies, Reserve forests etc
• The Biosphere reserves conserve some representative
ecosystems as a whole for long term in situ
conservation. Gulf of mannar, Nilgiri, Sunderbans,
Nanda devi are few biosphere reserves
• A National park is an area dedicated for the
conservation of wildlife along with its environment.
• Each park aims at conservation of some particular
species of wildlife along with others
Important national parks in India
Name of the national park
Important wildlife
One horned Rhino
Gir national park
Indian Lion
Elephant, Tiger
Wild life sanctuaries
• These are protected areas where killing, hunting,
shooting or capturing of wildlife is prohibited except
under control of highest authority
Name of Sanctuary
Major wild life
Ghana Bird Sanctuary
300 species of birds
Hazaribagh Sanctuary
Tiger, Leopard
Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary
Migratory birds
Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary
Water birds
Abohar wildlife Sanctuary
Black buck
Mudumalai wildlife Sanctuary
Tiger, elephant, Leopard
Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary
Water Birds
Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary
Rhinoceros, elephant, Tiger
Wild Ass Sanctuary
Wild ass, Wolf, nilgai, chinkara
Ex situ conservation
• This type of conservation is mainly done for
conservation of crop varieties, the wild
relatives of crops and all the local varieties
• In this the conservation in captivity under
human care
• The objective is to conserve the total genetic
variability of the crop species for future crop
improvement or afforestation programmes
Important gene bank/seed banks
1) National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources
(NBPGR)-Located in New Delhi
Here agricultural and horticultural crops are cryo
2) National Bureau of Animal Genetic
Resources(NBAGR)-Located in Haryana
Preserves semens of domesticated bovine animals
3) National Facility for Plant Tissue Culture Repository
Conservation of crop plants/trees by tissue culture
Project Tiger
• Project Tiger Scheme has been under implementation
since 1973 as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme of
Government of India
• The main objective of Project Tiger is to ensure a viable
population of tiger in India for scientific , economic ,
aesthetic , cultural and ecological values and to preserve
for all time, areas of biological importance as a natural
heritage for the benefit, education and enjoyment of the
• Main objectives under the scheme include wildlife
management, protection measures and site specific eco
development to reduce the dependency of local
communities on tiger reserve resources
Project Tiger
• Initially, the Project started with 9 tiger reserves,
covering an area of 16,339, with a population
of 268 tigers. At present there are 27 tiger reserves
covering an area of 37761, with a population
of 1498 tigers
• Project Tiger has put the tiger on an assured course of
recovery from the brink of extinction, and has
resurrected the floral and faunal genetic diversity in
some of our unique and endangered wilderness
Project Elephant
• Project Elephant (PE), a centrally sponsored scheme, was
launched in February 1992 to provide financial and technical
support to major elephant bearing States in the country for
protection of elephants, their habitats and corridors
• The Project Elephant in India also aimed to decrease the
human-elephant battles and help in the welfare of domesticated
elephants in India
• Aims:
1) Ecologically restoring the natural habitats and migratory
routes of the elephants
2) Resolution of the increasing conflicts between man and
elephants in important habitats and moderating the pressures
important elephant habitats
Various aims of Project Elephant
4) Developing scientific and planned management measures for
conservation of elephants and controlling the population of
wild Asiatic elephants, which are almost on the verge of
5) Protecting the elephants from poachers and other unnatural
causes of death and illegal ivory trade is also one of the
major concerns of the Elephant Project in India
6) Researching on issues related to elephants and creating
public awareness and education programs for it
7) Eco-development and Veterinary care for the elephants
8) Project Elephant also aims at maintaining health care and
breeding of tame elephants
Current status of Project Elephant
• The project elephant has still not led to as much
increase in the number of elephants as it was
• Wildlife conservationists state that the progress has
been real slow and people in charge of the project are
themselves not very clear of the causes of decline in
the number of elephants
• Project Elephant tries to ensure a free movement for
the elephants and thus conserve large areas for them
that are called ‘elephant reserve range’