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Questions for final control module 2.
General structure of blood vessels wall.
Morphological classification of artery.
Structure and functional peculiarities of different types of arteries.
Structure and functional peculiarities of aterioles, capillares and venules, arteriovenous
5. General structure of capillaries. Classification of capillaries.
6. General structure and classification of arteriovenous anastomoses.
7. Morphologic classification of vein.
8. Microscopic structure of different types of vein.
9. Deference between structure of vein and artery, structure and function peculiarities
10. Classification, structure and functional peculiarities of lymphatic vessels.
11. General structure of heart wall.
12. Endocardium. Valves.
13. Cardiac muscular tissue. Histophysiologies and localization different types of cardiac
muscle cells.
14. Histophysiological structure and functional peculiarities of conductive system
15. Structure of epiocardium and pericardium.
16. Formation and position of the heart.
17. Formation of the cardiac loop.
18. Development of the sinus venosus.
19. Development of the conus cordis.
20. Heart defects.
21. Septum formation.
22. Vascular development.
23. Development of the arterial system, aortic arches.
24. Circulation before and after birth.
25. Circulatory changes at birth.
26. Development and obliteration of the cardinal veins.
27. Development of the vitelline and umbilical veins.
28. Vessels defects.
29. Structural and functional characteristics of central organs of hematopoiesis and immune
system that distinguish them from other organs.
30. List the principal functions of central organs of hematopoiesis and immune system.
31. Hematopoiesis - erythropoiesis (red blood cell formation). Cellular changes that occur
during erythroid differentiation include (1) decrease in cell size, (2) condensation of
nuclear chromatin, (3) decrease in nuclear diameter, (4) accumulation of hemoglobin in
the cytoplasm (increased acidophilia), (5) decline in the number of ribosomes in the
cytoplasm (decreased basophilia), and (6) ejection of the nucleus.
32. Leukopoiesis (white blood cell formation) encompasses both granulopoiesis and
33. Thrombopoiesis.
34. Histogenesis and involution of bone marrow.
35. Structure and function of thymus.
36. Structural and functional characteristics of blood supply and blood-thymus barrier.
37. Hormone production of thymus.
38. Histogenesis and involution of thymus.
39. Effects of thymectomy.
40. Structural and functional characteristics of peripheral lymphoid organs that distinguish
them from other organs types.
41. List the principal functions of peripheral lymphoid organs.
42. Structural and functional characteristics of stroma and parenchyma of peripheral
lymphoid organs.
43. Types of peripheral lymphoid organs and give examples of body sites where each may be
44. Committed immunocompetent cells that respond to specific antigens (mechanism of this
45. Structural and functional characteristics of endocrine organs that distinguish them from
other organs types.
46. List the principal functions of endocrine organs.
47. Structural and functional characteristics of stroma and parenchyma of endocrine organs.
48. Types of endocrine organs and give examples of body sites where each may be found.
49. Hormones produced by the pituitary, indicating for each one the division and cell type
responsible for its production as well as its target site.
50. Hypothalamus nuclei. Peculiarities of the neurosecretory cells.
51. Description of role of the hypothalamus in controlling pituitary functions.
52. Description of blood supply to the pituitary and its role in pituitary functions.
53. The location, shape and embryonic origin of the thyroid gland.
54. The role of the pituitary gland and hypothalamus in the regulation of thyroid follicular
55. The effects of thyroid hormones on their target tissues.
56. The description of the thyroid follicles, follicular cells, basement membrane, colloid,
capillaries of the thyroid gland.
57. The structure, function and location of the parafollicular cells.
58. To distinguish between an active and inactive thyroid gland on the basis of follicular
morphologic characteristics.
59. The comparison of parenchymal cell types of the parathyroids (chief cells and oxyphil
cells) in light and under electron microscope.
60. The role of the parathyroid hormone in controlling blood calcium and phosphate levels
and the specific effects of this hormone on its target tissues.
61. The factors that control the secretary activity of the parathyroid glands.
62. To distinguish between the cortex and medulla of the adrenals in terms of their
histological structure, function, location and embryonic origin.
63. The layers of the adrenal cortex in terms of each layer’s histological structure, the
hormones secreted.
64. Functional relationship between the adrenal medulla and the nervous system.
65. The role of the pituitary, hypothalamus, and kidneys in regulating adrenocortical
hormone secretion.
66. The role of adrenocortical hormones in regulating adrenomedullary function.
67. Digestive tube. General structure, innervations, vascularisation, function.
68. Oral cavity. Lips, cheeks, soft and dark palate, their structure and function.
69. The tongue, origin, tissues compounds, structural peculiarities of the upper, lower and back
70. Morphofunctional characteristic of the tongue papillae.
71. Taste bud – structure and function.
72. Sources of origin, structure and tissue compounds of the tooth.
73. Enamel, dentin and cementum - histological structure and composition.
74. Palp and periodontal ligament structure and function.
75. Tooth development. Permanent and deciduous teeth.
76. General srtucture of digestive tube. Pharynx wall histologic structure.
77. Esophageal mucous and submucous structure.
78. Esophageal glands disposition, structure and function.
79. General features of stomach structure: portion and layers.
80. Stomach glands types, disposition and cell compounds.
81. Stomach muscular and serous tunics.
82. Development and tissues compounds of the small intestine wall.
83. Morphofuctional characteristic of the simple columnar brushed epithelium of the villi and
84. Small intestine submucous. Duodenal glands structure and function.
85. Lymphoid follicles in small intestine, disposition and function.
86. Muscular and external tunics of the small intestine.
87. Large intestine anatomical portion and wall tunic’s structure.
88. Appendix structure and function.
89. Rectum portions and function.
90. General morphofunctional characteristic of large salivary glands and their classification.
91. Structural and functional characteristics of the parotid, submandibular and sublingual
glands secretory portions (acini).
92. Main microscopic and ultramicroscopic signs of muco- and serocytes.
93. Large salivary glands excretory ducts.
94. Salivary glands excretory products and hormones.
95. Description of the liver’s double blood supply.
96. Description of the complex structure of a hepatocyte and relation of its structure to its
main functions.
97. Description of the classic liver lobule, the portal lobule, and the hepatic acinus.
98. Principles components of a portal triad.
99. Description of the composition and production of bile.
100. Function of gallbladder.
101. Description of the size, staining properties, and distribution of the islets of Langerhans
in the pancreas.
102. Role of the cells of the islets of Langerhans in regulating blood glucose levels.
103. Description of two types of pancreatic exocrine secretions in term of their composition,
role in the digestion, cells primarily responsible for their secretion and the
enteroendocrinal hormone that stimulates their release.
104. Main enzymes secreted by the exocrine pancreas.
Important skin’s functions and relation of them to its structure.
Major layers of skin and the basic tissue type predominate in each.
Cell types commonly found in the epidermis and description of their structure,
function and location.
Layers of the epidermis of thick skin and description of the distinguishing
structural features of each.
Steps in the processes of epidermal cell renewal and keratinization in relation to
the epidermal layers.
Comparison of the 2 layers of the dermis.
Description of the important components of the skin derivatives.
Comparison of the 2 types of glands associated with the skin.
113. Name the divisions of the respiratory system and the components of each.
114. Describe the walls of the respiratory tract in terms of the arrangement, composition,
and function of the component layers and describe the structure and function of the cells
in each layer.
115. Distinguish between different parts of the respiratory tract on the basis of regional
differences in wall structure.
116. Describe the structure of the interalveolar septum.
117. Describe the structure and function of the blood-air barrier and identify its components
in an electron micrograph.
118. Compare sympathetic and parasympathetic effects on bronchial smooth muscle.
119. Describe the structure, function, and location of the pleura.
120. Identify the organ, tissues, and cell types present and distinguish between the various
components of the respiratory system from a slide or photomicrograph of the respiratory
tract or lung tissue.
121. Parts and functions of the urinary system and description of the roles of each organ.
122. Identity and description of the substructures of the kidney.
123. Comparison of the kidney cortex and medulla in terms of structure and function.
124. Description of the structure and function of each component of a nephron.
125. Circulation of blood through the kidney.
126. Theory of urine formation.
127. Description of the smooth muscle fibers in the muscle tissue of urinary bladder.
128. General structure and function of the testis.
129. Description of the spermatogenesis and structural peculiarities of the spermatogenetic
cells at different stages of their development.
130. Structure and function of the testis seminiferous tubules, microscopic and
ultramicroscopic structure of the Sertoli cells.
131. Structural and function of the haemotesticular barrier.
132. Function of Leyding cells.
133. Structure of the wall of the tubuli recti, the rete testis and the mediastinum testis.
134. Structure of the wall of the ductus efferents and the ductus epididimus.
135. Morphological characteristic of the ductus deferents, the ductus ejaculatorius and the
136. General structure and function of the prostate gland.
137. Hormonal interaction of the hypophysis and the male reproductive system.
138. Development and general structure of the ovary. The role of the interstitium.
139. Excretory function of the ovary and correlation with the other endocrine glands.
140. Ovogenesis. Comparison of the stages of the ovogenesis and spermatogenesis.
141. Stages of the formation of the corpus luteum, its endocrine function.
142. Atresia of the folliculi. Atretic body, its main differences from corpus albicans and
corpus luteum.
143. General structure of the wall of the uterus.
144. Description of the stratum basalis and stratum functionalis of the endometrium and
their vessels.
145. Structure of the wall of the uterine tube, the relief of the mucous tunic, the peculiarities
of the epithelial cellular composition.
146. Structure of the wall of the vagina and cyclic changes of the epithelium and mucous
147. General description of some cyclic changes in the uterus and ovary. Periods of the
menstrual (sexual cycle).
148. Development and general structure of the mammary gland.
149. Structure of the mammary in the period of lactation and in the nonlactation state.
150. Description of the secretory process and hormonal adjusting of the function of
mammary gland.
The nerve system, general characteristic. Classification and origin.
Spinal ganglion origin, development, general structure and functional meaning.
Morphological and functional peculiarities of spinal node sensory neurons and
neuroglial compounds.
Peripheral nerve structure and meaning of connective tissue tunics.
Degeneration and regeneration of the nerve after damage.
Simple and complex somatic reflex ark principal compouunds.
The structural and functional characteristics of the spinal cord.
Comparison of gray matter and white matter in terms of: their location in the spinal
cord and their predominant neuronal compounds (cell bodies, axons, dendrites).
Description of the source, composition and circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid.
Cerebellum: general structure and function.
Layers of the gray matter cortex, characteristic of each neuron, which one can find in
the cortex.
Main structures peculiarities of the cerebellum gray matter.
The structure and role the reticular formation tube.
Thalamus: its main nuclei function.
Embryonic origin, structural and functional characteristics of the central nerve system.
166. Cytoarchitecture and myeloarchitecture of cerebral cortex.
167. Morphofunctional characteristic of cerebral cortex neurons.
168. The agranular and granular types of cerebral cortex.
169. Classification of sensory receptors.
170. Description of general features of the sense organs.
171. The major steps in the embryonic development of the eye.
172. 3 compartments in the eye, give the boundaries of each.
173. 5 layers of cornea and description of composition of each.
174. General characteristic features of the audiovestibular organ: the external, middle and
internal ear.
175. Ampullary crests, spots of the utricle and saccule; disposition, ultrastructure and
176. Spiral Corti`s organ: disposition, structure and function.
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