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Application Fundamentals
See: developer.android.com/guide/developing/building/index.html
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By default, each application:
 assigned a unique Linux user ID
 executes in its own Linux process
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By default, each process runs its own virtual
machine
Android manages process creation & shutdown
 Starts process when any of the application's code
needs to be executed
 Shuts down when process is no longer needed and
system resources are required by other applications
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Apps can have multiple entry points
 i.e., not just main() method
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App comprise components that the system
can instantiate and run as needed
Key component classes include:
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Activities
Services
Broadcast receivers
Content providers
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Primary class for interacting with user
 Usually implements a focused task
 Usually Involves one screenful of data
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Example:
 Calculator
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Runs in the background to perform longrunning or remote operations
Does not have a visual user interface
Example
 Music playing application
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Components that listen for broadcast
announcements (events)
 Events implemented as Intent instances
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Does not have a visual user interface
Example
 Alarm manager
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Store & retrieve data across applications
Uses database-style interface
Example
 Contacts
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MapLocation
 User enters an address
 App displays a map showing address
1.
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Define resources
Implement application classes
Package application
Install & run application
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Several types of resources can be defined
 Layout
 Strings
 Images
 Menus
 etc.
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See: developer.android.com/guide/topics/resources/index.html
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User interface layout specified in XML file
 With Eclipse can also do layout visually
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Stored in res/layout/filename.xml
Accessed from R.layout class
?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
android:orientation="vertical” android:layout_width="fill_parent”
android:layout_height="fill_parent” >
<TextView
android:layout_width="wrap_content”
android:text="Enter Location”/>
android:layout_height="wrap_content”
<EditText android:id="@+id/location”
android:layout_width="fill_parent” android:layout_height="wrap_content” />
<Button android:id="@+id/mapButton”
android:layout_width="wrap_content” android:layout_height="wrap_content”
android:text="Show Map” />
</LinearLayout>
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Types
 String
 String Array
 Plurals
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Can include style and formatting
Stored in res/values/filename.xml
 Each string specified as @string/string_name
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Accessed as R.string.string_name
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At compilation time, resources are used to
generate R.java
Applications access resources through R class
public final class R {
public static final class attr { }
public static final class id {
public static final int location=0x7f040000;
public static final int mapButton=0x7f040001;
}
public static final class layout {
public static final int main=0x7f030000;
}
}
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Usually involves at least one Activity
Initialization code usually in onCreate()
 Restore saved state
 Set content view
 Initialize UI elements
 Link UI elements to code actions
 Set other Activity parameters as desired
public class MapLocation extends Activity {
public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
super.onCreate(savedInstanceState); // restore saved state
public class MapLocation extends Activity {
public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
super.onCreate(savedInstanceState); // restore saved state
setContentView(R.layout.main);
// set content view
public class MapLocation extends Activity {
public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
super.onCreate(savedInstanceState); // restore saved state
setContentView(R.layout.main);
// set content view
// initialize UI elements
final EditText addressText = (EditText) findViewById(R.id.location);
final Button button = (Button) findViewById(R.id.mapButton);
public class MapLocation extends Activity {
public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
// restore saved state
setContentView(R.layout.main);
// set content view
// initialize UI elements
final EditText addressText = (EditText) findViewById(R.id.location);
final Button button = (Button) findViewById(R.id.mapButton);
}
}
// link UI elements to code actions
button.setOnClickListener(new Button.OnClickListener() {
public void onClick(View v) {
try {
String address = addressText.getText().toString();
address = address.replace(' ', '+');
Intent geoIntent = new Intent(android.content.Intent.ACTION_VIEW,
Uri.parse("geo:0,0?q=" + address));
startActivity(geoIntent);
} catch (Exception e) {}}});
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System packages application as a .apk file
Developers specify application information in
AndroidManifest.xml
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Information includes:
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Application Name
Components
Required permissions
Application features
Minimum API level
Other
See:
developer.android.com/guide/topics/fundamentals.html#Manifest
?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
package=”course.examples.SimpleActivity">
<application>
<activity android:name=".MapLocation" android:label="Map A Location">
<intent-filter>
<action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN" />
<category android:name="android.intent.category.LAUNCHER" />
</intent-filter>
</activity>
</application>
</manifest>
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Components can communicate by sending and
receiving Intent events
From AndroidManifest.xml (intent filter)
 <action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN" />
 <category android:name="android.intent.category.LAUNCHER" />
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Specifies that MapLocation Activity is entry
point for the application & will appear in
launcher
System sends this Intent to application when
user clicks on application icon
A chain of related Activities is called a task
The task’s Activity objects are stored on a stack
with the currently running Activity at the top
 At runtime
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 Newly started activities are pushed onto stack
 Hitting the BACK button pops current activity off the
stack
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Gives the illusion that multiple, unrelated
Activities were developed as part of the same
application
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Android can pause or terminate individual
components
For example when:
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Task stack changes
Memory gets low
User stops interacting with the application
New application is launched
At these times, Android notifies applications by
calling their lifecycle methods
 Each component type has its own lifecycle
 Will discuss more in later classes
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Using Eclipse
Create the MapLocation application
Add a text field showing the number of times
the users has searched for any location during
the current session