Download Intro Kingdoms ppt

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Deception in animals wikipedia , lookup

Animal communication wikipedia , lookup

Theory of mind in animals wikipedia , lookup

Animal cognition wikipedia , lookup

Animal locomotion wikipedia , lookup

Animal coloration wikipedia , lookup

Sea urchin wikipedia , lookup

Phylum Porifera
Halichondria panicea, Breadcrumb sponge
Belonging to the phylum Porifera, and
really not much of an animal, is the
bread crumb sponge, so called because
it crumbles easily when pried off the
rocks. Sponges are really a loose
collection of cells, which carry out the
basic functions of animal life almost
independently of one another. They are
the only animals to correspond to the
cell aggregate plan.
Phylum Porifera
Halichondria panicea, Breadcrumb sponge
Bread crumb sponge is often
camouflaged by green algae, which
provides the sponge with nutrients in
return for protection. For a long time,
nobody even knew if the sponge was an
animal. Then it was discovered that
water 7was entering through tiny pores,
oxygen and food was being removed,
and waste was being expelled through
much larger pores, which on the bread
crumb sponge resemble volcanoes.
Phylum Porifera
Haliclona oculata
This sponge reaching up from the ocean
floor is appropriately named deadman’s
fingers. Sponges, because they are filter
feeders, live in water. Many phyla are
totally aquatic, and many are largely
marine, that is most members are found
in salt water. Sponges are permanently
attached to the bottom and do not draw
away when touched, as they have no
nervous system nor distinct tissues or
Phylum Coelenterata (Cnidaria)
Tealia felina, Dahlia anemone
Again, it is hard to believe that this is an
animal. Sea anemones are commonly
called the flowers of the sea. Their
tentacles resemble petals. Sea
anemones, jellyfish and hydroids all
belong to the phylum Coelenterata.
They are more complex animals than
the sponge, and their design conforms
to that of the blind sac plan. These
animals have a single opening to take in
food and expel waste.
Phylum Coelenterata (Cnidaria)
Tealia felina
Small animals that come within range of
the tentacles are quickly enveloped, and
the captured prey drawn into the sac
where it is digested. While digesting,
the anemone resembles a stewed
tomato. Can you think of any
disadvantages in having a single
opening serving as both a mouth and an
Phylum Coelenterata (Cnidaria)
Cyanea capillata
The lion’s mane is the world’s largest
jellyfish. Unlike the hydroids, some
jellyfish deliver a powerful sting. With
the sac opening located in the center
and encircled by tentacles, jellyfish can
be considered upside down sea
Phylum Mollusca
Lunatia heros
The moon snail outdoes itself exhibiting
one of the characteristics of the phylum
Mollusca, the strong muscular foot used
for locomotion. When foraging, the foot
and the head extend out from the shell.
The shell provides protection for the
soft-bodied mollusk inside. And
believe it or not, the moon snail is able
to completely withdraw its head and
large foot when threatened.
Phylum Mollusca
Littorina littorea
A party of periwinkles feed on the slimy
algae covering the rocks. Mollusca is a
large phylum and an important one. It
is the first phylum to fully exhibit the
tube within a tube body plan.
Phylum Mollusca
Aeolida sp.?
This is a nudibranch, commonly called a
sea slug. Think of it as a snail removed
from the shell and untwisted. With a
nudibranch, the bilateral symmetry is
evident; there is a definite head with
tentacles, where the mouth is located,
and at the tail end, an anus.
Phylum Mollusca
Coryphella rufibranchialis
Nudibranchs are beautiful animals,
despite their close relation to the
common garden slugs. Internally, they
exhibit the tube within a tube body
plan, common to the majority of
bilaterally symmetrical animals. The
inside tube is a digestive system; the
outside tube is a fluid filled body cavity
called the coelem. The coelem is of
great significance in animal evolution.
Phylum Mollusca
Mytilus edulis
Within the phylum mollusca, is a class
of animals called the bivalves, that is,
having two shells compared to the one
shell carried by the snails. In certain
areas, these blue mussels completely
cover the bottom.
Phylum Mollusca
Placopecten magellanicus
A large bivalve, the scallop, a large
circular muscle that holds the two
halves of the shell together, and it is
this muscle that is the edible part of the
Phylum Mollusca
Bathypolypus arcticus, Little octupus
The octopus is a most unlikely mollusc,
but it along with the squid, nautilus and
cuttlefish, are grouped within the
phylum Mollusca. With the squid and
cuttlefish, the shell remains, but is
internalized. The octopus has lost its
shell entirely.
Phylum Annelida
Nereis virens
The clam worm, a worm with a
difference. Its body is divided into
similar rings or segments, which places
it in the phylum Annelida, the
segmented worms. Segmentation has
improved the annelid’s ability to
burrow and swim. When swimming, the
clam worm is continually rewriting the
letter “S”.
Phylum Annelida
Tomopteris sp.
Some annelids are very effective
swimmers, and spend their whole life in
the open water. Segmentation has
obviously not affected the digestive
tube of these worms, but the encircling
tube, the fluid-filled coelem, is
Phylum Annelida
Amphitrite johnstoni
Other annelids build tubes for
themselves. This annelid is normally
obscured by its tube, which it constructs
with the use of its long, orange
tentacles. The red tentacles are for
Phylum Arthropoda
Pandalus borealis
This shrimp is a member of the largest
and most diverse phylum – Arthropoda.
Three quarters of all animal species
are arthropods. A distinguishing
feature of all members is a jointed or
segmented outer skeleton, known as an
exoskeleton. Segmentation of the
shrimp’s muscular abdomen allows for
quick backward movement as well as
being a delicacy for seafood fans.
Phylum Arthropoda
Gammarus oceanicus
The amphipod’s body is completely
segmented. If seaweed is pulled aside
or a rock lifted up at low tide, these
animals demonstrate their flexibility as
they hop into the air or scoot across the
rocks to escape.
Carcinus maenas
The green crab exhibits the jointed legs
from which the phylum derives its
name, and all members share.
“Arthron” for jointed as in arthritis,
“pod” for leg as in tripod.
Phylum Arthropoda
Pagurus acadianus
The hermit crab has taken to inhabiting
the vacated homes of molluscs, the
shell of the moon snail.
Phylum Arthropoda
Pagurus acadianus
The hermit crabs soft abdomen is well
adapted for wrapping around the spiral
interior of the snail’s shell.
Phylum Arthropoda
Balanus balanoides
At first glance, an unlikely member of
the phylum arthropoda, the barnacle,
can be easily mistaken for a mollusc.
However, when submerged, these top
plates move apart and the animal begins
to feed.
Phylum Arthropoda
Balanus sp.
Barnacles extend from 3 to 6 pairs of
segmented feathery legs, which trap
minute food particles and then are
withdrawn. A 19th century biologist
described the barnacle as nothing more
than a little shrimp-like animal standing
on its head in a limestone house and
kicking food into its mouth.
Phylum Echinodermata
Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis
These are the needle-like spines of the
sea urchin, which belongs to the
phylum Echinodermata.
Echinodermata is translated as
hedgehog or spiny skin. Another
common feature of this phylum, are
tube feet, seen here extending between
the spines.
Phylum Echinodermata
Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis
The tube feet are primarily used for
locomotion, but may be used for
feeding and respiration. The tube feet of
the sea urchin are arranged in five rows
running from the mouth on the
underside to the anus on top. Sea
urchins are closely related to sand
dollars and sea buns.
Phylum Echinodermata
Asterias forbesii
A common seastar moving slowing
using tube feet on the underside of each
arm. The echinoderms are a confusing
bunch, are well developed structurally,
thought to extend from a bilateral
ancestor, and the larvae are bilaterally
symmetrical, but the adults are radially
symmetrical, with no head or brain.
Phylum Echinodermata
Ophiopholis aculeata
The brittle stars are another group of
echinoderms. As the name implies,
their arms break off easily. The arms of
the brittle star are sharply set off from
the central disc.
Phylum Echinodermata
Gorgonocephalus arcticus
Another brittle star – the basket star.
Though beautiful, the arms signify
death for many small prey. Sometimes
these animals form entangled masses
and the net is spread even wider.
Phylum Echinodermata
Cucumaria frondosa
One group of echinoderms not sought
after by shell collectors, the sea
cucumbers. Although bearing no
obvious resemblance to the seastars, sea
urchins or brittle stars, the 5 rows of
longitudinally arranged tube feet
provide the necessary clue to indicate
their relationship to other echinoderms.
Phylum Echinodermata
Psolus fabricii
When undisturbed, the crown of
tentacles surrounds the mouth. Food
particles are collected by the tentacles,
which are then placed in the mouth and
wiped off, as they are withdrawn. The
anus is located at the opposite end of
the animal.
Phylum Chordata
Boltenia ovifera
Not a fruit, but a vegetable, the sea
potato. Like a sea peach, but on a stalk.
Tunicates are one of the most unlikely
animals to bridge the gap between
invertebrates and the vertebrates. But
zoologists have placed the tunicates in
the phylum Chordata that is, with those
animals possessing a backbone. Among
other similarities, tunicates in their
larval stages develop the beginnings of
a backbone, which later disappears.
Phylum Chordata
The fish is no borderline invertebrate,
possessing a well-developed vertebral
column. There is much debate as to
which invertebrate phylum, the
invertebrates evolved from. The phyla
Annelida, Echinodermata and even
Nemertina have been suggested.
Whatever their origin, the invertebrates,
those spineless, are an immensely
fascinating and diversified group.