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NUTRITION in Plants and Animals INTRODUCTION • Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food (e.g. phytonutrients,anthocyanins, tannins, etc.) in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism. • It includes food intake, absorption, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism and excretion. MODES OF NUTRITION AUTOTROPHIC NUTRITION • Organisms that prepare their . own food are called autotrophs. • Eg. Plants HETEROTROPHIC NUTRITION • Organisms which depend on other organisms for food are called heterotrophs. • Eg. Human beings TYPES OF NUTRITION •NUTRITION IN PLANTS •NUTRITION IN ANIMALS PLANT NUTRITION • It is the study of the chemical elements and compounds that are necessary for plant growth, and also of their external supply and internal metabolism. • In 1972, E. Epstein defined two criteria for an element to be essential for plant growth: o in its absence the plant is unable to complete a normal life cycle; o or that the element is part of some essential plant constituent or metabolite. PHOTOSYNTHESIS • It is the process by which plants prepare food by using carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll. The food prepared is carbohydrate which is stored in the form of starch. Oxygen is released during this Process. • EQUATION OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS • Sunlight • 6CO2 + 12H20 -------------------------> C6H1206 + 6H20 + 6O2 • Chlorophyll • 6CO2 + 6H2O ------> C6H12O6 + 6O2 • 6CO2 + 6H2O ------> C6H12O6 + 6O2 PROCESS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis mainly takes place in three steps: • Absorption of Light Energy By Chlorophyll • Conversion of Light energy into Chemical energy and splitting up of water molecules into Hydrogen and Oxygen • Reduction of Carbon Dioxide by Hydrogen to form Carbohydrates ANIMAL NUTRITION NUTRITION IN AMOEBA • Amoeba is a unicellular animal living in water. It takes in food by forming a finger like projections called pseudopodia and forms a food vacuole. Inside the food vacuole the food is digested and absorbed. The undigested food is then sent out through the surface of the cell. NUTRITION IN HUMAN BEINGS • Nutrition in human beings take place in the digestive system. It consists of the alimentary canal and glands which produce enzymes which breaks down food into smaller molecules. • The main organs of the digestive system are mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine and anus. • The main glands are salivary glands, gastric glands, liver, pancreas and intestinal glands. WHAT HAPPENS TO FOOD AFTER YOU EAT IT?? • In the mouth: The food is broken into smaller particles by the teeth and mixed with saliva from the salivary glands. Saliva contains the enzymes salivary amylase which converts starch into sugar. Then the food passes through the oesophagus. • In the stomach: The gastric glands produce gastric juice which contains the enzyme pepsin Hcl and mucous. Pepsin breaks down proteins. Hcl makes the medium acidic and helps in the action of pepsin. Mucous protects the wall of the stomach from the action of the acid. Then the food passes into the small intestine. • In the upper part of the small intestine (duodenum): The food is mixed with bile from liver and pancreatic juice from the pancreas. Bile breaks down fats into globules. Pancreatic jiuce the enzymes trypsin and lipase . Trypsin breaks down proteins and lapse breaks down fats. • In the small intestine : The glands the walls of the small intestine produces intestinal juice. The enzymes of the intestinal juice converts carbohydrates into glucose fats into fatty acids and glycerol and proteins into amino acids. The walls of the small intestine has several finger like projections called villi having blood vessels. The digested food is absorbed by the blood and the undigested food passes to the large intestine. • In the large intestine: • Water is absorbed and the waste materials is removed through the anus. • Thanks for your cooperation and patience.