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```chap2 Matter and Atomic Structure
2.1 Basic Concepts of Matter
Matter : definition : something has mass and
occupies space
Exists in form element (one substance) &
compound (two substance)
Exists in three state (solid/liquid/gas)
Solid
Liquid
Gas
Particle
Closely
packed and
orderly
manner
Closely
packed not
orderly
manner
Far apart
not orderly
manner
Kinetic
energy of
particle
low
medium
high
Attraction
force
strong
medium
weak
Melting Point and Freezing Point
chap2 Matter and Atomic Structure
1
Melting Point: definition : a
certain temperature for substance
turn from solid to liquid state
eg: ice to water 0°C
Freezing Point: definition : a
certain temperature for substance
turn from liquid to solid state
eg: water to ice 0°C
heat energy absorbed by the particles is
uesd to overcome the attraction force
between the particles until solid changes
to liquid.
heat energy that is lost to the surrondings
is balanced by the heat energy released
when the particles attract each other to
form solid.
2.2 The Development of the Atomic Model
Subatomic particles: type (proton/neutron/electron)
Symbol
Relative charge
Relative mass
proton
p
+1
1
neutron
n
0
1
electron
e
-1
1/1840
Development of Atomic Structure Model
Name
What did he discover?
John Dalton
atoms
JJ Thomson
electrons
chap2 Matter and Atomic Structure
2
Ernest Rutherford
protons
Niels Bohr
shells
neutrons
TIPS
Dalton sits Thomas train to Rutherford. Suddenly, Boom! (Bohr) he dick
disappeared.
2.3 Atomic Structure
Nucleon Number = Number of proton + Number of neutron
Number of proton = Proton number eg : proton number of carbon is 6
different atom different proton number
Number of neutron = Neutron number eg: neutron number of
atom is neutral when no of electron = no of proton
Standard Representation of an Atoms
2.4 Isotopes
definition: element that have same proton number but different nucleon number
chap2 Matter and Atomic Structure
3
have different mass
Relative atomic mass of Isotopes
Uses
1. cobalt-60 : treat cancer
2. iodine-131 : treatment of tyhroid
3. carbon-14 : determine the fossils age
4. hydrogen-3 : detector study sewage and
liquid wastes
chap2 Matter and Atomic Structure
4
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