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Chapter 9 Section 1 Acids, Bases, and pH
 Compounds that increases hydronium ions in solution by losing a
hydrogen atom to water
 Ionize therefore conduct electricity
 Sour
 Indicators: change color depending on the pH
o Ex. Litmus paper
o Acids cause litmus paper to turn red
 Strong acids: ionize completely
o Ex. Hydrochloric, sulfuric, and Nitric acid
 Weak acids: do not ionize completely
o Ex. Acetic, Formic, and Citric acid
 Electrolyte: substance that conducts electricity when dissolved in
 Concentrated acids are dangerous
 Compound that increases the number of hydroxide ions when
dissolved in water by gaining a hydrogen from water
 Bitter
 Ionize therefore conducts electricity
 Cause litmus paper to turn blue
 Strong bases ionize completely
o Contain hydroxide
o Called metal hydroxides
o Ex. Potassium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, and sodium
 Weak bases do not ionize completely
o Do not contain hydroxide
o Ammonia
o Methylamine
o Aniline
Indicates concentration of hydronium ions
Range: 0 - 14
High concentration of hydronium will have a very low pH
Acids pH <7
o Greater concentration of hydronium than hydroxide
Bases pH >7
o Greater concentration of hydroxide than hydronium
Neutral pH = 7
o Equal concentrations of hydronium and hydroxide
Tiny changes in pH mean huge changes in concentration of
pH meter measures electric current in solution