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TECHNICAL REPORT ON STUDENTS INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERIENCE SCHEME (SIWES) UNDERTAKEN AT NIGERIAN INSTITUTION OF LEATHER RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY BY YAKUBU AISHAT （U17BC1099） SUPERVISED BY: Rabia BK SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF BIOCHEMISTRY, FACULTY OF LIFE SCIENCES, AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY, ZARIA. IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF B.Sc. (HONS) DEGREE IN BIOCHEMISTRY. HISTORY OF SIWES The five capitalized letters ‘SIWES’ means the “Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme”. SIWES was established by ITF (Industrial Training Funds) in the year 1973 to solve the problem of lack of adequate proper skills for employment of tertiary institution graduates by Nigerian Industries. The Students’ Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) was founded to be a skill training programme to help expose and prepare students of universities, polytechnics and colleges of education for the industrial work situation to be met after graduation. This scheme serves as a smooth transition from the classroom to the world of work and further helps in the application of knowledge. The scheme provides students with the opportunity of acquainting and exposing themselves to the experience required in handling and managing of equipment and machinery that are usually not made available in their institutions. Before this scheme was established, there was a growing concern and trend noticed by industrialists that graduates of higher institutions lacked sufficient practical background for employment. It used to be that students who got into Nigerian institutions to study science and technology were not trained in the practical know-how of their various fields of study. As a result, they could not easily find jobs due to the lack of working experience. Therefore, the employers thought that theoretical education going on in higher institutions was not responsive to the needs of the employers of labour. This was a huge problem for thousands of Nigerians until 1973. It is against this background that the fundamental reason for initiating and designing the scheme by the fund in 1973/74 was introduced. The ITF organization (Industrial Training Fund) made a decision to help all interested Nigerian students and established the SIWES program. It was officially approved and presented by the Federal Government in 1974. The scheme was solely funded by the ITF during its formative years but as the financial involvement became unbearable to the fund, it withdrew from the scheme in 1978. In 1979, the federal government handed over the management of the scheme to both the National Universities Commission (NUC) and the National Board for Technical Education (NBTE). Later, in November 1984, the federal government reverted the management and implementation of the scheme to ITF. In July 1985, it was taken over by the Industrial Training Fund (ITF) while the funding was solely borne by the federal government. (Culled from Job Specifications on Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme). GENERAL OBJECTIVES OF SIWES SIWES is strategized for skill acquisition. It is in fact designed to prepare and expose students of universities, polytechnics and colleges of education to the real-life work situation they would be engaged in after graduation. Therefore, SIWES is a key factor required to inject and help keep alive industrialization and economic development in the nation through the introduction and practical teaching of scientific and technological skills to students. (Culled from Detailed Manual on SIWES Guidelines and Operations for Tertiary Institutions). Objectives of the Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme include: Provide an avenue for students to acquire industrial skills for experience during their course of study. Expose students to work methods and techniques that may not be available during their course of study. Bridging the gap between theory and practice by providing a platform to apply knowledge learnt in school to real work situations. Enabling the easier and smoother transition from school by equipping students’ with better contact for future work placement. Introduce students to real work atmosphere so that they know what they would most likely meet once they graduate. Nigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology, Zaria was established in 1964 following the request of the then Northern Regional Government to Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resource. It was named Hides and Skin Demonstration and Training Project. The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and United Nations were commissioned to commerce a feasibility study on the development of the abundant raw Hide and Skin in the country. In 1972, the UN submitted a technical report which among other things propose the upgrading of the centre to a Research institute that will Carter for the Leather, Leather product and Allied Field. Before then, the name of the centre was Federal Leather Institute, Zaria and was offering in service training for certificate and Diploma in Hide and Skin Improvement Technology. A year after 1973, the Institute was changed to Leather Research institute of Nigeria by decree N0. 35 of 1973 and was place among fourteen (research) institute under the Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria (ARCN). In 1978, the ARCN and it's Research Institute became a division of the National Science Technology Development Agency (NSTDA) which was later transferred to the Federal Ministry of Science and Technology . In 1988, the Institute evolved yet again by the expanded mandate and inclusion of chemical Technology, which resulted in the change of name to National Research Institute for Chemical Technology (NARICT) with the headquarters at Basawa, Zaria. In November 1991, the samara Center attained semi-autonomous status and was named Federal College of Chemical and Leather Technology(CHELTECH)Samaru, Zaria in 1992. Following the resolution at the National Science and Technology summit at Minna in 2006, the research mandate on leather in NARICT and all the extension centers (Sokoto, Kano, Maiduguri and Jos) were officially on 26th June, 2009 transfer to CHELTECH, this reverting back the status of a research Institute. On 1st April, 2011, the name of the College was changed to Nigeria Institute of Leather and ScienceTechnologyScienceTechnology (NILEST) to position it in the line with it's mandate, mission and vision. VISION To be a centre of excellence in the production of scientists, scientific models and products. To become a research Institute of International standard in the provision of innovative research and development in the processing and conversion of hides and skins into Leather Products. To be a renowned centre of excellence in the field of tannery effluent monitoring and control. leather and leather products technologies. To provide and sustain the development of Leather Industrial Clusters employment, export national productivity and technology transfer. MISSION To produce technologists and technicians with sound training for production of leather, leather products and other scientific products and their technologies and to produce service support to the industrial sector. To produce high and middle manpower for leather, leather products, scientific analysis and quality control in industries. To provide global competitive and environmentally friendly technologies for leather and leather products and allied industries. To acquire and maintain world-class technical capacity and reputation to offer science based consultancy services in leather and leather products, production, marketing and quality control in relevant areas. HND biochemistry laboratory. I was attached to the HND biochemistry laboratory under the direction of Mr. Mike, among the co supervisor are Mr Jonathan and Mrs ...... Accident in biochemistry laboratories are fortunately relatively low: this is in part attributable to the fact that most biochemical work is not per se dangerous and also to current high safety standards. A contributory factor is that laboratory apparatus such as electrophoresis equipment or centrifuge have operational safety features built into their design and also that there are requirements for potentially hazardous apparatus such as autoclave or centrifuge to be tested regularly. To ensure high safety standards, it is essential that the potential hazards associated with chemicals should be clearly displayed on the container. The following general point about safe working practice in the laboratory should be adhered to; 1. Protective clothing, usually lab coats, should be worn at all times in the laboratory.protective glasses should be worn when using hazardous chemicals. For much purposes, normal reading glasses (preferably with plastic lenses) will offer sufficient protection, but this does not apply to contact lenses which make the egg difficult to wash in case of accident. Gloves and marks should be worn when needed. 2. Eating, drinking and smoking are forbidden in the laboratory. 3. Pipetting by mouth is forbidden 4. Large bottle should be transported using the approo carriers, particularly with acids, alkalis and organic solvents. 5. The experimenter should be aware of the potential hazards of the work to be undertaken and of the appropriate precaution to be taken to reduce the risks before starting the work, the same applies to the procedures to be followed and the first aid help needed of an accident. 6. Everyone working in the laboratory should be aware of the location of fire alarms, fire extinguishers, emergency showers, emergency eye baths and first aid cabinets. Remember that human safety is the most important consideration; do not attempt to fight unless it is safe to do so. 7. At the end of an experiment, all waste ( chemicals, radioactive, microbiological and sharps) should be disposed of in an approved manner. 8. Dangerous work should not be conducted alone, not should anyone work alone for longer periods than in necessary. 9. Unauthorized persons should not be allowed unaccompanied in the laboratory and children are not allowed access. Chemicals safety 1. Treat every chemicals as if it were hazardous 2. Make sure all chemicals are clearly and currently labeled with the substance name, concentration, date and name of the individual responsible. 3. Never returned chemicals to reagents bottles ( try for the correct amount and share excess). 4. Comply with fire regulations concerning storage quantities, types of approved containers and cabinets, proper labeling etc. If uncertain about regulations, contact the lab technologist. 5. Use volatile and flammable compounds only in a fume Hood. Procedures that produce aerosols should be performed in a good to prevent inhalation of hazardous materials. 6. Never allow a solvents to come in contact with your skin, always use gloves. 7. Never "smell" a solvents!! Read the label on the solvents bottle to identify it's contents. 8. Dispose of waste and broken glassware in proper containers. 9. Clean up spills immediately. 10. Do not store good in laboratories. WORK EXPERIENCE ACQUIRED DURING SIWES 1. Proximate analysis 2. Qualitative determination of phytochemical 3. Quantitative determination of phytochemical 4. Oil analysis 5. Water analysis 6. ABO blood grouping 2.1 PROXIMATE DETERMINATION OF FOOD Proximate determination is also referred to as proximate analysis which involves the quantities evaluation of food nutrients in particular food items. The proximate analysis carried out during the period of attachment in NILEST consists of; 1. Determination of moisture content of garden eggs 2. Determination of protein content of garden eggs 3. DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE CONTENT IN GARDEN EGGS Aim is important to consider the food is suitable before the consumption APPARATUS In the determination of the moisture content the following apparatus/reagents are used; 1. Crucible 2. Desiccators 3. Weighing balance 4. Oven Procedures A clean crucible was dried to a constant weight in an air oven at 105C, cooled in a desiccators and weighed (W1). 2.0g of the sample were weighed into the crucible (W2) and dried in the oven at 105C for hrs. The crucible and it's contents were cooled in desiccators and weighed (W3). The procedure was continued until a constant weight was obtained. Calculation The moisture content was calculated as: %=Moisture = W2-W3 W2-W1 *100 Where, W1 = weight of empty crucible W2==weight of crucible +sample before oven drying W3 = weight of crucible + sample after oven drying. Three replicate determination were performed, the average is taken and presented as the result. Discussion The moisture content of the samples Garden eggs was 10.50% Generally, the higher the moisture content of a sample the lower it's life span, this is because the more the water the more the suitability of microbial growth, hence the less time it stays before spoilage. Determination of Ash content The aim of Ash determination is to know quantitatively the mineral content of the food sample used for analysis APPARATUS. 2. Weighing balance 3. Crucibles. P4. Desiccators. Procedures About 2g of the finely ground sample was weighed (W2) into previously weighed clean crucible (W1) which had been ignited in the muffle furnace at 550C for 30minutes and cooled in a desiccators. The crucible and it's contents were transferred into the muffle furnace and the temperature was gradually increased until it reached 550C, after maintaining the samples at this temperature for some time, the crucible and it's residue were allowed to 200C. This removed and cooled in the desiccators and the procedure was continued until constant weight was obtained (W3). Calculation The moisture content was calculated as: %=Moisture = W2-W3 W2-W1 *100 Where, W1 = weight of empty crucible W2==weight ofsample in crucible before incineration W3 = weight of sample in the crucible after incineration. Three replicate determination were performed, the average is taken and presented as the result. Discussion The Ash content of the samples found at 7.15%. Generally, the higher the Ash content the higher the mineral content of the food. Determination of crude lipid Aim To determine the total lipid concentration To determine the Type of lipids present Reagents Petroleum ether (40-60C) Anti-, bumping granules Procedure: Two hundred millimeters (200ml) if petroleum ether (40-60C) was transferred into a clean dry 250cm3 round bottom flask fitted with soxhlet extraction unit. Some anti-bumping granules were then added. Fat free extraction thimbles were weighed and an approximate of 20.0g of the sample was added and weighed. The thimbles was fixed into the soxhlet extraction unit with forcepy and cold water circulation put on. The mantle was switched on and heating rate was adjusted at a temperature between 40-60C until the solvents was refluxing at steady rate. Extraction was carried out for 8hours and the heating mantle was switched off. The thimbles was removed and dried to constant weight in an oven at 70C and reweighed. Calculation The lipid Content is calculated as follows: %lipid (w/w)= weight of lipid extracted/weight of sample *100 %lipid (w/w)= W2-W3/W2-W1*100 Where the weight of lipid extracted (crude lipid) is given by loss in weight (W2-W1) of the thimbles content after extraction. Three replicate determinations were performed, average was taken and reported as results. Xx Protein content Aim . Is to determine the amount of crude protein using kjedahl method Objective Is to determine the amount of crude protein using kjedahl method Procedures About 2g of garden eggs was weighed and dissolved in 50ml of distilled water H20 then it was shaked and filtered then 10ml of the filterate and 5ml of NaoH was added and shaked About 1ml of phenolpthalein indicator was added. It was titrated against NaoH till pink color was observed. Qualitative analysis of anti nutritional factors The qualitative analysis of anti-nutritional factors is ascertain the presence or absence of a particular anti-nutrient whether present or absent. The different procedures for this test are presented below; 2g of garlic powder was weighed with an analytical weighing balance and transferred to a 250ml beaker to which 100ml of ethanol was measured and transferred into, the two substances were allowed to dissolve and then filtered. The filtrate was then used for the following analysis: Test for steroids Two(2)ml of chloroform Wass added to 2ml of ethanolic extract with 2 ml H2S04. The appearance of reddish color at the interface indicating the presence of steroids. Test for saponin (front test) One(1)ml of the extract was mixed in H20 then it was shake vigorously. The presence of front indicating saponin is present. Test for tannins One(1)ml of extract was treated with fee drops of 0.1% ferric chloride and observed for brownish green or a blue-black coloration which indicates the Presence of tannins. Production of pectin from orange peel Aim To determine the amount of pectin present in orange peel Objectives Procedures 50g of the orange peel was weighed and dissolved in 500ml of acidified water H20. The mixture was placed in boiling hot water in the water bath for 1hr. 30mins The mixture was filtered. In equal volume, ethanol was added to the filtrate to precipitate pectin. Pectin was discovered. Acid value Aim To determine the condition and the edibility of the oil To calculate the free fatty acid present Objective Chemical methanol 0.5N potassium hydroxide Phenolpthalein Apparatus Volumetric flask Pippette Burette Procedure Determination of oil density Aim Lantern fingerprint development Aim The recovery of partial fingerprints from a crime scene is an important method of forensic science. They may be employed by police or other authorities to identify individuals who wish to conceal their identity, or to identify people who are incapacitated or deceased and thus unable to identify themselves, as in the aftermath of a natural disaster. Objective To determine the partial fingerprint EQUIPMENTS AND REAGENTS: Procedures Prepared a plainsheet where the with fingerprint Iodine pellets was heat The plainsheet was transferred inside the heated iodine pellets It was stand for 5second. There is appearance of yellow color showing the fingerprint. Fingerprint development by AgNo3 The recovery of partial fingerprints from a crime scene is an important method of forensic science. They may be employed by police or other authorities to identify individuals who wish to conceal their identity, or to identify people who are incapacitated or deceased and thus unable to identify themselves, as in the aftermath of a natural disaster. Objective To determine the partial fingerprint by using AgNo3 Procedures The thumb was press on the plainsheet and the plainsheet was soaked in AgNo3. Cottonwool was used to absorbed the water. Then it was sun dry and appearance of brown color showing the fingerprint pattern EXPERIMENT TITLE: ABO BLOOD TYPING AIM: To determine the blood group of an individual OBJECTIVES: To be able to carry out blood typing test To be able to know the importance of blood grouping To understand the blood typing techniques EQUIPMENTS AND REAGENTS: A clean tile Blood sample Anti-sera A, Anti sera B and also Anti sera D Cotton wool and methylated spirit Lancet to prick the patients’ finger Stirrer PROCEEDURES: The tip of the patient thumb finger is pricked using the lancet. Three drops of the patient’s blood is placed on three different places on the clean white tile. Anti-sera A is added to one of the drops of the blood. Anti-sera B is added to the second drop of blood. And Antisera D is added to the third drop of blood. Each were mixed with stirrer and cleaned with cotton wool before mixing another one. After proper mixing they were rock gently for two minutes until agglutination occurs. MEASUREMENT AIM: To determine the pH of oil. OBJECTIVE: To be able to determine the degree of acidity/alkalinity of oil samples MATERIALS/REAGENTS: pH meter Water sample Beaker PROCEDURE: Calibrate the pH meter Dip the glass rod into the buffer of unknown pH and adjust it accordingly. Remove the glass rod and rinse it with distilled water. The glass rod was dipped into the water sample to be tested. Test for chloride in dam water Aim Objective APPARATUS Beaker Conical flask Retord stand Procedures About 25ml of dam water was measured into a conical flask About 1ml of potassium chromate was added. It was titrated against 0.02N AgNo3. Chapter 5 alculation The moisture content was calculated as: %=Moisture = W2-W3 W2-W1 *100 Where, W1 = weight of empty crucible W2==weight of crucible +sample before oven drying W3 = weight of crucible + sample after oven drying. Three replicate determination were performed, the average is taken and presented as the result. Dedication I dedicate this report to God almighty for his protection, wisdom and knowledge given to me from the beginning of my SIWES programme to the end. And I also dedicate this report to my parents who has alway been the source of motivation to me throughout my SIWES programme.