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EXPERIMENT No. 4 PROJECTILE MOTION Objective: After this experiment, the students ar expected to be able to calculate the range of the projectile for each given height. Materials: Figure 4.1 Projectile apparatus, marble or steel ball, meter stick, timer Theory: Projectile motion is the motion of an object through a region of space where it is subject to constant acceleration and projected into the air at an angle. Such object is called projectile, a body that is thrown with an initial velocity in the vertical plane and then moves in two dimensions under the action of gravity alone without being propelled by any kind of source. The body In the vertical motion moves with a constant acceleration and in the horizontal motion the body moves with a constant velocity. The movement experienced by an object thrown at an angle not equal to 90o and follows a curvilinear path is called trajectory. The elements of a projectile include the range, maximum height, and time of the flight. The range is the maximum horizontal distance traveled by the projectile. The maximum height is the maximum vertical displacement traveled by the projectile in its trajectory. And the time of flight is the entire duration of the projectile’s trajectory. Figure 4.2 shows the properties of the elements of the projectile while travelling in the trajectory. The mathematical relationships of the elements are derived also as follows: 1 Procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. Set up the launching projectile apparatus shown in Figure 4.1 onto a top of the table. Place a marble on one end of the arm of the projectile apparatus. Pull the other arm backward. Pause. Then, launch your projectile apparatus. One student will measure the time when the marble hits the floor. From this value, compute for the vertical distance. 5. Another student will mark the landing position of the marble on the floor. Measure the horizontal distance (Range) travelled by the marble. Record your data in the table. Then, compute for the horizontal velocity with the measured time and range. 6. Elevate the position of the projectile apparatus. Record the height. Then, repeat steps 2-5. Make three trials. Find the average range for each height. 2 DATA SHEET AND ANSWER SHEET NAME:_____Patrick John Que_____ DATE PERFORMED:___03/22/2022___ COURSE:___BS Electrical Engineering_______ YR &SEC:_CEIT-04-202A EXPERIMENT NO. 4 PROJECTILE MOTION DATA AND RESULTS Trial Number Time (s) 1 2 3 Average 1 2 3 Average 1 2 3 Average 0.286 sec 0.286 sec 0.286 sec 0.286 sec 0.35 sec 0.35 sec 0.35 sec 0.35 sec 0.404 sec 0.404 sec 0.404 sec 0.404 sec Vertical Distance (m) 0.40 m 0.40 m 0.40 m 0.40 m 0.60 m 0.60 m 0.60 m 0.60 m 0.80 m 0.80 m 0.80 m 0.80 m COMPUTATION 3 Range (cm) 2.00 m/s 2.10 m/s 2.05 m/s 2.05 m/s 2.30 m/s 2.40 m/s 2.35 m/s 2.35 m/s 2.80 m/s 2.70 m/s 2.70 m/s 2.73 m/s Horizontal velocity (m/s) 7.17m/s 6.71 m/s 6.76 m/s ANALYSIS A. Make a graph of the average values of launch height, (x axis) and range (y axis) for the three trials in a graphing paper. B. Questions and Answers. 1. What happens to the range as the height increases? As the height increases, the time of flight also increases. There is a vertical acceleration induced by the gravity and its value is 9.8 m/s^2, down, The vertical velocity of a projectile changes by 9.8 m/s each second, The horizontal motion of a projectile is independent of its vertical motion. 4 2. What happens to the horizontal velocity and vertical velocity as a projectile moves downward? The horizontal velocity of a projectile decreases as it approaches the summit of its trajectory; it also decreases as it falls from the peak of its trajectory. 3. Using only your graph, predict the range for your projectile if launched from the following heights. Heights 60 cm Range 4.27 4. Using the graph, predict the launch height of your projectile if the ranges are Height range 16.08 64.33 160.82 10 cm 40 cm 100 cm OBSERVATION My observation in this is that A projectile is an item on which gravity is the only force acting upon it. And Gravity influences the projectile’s vertical motion, and resulting in vertical acceleration. The projectile’s horizontal motion is caused by the tendency of any moving item to maintain a constant velocity. Also while doing the projectile motion we can see that the range of y axis double in its time, and it depends on the range of y axis. CONCLUSION The projectile motion is the motion of the object, that projectile is vertically, it is moving into the influence of the gravity while the horizontally, is moving under independently of the gravity. Lastly the projectile follows a trajectory because the downward force of the gravity propels them away from their otherwise straight-line, gravity-free course 5 6