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Respiratory System
1) What do each of these parts of the respiratory system do?
-Lungs: Inhale and exhale air in order to bring oxygen to the body
-Alveoli: Allow gas exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the surrounding blood vessels
-Pleural Fluid: Lubricates the pleural membranes and prevents the lungs from sticking
-Nasal Passages: Takes in and filters air
-Bronchi: Divide the trachea and direct the flow of air to each of your lungs
-Bronchioles: Further divide the bronchi and direct the flow of air to the alveoli
-Mucus: Traps bacteria and lubricates your respiratory and digestive systems
2) Where can you find mucus within the body?
The trachea, the stomach, the nasal passages, etc.
3) Explain how gas exchange happens within the alveoli.
Oxygen diffuses into the arteries and veins surrounding the alveoli, and carbon dioxide diffuses out of
the same blood vessels, into the alveoli
4) Describe the process of ventilation. Include all of the steps, in the correct order.
Inhalation: Diaphragm contracts, the volume of the chest cavity increases, the air pressure inside of
the chest cavity drops, air rushes in from outside the body, the air inflates the lungs, oxygen diffuses
into the bloodstream
Exhalation: Carbon dioxide diffuses into the alveoli, diaphragm relaxes, the volume of the chest cavity
decreases, the air pressure inside of the chest cavity increases, air rushes out of the lungs and leaves
the body.
5) Label the picture below.
6) Compare and contrast combustion and respiration.
-Combustion needs the following to happen:
SPARK, FUEL SOURCE, OXYGEN
-Combustion produces the following:
SMOKE, CO2, HEAT, LIGHT
-Respiration needs the following to happen:
OXYGEN, GLUCOSE
-Respiration produces the following:
ATP, HEAT, CO2, WATER
7) How does fermentation work? Why is respiration better for cells than fermentation?
FERMENTATION OCCURS WHEN THE BODY USES SOMETHING OTHER THAN OXYGEN TO PROCESS
GLUCOSE. THIS PRODUCES FAR LESS ATP THAN RESPIRATION.
8) Why is it dangerous to climb high mountains, in regards to the respiratory system? How can you train
to minimize the risks?
THE AIR IS THINNER AT HIGH ELEVATIONS, MEANING LESS OXYGEN IS PRESENT. A LACK OF OXYGEN
TO YOUR BLOODSTREAM WILL RESULT IN PASSING OUT. TO TRAIN, YOU CAN GRADUALLY CLIMB UP
AND DOWN REPEATEDLY, AT INCREASING ELEVATIONS, TO GET YOUR BODY USED TO THE
ELEVEATION. THIS IS CALLED ACCLIMATIZATION.
9) Describe what an Iron Lung does, and how it is like the respiratory system.
THE IRON LUNG FORCES THE PERSON INSIDE OF IT TO BREATHE THROUGH USE OF CHANGING THE
VOLUME OF THE METAL CHAMBER BY USING A RUBBER DIAPHRAGM, TURNING THEM INTO A GIANT,
LIVING MODEL OF A LUNG.
10) Draw the syringe model of breathing below. Label the various parts, as if they were a respiratory
system.
11) Describe what the following mean. You should know how they relate to the sponge model as well.
-Tidal Volume: THE VOLUME OF AIR THAT ONE CASUALLY BREATHES IN AND OUT
-Vital Capacity: THE MAXIMUM VOLUME OF AIR THAT ONE CAN BREATHE OUT AT ONE TIME
-Residual Volume: THE AIR REMAINING IN THE LUNGS, EVEN AFTER EXHALING ‘ALL’ STORED AIR
-Total Lung Capacity: VITAL CAPACITY + RESIDUAL VOLUME: MAXIMUM AIR THE LUNGS CAN HOLD