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EU citizenship
By Eurogems
What is citizenship?
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• What is ‘citizenship’?
• Citizenship, Identity, Nationality
• Formal and legal concepts of citizenship
• Historical and cultural understandings of citizenship
• Modern concepts and practices of citizenship
• The relation of a citizen to the local environment, the region, the
state and to Europe: the
interaction of European, active and democratic citizenship
• Widening concentric circles: European Citizenship
• Citizenship and identity: European citizenship
• Integrating European citizenship into youth work and formal
education activities
• Is there a ‘good citizen’?
What is citizenship?
• Citizenship is more about responsibilities than rights:
difference between duties and rights;
• State controls your rights, we are the rights, human rights
(what was not given, cannot be
• taken away), first responsibilities, then can ask for rights;
• Citizenship is related so much with the education.
• Citizenship is not on the passport it about the feelings.
• It is about living together, saying your opinion, listening to
other, compromising and
• putting to action.
• European citizenship – participation in social and political
life. It’s also about rights.
How do young, active citizens live their
lives?
• It was attempted to (1) describe how are young European
citizens living their lives (busy,
• overloaded with school, family, friends commitments and
other involvements, not
• interested in political life of the country, more self-oriented
and individualistic, spent part
• of life in the virtual sphere) and to (2) analyze what
influence and has led to this (changes
• in family and society, growing competition and pressure to
be successful, growth of
• individualism and materialism in out societies, school
curriculum not preparing for the real
• life.
What is the purpose of young people’s
formal and non-formal education?
• Summarized: Give knowledge, be space to
acquire and practise your skills, be example to
develop attitude. Challenge lays in the fact
that we don't anymore know what kind of
educational children/people need.
How can powerful formal and non-formal education
generate young, active citizens?
• By giving knowledge, creating safe learning
environment and being a place to learn and to
• exercise ones citizenship, by giving examples and
support, by giving guiding and
• inspiration. School plays very important role since it is
both learning institution and model
• of society in itself. Here we learn how to live together.
Non- formal education provides
• spaces for initiatives and exercise of citizenship
through action, here we put out knowledge
• into practise and learn a lot of social skills plus we learn
and "train” our attitudes.
Citizenship: a metaphor
• Citizenship was introduced as a
multidimensional concept having 4
dimensions. To show importance of each
dimension the metaphor of chair was used,
since it explains best about the need of
balance between each “leg” to create a
balance and harmonious“citizenship”.
Citizenship: a chair
Citizenship: the 4 dimensions
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Political dimension
Social dimension
Cultural dimension
Economic dimension
Citizenship: political dimension
• The political dimension of citizenship refers to
political rights and responsibilities vis à vis the
political system
Citizenship: social dimension
• The social dimension of citizenship refers to
the behaviour between individuals in a society
and requires some measure of loyalty and
solidarity
Citizenship: cultural dimension
• The cultural dimension of citizenship refers to
the consciousness of a common cultural
heritage –in the interrelated diversity-
Citizenship: cultural dimension
• The economic dimension of citizenship refers
to the relationship between an individual and
the labour- and consumer- market.
• It implies the right to work and to a minimum
subsistence level
Citizenship framework
Knowledge, Skills, Attitudes
The most important elements..
• Personal identity and sense of belonging;
• Learning about citizenship with young people;
• Approach towards citizenship, education and citizenship
education;
• Chance to share the knowledge and practises with other
practitioners in the field;
• Reflection on my own identity and its links to others;
• Planning educational activities about citizenship;
• Different definitions and approaches which put citizenship
in broader philosophical context;
• Educational theories and approaches;
• Active participation of young people;
The most important elements..
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Mixture of learning methods was really good;
Being part of diverse learning group;
Values shared / knowledge gained / experience skilled;
“Do It Yourself” – chance to employ previous and new
KSA into practise;
Working in groups proved to be efficient way to
exchange ideas, opinions etc;
Citizens Café;
Education for Citizenship;
Linking formal and non-formal education;
Being able to explore and practise my own citizenship;
Attitude towards European
Citizenship
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I am even more motivated to go on with my work promoting active
citizenship and I am eager to put it on European level;
Motivated to work to give others an opportunity to be active
citizens;
Sometimes word “Europe”, “European” is an obstacle for work due
to prejudices in some countries;
I still find this term confusing and would rather use “active” or
“democratic” citizenship;
More positive about it;
It gained dimensions of diversity and democracy;
Proved once again that European citizenship is not only legal and
economical concept. Behind it stands set of values which we
respect and doesn't really matter which term we use to describe it;
Attitude towards European
Citizenship
• I felt European before but now got motivation
to share this feeling with others;
• Completed my knowledge and will be able to
look at the subject not only from perspective
(context) of my country;
• Feel more attached to the issue in my
personal and professional life;
• Attitude hasn’t changed but it opened my
mind to some new aspects;
In which fields you would still like to improve your
knowledge and skills concerning European Citizenship?
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Need to learn and master English language;
Improve cooperation on the international level;
Get used to different structures of European youth work;
Increase /develop professional vocabulary in English/French;
Historic analysis;
Skills to do social analysis of the context I am working/living in;
Improve knowledge about citizenship education in the formal and
non-formal
• Education settings;
• Active participation;
• Would like to learn more about Eastern European countries (Russia,
Azerbaijan,Georgia, Moldova);
In which fields you would still like to improve your
knowledge and skills concerning European Citizenship?
• Legal foundations o the citizenship;
• More concrete skills and more practise;
• Will continue to work on my knowledge, skills and
attitudes;
• Would like to find innovative ways ED education (FE/NFE),
not only lessons and exchanges;
• Funding possibilities for citizenship education;
• European dimension of identity;
• Have to work on my confidence and communication skills;
• European Citizenship historic development;
• More about EU citizenship;
• Would like to improve own training skills;
INPUT ON CITIZENSHIP AND
EUROPEAN CITIZENSHIPS
• Citizenship is a multidimensional, non-economic
concept.
• Components:
• • cultural (language, symbols, artistic creation,
etc)
• • civil (liberties of individuals)
• • political (democratic system)
• • social (basic provisions, standard of life)
• • economical dimensions
Citizenship as a legal status can be
based on:
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Residence, territory;
Nationality
Place of birth
Marriage
Blood
Language
Religion
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There are few more dimensions to add
to this legal status:
• “Sense of belonging” is very important;
• Active citizenship – active social role which
you take when you have this feeling of
belonging.
• This way you can practize your rights and
responsibilities
Citizenship is a status and role:
• a juridical and political status, a civic contract
between the State and individual.
• a social role and needs a civic literacy and
certain competencies to effectively exercise
the citizen status.
Citizenship is a process of interactions
• between individuals
• between individuals and social groups
• between individuals and society
• between social groups
• between the national cultures
Belonging to a community:
• Community can be chosen as one of identities
• It can be disassociated from sense of
belonging to “territory” in favour of belonging
to
• “Community” since no longer we so strongly
bound to one particular territory and
community.
Citizenship is context-related
• It can have a simultaneously diverse content depending
on the political community it refers to - we
• can be:
• – Local (encouragement to be active on local level)
• – National
• – EU
• – European
• – World (these later two are voluntary chosen or
chosen not to practise them)
The difference between the European citizenship and
the citizenship of the European Union
• European citizenship is a concept of citizenship as
citizen-citizen relation, based on human rights
and responsibilities of people. Citizenship which
can be defined ‘European’ supports the process
of construction of a new Europe.
• The citizenship of the European Union is clearly
different category (see the Constitution of the
European Union). Similarly constructed as the
concept of national citizenship
State-citizen political relation includes:
• Set of rights and liberties that State/European
Union grants its citizens
• Legal rules
• Ensures access to public life and participation
in politics
• Strongly connected to nationality and territory
(certified by passports)
European citizenship as citizen-citizen
relation
• is not abstract and static status, can be lived
• can be chosen as one of the identities of an individual
• makes the civil society and the achievements of the
‘civil’ democracy more important
• practice of a moral code, a code that has concern for
the rights and interests of others
• the rights of individuals are limited by the similar rights
of other individuals
• dissociates citizenship from belonging to a particular
territory (country)
European citizenship in youth work
• Is not completely new dimension of youth
training
• working with European Citizenship should not
be limited to the promotion of awareness
• youth work should also provide a space where
young people and youth workers can
experience and practise the European
citizenship as active social role.
European Citizenship:
• EC is always under construction and is based
on identity (voluntary chosen)
• It is Citizen – citizen relationship
• Civil society play very active role in EC
phenomenon
• Legal basis – human rights convention (NB.
Has no link to particular country and Citizen State
• relationship)
PDF papers about EU identity
• European identity: construct, fact and fiction
• The meaning of nationality and European
Identity among Youths from different Nations
• «EU Enlargement, EU Identity, Culture and
National Identity in the Eastern Regions»
• BUILDING THE EU IDENTITY
EU citizenship and Turkey: pdf
• EU Identity Needs Help from Turkey
• UNITY IN DIVERSITY? THE CHALLENGE OF
DIVERSITY FOR THE EUROPEAN POLITICAL
IDENTITY AND DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE:
TURKISH MEMBERSHIP AS THE ULTIMATE TEST
CASE - Sanem Baykal*
Other inputs about citizenship
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Citizenship and active citizenship
EU identity
Identity-politics in the European Union
The EU Identity crises
European values and identity
Turkey in the EU - What the public thinks
Other inputs about citizenship
• European Islam: challenges for public policy
and society
• The future of Islam in the European Union
• Future prospects for Turkey’s economy
EU and Turkey
• The prospect of a possible EU membership of
Turkey as well as issues relating to
globalization and immigration have further
added to the identity debates.
• Surveys show that EU citizens continue to
identify first of all with their own country.
Eurobarometer
• According to a Eurobarometer survey , at the
end of 2004 only 47 % of EU citizens saw
themselves as citizens of both their country
and Europe, 41 % as citizens of their country
only. 86 % of the interviewees felt pride in
their country, while 68 % were proud of being
European.
Issues
• Europe of culture or "family of nations"
• Europe of citizens or "constitutional
patriotism"
• Europe as space of encounters
A CHARTA
OF EUROPEAN IDENTITY
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Europe is a community of destiny
Europe is above all a community of values
Europe is a community of life
Europe is an economic and social community
Europe is a community of responsibility
Towards an European Identity
Eurobarometer: questions
• National Identity - European Identity - World
Identity
• Do you ever think of yourself not only as
(nationality) citizen, but also as a citizen of
Europe? Does this happen often, sometimes
or never?
• Do you ever think of yourself as not only
(nationality), but also European? Does this
happen often, sometimes or never?
Eurobarometer: questions
• And do you ever think of yourself as citizen of
the world? Does this happen often, sometimes
or never?
• In the near future do you see yourself as ... ?
- (NATIONALITY) only
- firstly (NATIONALITY) and then European
- firstly European and then (NATIONALITY)
- European only
- As (NATIONALITY) as European (SPONTANEOUS)
Others
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Hopes of a European patriotism
'Europe' seen from outside
Idea of 'Europe‘
Pan-Europeanism
Popular culture
European symbols
ESDS International Case Study
• Title: When do people feel European? European
identity, EU attitudes, and questionnaire design
• Author: Robert Johns
• Institution: University of Strathclyde
• Date: January 2008 - May 2008
• Subject area(s): Politics
• Relevance to other area(s): Psychology, research
methods
• Project type: Academic research
ESDS: Objectives
• When European identity questions are located immediately
after EU questions, there will be a stronger correlation
between European identity and support for the EU.
• The location of European identity questions with respect to
EU questions will influence the relative levels of European
identity across different EU states.
• When European identity questions are located immediately
after EU questions, there will be a lower overall level of
European identity.
• When European identity questions are located away from
EU questions, European identity will be common even
among anti-EU respondents
ESDS: Methodology
• The project required the ordering,
downloading and statistical analysis of a large
number of Eurobarometer datasets. Those
analyses were relatively straightforward: it
was a case of comparing levels of European
identity across surveys and across countries,
and correlating European identity with
attitudes to the EU.
ESDS: Results
• The results carry implications for survey designers, reinforcing the
importance of question order, and warning Euro barometer
methodologists that they cannot expect to measure pure European
identity if – as has become the norm – those questions immediately
follow a long battery of questions about the European Union. More
broadly, these findings are relevant to a wider study of the extreme
right in Europe. There is increasing evidence that extreme-right
parties are actively encouraging a sense of European identity
among their supporters and target audiences, in order to add a
cultural veneer to their anti-immigrant discourse (and their
opposition to Turkish membership of the EU). These findings
suggest that, far from being narrow nationalists, extreme right
sympathizers are willing to express a positive European identity,
provided that – as in extreme right discourse – this is presented as
distinct from pro-EU sentiment