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ECE 4552: Medical Electronics Fall 2012
Registration No. _______________
Department of Electrical Engineering,
The University of Lahore, Lahore
Final Term Exam
Max Marks: 120
January 18, 2013 (Friday) at 02:00 PM
Max Time Allowed: 180 min
Read the questions carefully. Understanding the questions is crucial in attempting exams.
Write in a legible manner. Do not waste paper.
All questions carry equal marks.
-------------Question No. 1
(a) Draw Nerve Action Potentials generated in human nerves. What is Saltatory conduction? How Schwann
Cells does improves nerve conduction?
(a) What is EMG? What’s the difference between measurement of Sensory NCV and Motor NCV? What is
the reason? What are the standard configurations of electrodes in measuring MNCV?
Question No. 2
a) What is EEG? Show the most common electrode placement system on paper showing all necessary
details. What difference should be made if we want to localize tumor in brain. Describe AEP and
electrode configurations.
b) Suppose a prosthetic hand with wrist capable of yaw and pitch movement is to be designed for a
patient. What steps are needed to design this job? Present necessary block diagrams and circuits.
Question No. 3
(a) Draw the three Augmented Limb Leads. How many leads are obtained using Transverse Plane ECG?
Which signal is taken as reference lead?
(b) What are the common classifications of pacemaker circuits? Describe the five letter codes used for it.
(c) If 50 A of current is to be supplied for 5 ms to cause defibrillation for a mature-aged person having
chest resistance of 40 ohms, how much energy is required?
To deliver this energy, we need to charge a capacitor. The range of capacitance available is 20uF-60uF.
Choose a capacitor and the voltage required to supply the calculated energy.
Why do we require an inductor in the circuit? What extra element would be required in case we add an
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Question No. 4
(a) How does an Ultrasonic Blood Velocity meter detect forward and reverse flow of blood? Explain with
(b) What are the useful applications of electrical stimulation of neural tissues? If a current threshold of 10
mA (p-p) is required to stimulate a neural tissue near to skin using surface electrode, what frequency
should be selected in case of AC stimulation. What if DC stimulation is applied?
Question No. 5
(a) Draw the generalized structure of an image processing system.
(b) What are the major components of an MRI machine?
(c) How an image is acquired using a CT scan? What is the strength of a CT scanner? Is it the hardware of
the software? Explain with reference to the terms Tomography and ART.
Question No. 6
(a) Draw equivalent electrical model of electrode and skin. How half cell potential does appears in bio
(b) What are the traditional and non-traditional sources of bio-potentials? Name a few of both. Describe
signal characteristics and placement of electrodes in any one of the non-traditional sources of biopotentials.
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