* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
INTERNATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AGENCIES THE UNITED NATIONS The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization responsible for maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations, achieving international cooperation, and being a center for harmonizing the actions of nations. It is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. The UN is headquartered on international territory in New York City; other main offices are in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna and The Hague. The UN was established after World War II with the aim of preventing future wars, succeeding the ineffective League of Nations.On 25 April 1945, 50 governments met in San Francisco for a conference and started drafting the UN Charter, which was adopted on 25 June 1945 and took effect on 24 October 1945, when the UN began operations. Pursuant to the Charter, the organization's objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development, and upholding international law. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; this number grew to 193 in 2011, representing the vast majority of the world's sovereign states. The UN has six principal organs: the General Assembly; the Security Council; the Economic and Social Council; the Trusteeship Council; the International Court of Justice; and the UN Secretariat. The UN System includes a multitude of specialized agencies, such as the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, and UNICEF. Additionally, non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UN's work. The UN's chief administrative officer is the Secretary-General, currently Portuguese politician and diplomat António Guterres since 1 January 2017. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. The UN and Disaster Management Recognizing the need to contribute to disaster response and recovery efforts, the United Nations established in 1971 its own mechanism to provide international assistance to governments when such governments elevate a request for humanitarian assistance. All response activities within the United Nations are coordinated by the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination team At the request of the government affected by a disaster, OCHA may dispatch a United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination team (UNDAC) to the country within 12 to 48 hours after a sudden-onset disaster to provide technical services, principally in tasks such as damage and needs assessment, on-site coordination and information management. UNDAC teams aim to facilitate close links between country-level, regional and international response efforts. When deemed appropriate, the United Nations may also set up an On-Site Operations Coordination Centre (OSOCC) to help local authorities in a disaster-affected country to coordinate international relief. Cluster System In addition, OCHA has established a structure of clusters as a way for UN agencies to work together with non-UN agencies (f. ex. NGOs) to deliver humanitarian assistance in a coordinated fashion. There are eleven different clusters, each one focusing on a specific set of tasks or functions. Each cluster is headed by one or two UN organizations or agencies. Both the UNDAC team and the OCHA clusters coordinate their efforts with the UN Resident Coordinator and the UN Humanitarian Coordinator in the country affected by the disaster The UN Disaster Management Team Figure 6.1 The UN disaster management team The United Nations General Assembly believes that the objectives of team management are applicable to the UN agencies oriented to emergencies. They have mandated that a standing UN Disaster Management Team (UN-DMT) be formed in each disaster-prone country, convened and chaired by the UN resident coordinator. The composition of the UN-DMT is determined by taking into account the types of disaster to which the country is prone and the organizations present, but should normally include a core group consisting of the country-level representatives of FAO, UNDP/UNDRO, UNICEF, WFP, WHO and, where present, UNHCR. It may be enlarged to include additional representatives or project personnel from other relevant agencies when an emergency arises. The original and primary purpose of the UN-DMT is to ensure a prompt, effective and concerted response by the UN system at country level in the event of a disaster. The team should also ensure similar coordination of UN assistance to the Government in respect to post-disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction, and relevant disaster mitigation measures through long-term development programs. It should be emphasized that for all aspects of disaster management the UN-DMT is in a support role of the government. The UN-DMT recognizes and in no way supersedes the mandates and specific functions of the various organizations in the exercise of those mandates. It supports and assists the office of the resident coordinator in the exercise of its system-wide functions. In line with General Assembly resolution 46/182, the latter will maintain close contact with, and receive leadership from the Emergency Relief Coordinator. Country Disaster Management Team Figure 6.2 Country disaster management team Most disaster prone countries already have a formal or informal disaster management team. It is typically headed by a national disaster focal point body. This body functions in liaison with the Office of the President or Prime Minister, with civil defense organizations, key government ministries, the Red Cross/Red Crescent, and other NGOs and major donors. The UN-DMT needs to interface with this team and, where practical, to be a team member. Where national officials do not participate in UN-DMT meetings or activities, the resident coordinator should ensure that they are consulted and briefed on all relevant matters. In practice it is vital that the policies of the DMT relate to those approved by the Government even under the pressure of events. Tasks, roles and resources of the UN Organizational tasks and general roles Primary responsibility for all aspects of disaster management rests with the Government of the affected country. This includes: planning and implementing long-term risk reduction and preparedness measures; planning and administering disaster relief and rehabilitation operations, requesting international assistance if required; and coordinating all disaster-related assistance programs, both nationally and internationally-funded. Each UN organization or agency is responsible for providing advice and assistance to the Government of a disaster-prone or disaster-affected country, in accordance with its mandate and the resources available to it. In so doing, each agency is accountable to its own governing body, but it is also called upon to act as a member of a united team. In the case of refugee emergencies, UNHCR remains responsible for their protection and the coordination of international assistance for the refugees. In relation to disaster relief and other post-disaster assistance, each organization and agency of the UN system is called on to: o disaster-affected countries, according to its own mandate and the resources available to it. -operate with the UN resident coordinator, UNDRO, or any other coordination mechanism established by the Secretary-General to ensure appropriate, coordinated UN system assistance in the context of a concerted plan and program. Roles and resources of UNDP, UNDRO, and other UN agencies The role of UNDP UNDP focuses primarily on the development-related aspects of disaster risks and occurrences, and on providing technical assistance to institution-building in relation to all aspects of disaster management. Its emphasis is therefore on: a) Incorporating long-term risk reduction and preparedness measures in normal development planning and programs, including support for specific mitigation measures where required. b) Assisting in the planning and implementation of post-disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction, including the definition of new development strategies that incorporate risk reduction measures relevant to the affected area. c) Reviewing the impact of large settlements of refugees or displaced persons on development, and seeking ways to incorporate the refugees and displaced persons in development strategies. d) Providing technical assistance to the authorities managing major emergency assistance operations of extended duration (especially in relation to displaced persons and the possibilities for achieving durable solutions in such cases). In addition, UNDP provides administrative and operational support to the resident coordinator function, particularly at country level, but also at headquarters. In the event of a disaster, UNDP may grant a maximum of $50,000 from SPR funds to provide immediate relief. UNDP is not otherwise involved in the provision of “relief using any of its own resources or other funds administered by the Program. Where a major emergency substantially affects the whole development process within a country, IPF resources may be used to provide technical assistance to plan and manage the operation, with the agreement of the Government. Technical and material assistance in support of long-term risk reduction and preparedness measures is included in the country program, and may be funded from IPF resources or from other UNDP-administered funds. The same can also be used to assist rehabilitation and reconstruction. Special additional grants (up to $1.1 million) may be made from SPR funds for technical assistance to such postdisaster recovery efforts following natural disasters. The particular responsibilities of the UNDP resident representative are summarized in the following panel. Disaster management responsibilities of the UNDP resident representative The resident representative is responsible for: a) Ensuring that all concerned in planning development programs are aware of any known or potential hazards and their likely effects, and that these are appropriately taken into account in the country program. b) Designating a “disaster focal point,” and ensuring that the field office is adequately prepared to respond to an emergency. c) In the event of a disaster: that meet the needs of the situation, particularly those needed for the initial assessment and immediate response. office is strengthened if necessary to ensure effective response. Disaster focal point In all disaster-prone country field offices, a senior national officer is designated a “disaster focal point” for all disaster-related matters including mitigation, response and international UN/UNDP preparedness. Section 3A and appendix 3A of the UNDP/UNDRO Disaster Manual provide detail on the duties and qualifications of the disaster focal point. In a major or complex emergency of extended duration (typically involving displaced populations), UNDP may temporarily assign an additional deputy resident representative. That deputy may either manage normal UNDP business while the resident representative concentrates on the resident coordinator functions, or may take day-today responsibility for matters relating to the emergency which are within the UNDP mandate. In the countries with the most severe or prolonged emergencies UNDP has established UN Emergency Units. These units are able to focus exclusively on addressing the emergency and are often staffed by persons seconded from sister UN agencies that are operational in that country. In the event of a sudden influx of refugees into a country in which there is no UNHCR representation, the resident representative immediately notifies UNHCR and initiates the assessment process on behalf of the UNHCR. (See section 4A.5 of the manual.) The role of UNDRO UNDRO is the focal point for disaster management in the UN system (except in those countries where a UN Emergency Unit is established). In relief it provides a framework for coordination of assistance by the UN agencies and helps to coordinate such assistance with that from other sources. In addition, UNDRO has an important role in mobilizing external assistance and serving as a clearing house for information concerning disasters. In the area of mitigation, UNDRO promotes long-term measures to reduce disaster-related risks and enhance preparedness in disaster-prone countries. UNDRO is represented at country level on a permanent basis by the resident coordinator/representative. Coordination at headquarters level is often effected by contacts between the Head of Agencies concerned at the beginning of a relief operation, and through frequent ongoing contacts between the relevant focal points. At the country level, coordination is undertaken by the resident coordinator who is also the UNDRO representative. Whenever possible and required, UNDRO supports the resident coordinator by dispatching an UNDRO delegate or emergency assistance team. UNDRO concentrates on problems related to natural hazards and sudden disasters, but as its mandate covers all kinds of emergencies UNDRO may also offer its services and advice in situations including droughts, and cases of war and civil conflicts, unless and until the Secretary-General makes other arrangements. Following a disaster, UNDRO, acting on behalf of the Secretary-General, offers its services to the Government of the disaster-stricken state in assessing the need for external relief assistance, and communicating that information to prospective donors and others concerned. (Contacts with the Government are conducted through the resident coordinator/representative and the country’s mission in Geneva or New York.) Where international assistance is required or requested, UNDRO: Government, the resident coordinator/representative, UN-DMT, and other competent bodies. ormation on needs and contributions, the assistance extended or planned by all donors, and the progress of relief operations. organizations and agencies, bilateral donors, and inter- and non-governmental organizations and administers funds channelled through it. Depending on the particular situation after consultations, wherever possible, with the Government or the resident coordinator/representative, UNDRO may: ore delegates on mission to assist the national authorities in organizing the assessment and administering relief operations, and assist the resident coordinator/representative in information management, the local coordination of international relief assistance, and in his reporting responsibilities to UNDRO. prompt delivery to the affected population. This may include organizing shared or joint relief flights. The Coordinator may approve a grant of up to US$ 50,000 per disaster from funds available to UNDRO, subject to certain conditions. In some situations, UNDRO can release supplies from the emergency stockpile it administers in Pisa, Italy. UNDP/UNDRO collaboration UNDP and UNDRO complement each other. UNDP has a wealth of experience in development planning and administration, and well-established field offices. UNDRO has specific knowledge and experience in disaster management, and established contacts with relevant specialist bodies. The fact that the UNDP resident representative also represents UNDRO helps to ensure fruitful cooperation between the organizations. At the country level UNDP field offices generally administer funds and resources channelled through UNDRO, following normal inter-agency procedures. This includes the local procurement of supplies and services, and the recruitment and appointment of temporary staff. Disaster-related roles of the core members of the UN-DMTs FAO Provides technical advice in reducing vulnerability and helps in the rehabilitation of agriculture, livestock, and fisheries, with emphasis on local food production. Monitors food production, exports and imports, and forecasts any requirements of exceptional food assistance. UNDP Promotes the incorporation of disaster mitigation in development planning, and funds technical assistance for all aspects of disaster management. Provides administrative support to the resident coordinator and UNDMT. UNDRO Mobilizes and coordinates international emergency relief assistance, issuing consolidated appeals. Assists in assessments and relief management if required. Provides advice and guidance on risk assessments and in planning and implementing mitigation measures. UNHCR Assures the protection of refugees and seeks durable solutions to their problems. Helps to mobilize and assure the delivery of necessary assistance in the country of asylum if it is a developing country. UNICEF Attends to the well-being of children and women, especially child health and nutrition. Assistance activities may include: social programs; child feeding (in collaboration with WFP): water supplies, sanitation and direct health interventions (in collaboration with WHO). Provides related management and logistical support. WFP Provides “targeted” food aid for humanitarian relief, and to support rehabilitation, reconstruction, and risk-reducing development programs. Mobilizes and coordinates the delivery of complementary emergency and “program” food aid from bilateral and other sources. WHO Provides advice and assistance in all aspects of preventive and curative health care, including the preparedness of health services for rapid response to disasters. Role of other UN organizations and agencies A number of other UN organizations and agencies have specific responsibilities, organizational arrangements, and capabilities relating to disaster mitigation, and/or relief or recovery assistance. UNDP, UNDRO, and resident coordinators must respect the mandates and skills of these agencies, and seek to ensure that all work together in harmony. All should use their expertise and resources to best effect in helping people in disaster-prone and disaster-affected areas. THE IFRC The Formation of the IFRC The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) was founded in 1919 in Paris in the aftermath of World War I. The war had shown a need for close cooperation between Red Cross Societies, which, through their humanitarian activities on behalf of prisoners of war and combatants, had attracted millions of volunteers and built a large body of expertise. A devastated Europe could not afford to lose such a resource. It was Henry Davison, president of the American Red Cross War Committee, who proposed forming a federation of these National Societies. An international medical conference initiated by Davison resulted in the birth of the League of Red Cross Societies, which was renamed in October 1983 to the League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, and then in November 1991 to become the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. The first objective of the IFRC was to improve the health of people in countries that had suffered greatly during the four years of war. Its goals were “to strengthen and unite, for health activities, already-existing Red Cross Societies and to promote the creation of new Societies” There were five founding member Societies: Britain, France, Italy, Japan and the United States. This number has grown over the years and there are now 190 recognized National Societies – one in almost every country in the world. The Birth of an Idea The Red Cross idea was born in 1859, when Henry Dunant, a young Swiss man, came upon the scene of a bloody battle in Solferino, Italy, between the armies of imperial Austria and the Franco-Sardinian alliance. Some 40,000 men lay dead or dying on the battlefield and the wounded were lacking medical attention. Dunant organized local people to bind the soldiers’ wounds and to feed and comfort them. On his return, he called for the creation of national relief societies to assist those wounded in war, and pointed the way to the future Geneva Conventions. “Would there not be some means, during a period of peace and calm, of forming relief societies whose object would be to have the wounded cared for in time of war by enthusiastic, devoted volunteers, fully qualified for the task?” he wrote. The Red Cross was born in 1863 when five Geneva men, including Dunant, set up the International Committee for Relief to the Wounded, later to become the International Committee of the Red Cross. Its emblem was a red cross on a white background: the inverse of the Swiss flag. The following year, 12 governments adopted the first Geneva Convention; a milestone in the history of humanity, offering care for the wounded, and defining medical services as “neutral” on the battlefield. Redcross and disaster management As a truly global organization, with National Societies in 186 countries and more than 97 million volunteers locally, the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is very often the first to respond to any disaster, from the small to the large-scale. At any level of response, whether it is local, national or international, the effective coordination of available human, financial and in-kind resources is crucial both for the beneficiaries and for the donors. One of the primary roles of any Red Cross or Red Crescent National Society, as auxiliary to the authorities, is to provide first-line disaster response services. National Societies have a role (often legally defined) assigned by their governments in disaster response, which varies from country to country. It may involve search and rescue operations, evacuating the injured or people endangered by the disaster, managing shelters, restoring family links, running ambulance services or retrieving and evacuating dead bodies. In most National Societies, volunteers are trained in first aid, so that they can bring life-saving assistance to people injured in a disaster. They are also trained to assess damage and the emergency needs of the population, to identify those in need of assistance and to organize relief distributions. They may also provide health care and psychological support. In about 80 percent of cases, National Societies respond to a disaster at the local or national level, without the need for regional or international support. However, whatever the size and level, the National Societies’ response is governed by the same principles and policies. Internationally, National Societies, each within the limits of its resources give assistance for victims of natural disasters and other emergencies. Such assistance, in the form of services and personnel, of material, financial and moral support is given through the National Society of the country concerned by the disaster and the International Federation. At community level, groups of volunteers are trained to work together in Community Disaster Response Teams bringing assistance to people in their communities affected by disasters. National Disaster Response Teams are made up of National Society staff and volunteers, often from different branches or chapters, trained and working alongside Red Cross Red Crescent volunteers at community level to bring assistance to people affected by disaster. They are made up of generalists and specialists in health, logistics, relief or water and sanitation. They can be mobilized at short notice and are trained to work as a team and support the local Red Cross or Red Crescent branch or chapter in its response to the disaster. THE NATIONAL, COUNTY, AND CIVIL SOCITIES DISASTER MANAGEMENT AGENCIES THE KENYAN NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE The organisational structure for Disaster Management in Kenya is presented as in the Chart below. The functions of the different Stakeholders within the system are described. The National Disaster Management Authority The national Platform Sectorial Ministries The 6 directorates, including DOC Humanitarian and Development Partners Partners and Agencies District Disaster mgmt Committees Local authorities Divisional Disaster DDMCs Community Early Warning Community Disaster Management intiativs Technical Staff at field level Community Response Units Participatory Monitoring & Evaluation National Disaster Executive Committee (NDEC) The National Disaster Executive Committee is the highest Disaster Management decision-making body. It is at the Cabinet level and is chaired by H.E the President. Its core function is to provide policy guidance in relation to National aspirations, nominate/ appoint the Board of Directors of NADIMA. NDEC makes decisions on national disaster Management issues especially during emergencies. As things stand now it is the only body with power to advise his Excellency the President whether to declare a national disaster and make international appeals for assistance. Its members are as follows: Ministers of, State Special Programmes, Provincial Administration & Internal Security, Foreign Affairs, Health, Water and Irrigation, Agriculture, Livestock, Defense, Environment, Information, Planning, Ministry for the Development of Northern Kenya and other Arid Lands, Ministry of Local Government and Finance. This committee will be meeting on a quarterly basis to make decisions on issues emanating from the Disaster Coordinating Committee. However during cases of emergencies this committee can meet as often as the situation demands. National Disaster Coordinating Committee (NDCC) National Disaster Coordinating Committee (NDCC) is the executive arm of the NDEC. NDCC is at the Permanent Secretary level and its Chair is the Head of public service. Its core function is to execute policy. Other members include; the Permanent Secretary Provincial Administration & Internal Security, Foreign Affairs, Water and Irrigation, Health, Information, Planning, Treasury, Defense, Environment, Agriculture, and Livestock Dev. NDCC receives disaster management instructions from the NDEC and implements decisions on its behalf. The other functions of the NDCC include: Provide information on ministerial plans on Disaster Management Plans and how and when to activate them Ratify the deployment of National resources in case of emergencies Identify resource gaps and sources of non-food resources for Emergencies and Assistance. These two Committees work on an ad hoc basis and also meet on a quarterly basis just before NDEC and more frequently during emergencies. The Ministry of State for Special Programs. The Ministry of State for Special Programmes will be in charge of Disaster Management policies, and will, therefore, coordinate implementation of this Policy. It will coordinate all the disaster efforts of sectoral ministries, including Disaster Risk Reduction, and ensure that the policy is mainstreamed in their planning, development and budgeting. It will develop appropriate guidelines together with the private sector and Civil Society Organisations as well as to other stakeholders on relevant matters pertaining to Disaster Management. The Ministry of State for Special Programmes will be the custodian of Disaster Management policy formulation processes within Government and, through the Minister, will advise Cabinet on all matters pertaining to Disaster Cycle Management. It will establish partnerships and collaborative linkages with existing institutions/organizations, and will implement this policy and other Disaster Management activities. The Ministry of State for Special Programmes will fundraise for Disaster Management from other stakeholders other than the Government. It will also conduct and support public awareness, sensitization and education on Disaster Management National Disaster Management Agency National Disaster Management Agency was established with the following mandates and responsibilities: To be in charge of the day-to-day management of all disaster management activities as stipulated in these policy guidelines and in any other instructions which may be given by the Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Special Programmes from time to time ; To operate an effective and efficient National Early Warning /Disaster Monitoring Information System; To facilitate national, district and community level Disaster Management contingency processes that will result in the preparation of Contingency Plans to be updated regularly at all levels; With guidance, instruction and advise from the Board of Trustees of the National Disaster Management and Contingency Funds, yet to be set up, operate the Funds based on the procedures and guidelines provided ; Coordinate the DM activities of other stake holders in the DM Cycle Encourage and enhance collaboration and partnerships through trust building and running a credible Disaster Management system among all relevant stakeholders; Support the Ministry of Special Programmes in fund-raising activities outside the Government Support capacity-building initiatives for Disaster Management among all relevant stakeholders; Document, publish and disseminate all relevant Disaster Management data and information to all stakeholders in and around the country; Operate a functional and effective Monitoring & Evaluation system for programming and management activities on Disaster Management ; Support the Ministry of Special Programmes in education, training, sensitization and public awareness NADIMA DIRECTORATES NADIMA will have the following six Directorates: Early Warning, Disaster Risk Profiling Information management and communication; Response Coordination; Finance and Administration; Research, Planning, Monitoring & Evaluation to support its services. It will be headed by an Executive Director General, hired through a competitive bidding process and a Board of Directors appointed by the Head of the Government of Kenya through recommendations from the National Disaster Executive Committee. The Directorate of Early Warning and Disaster Risk Profiling The responsibilities of this Directorate are: Regular monitoring, collection, analysis and evaluation of information on the most frequent disasters in the country Coordination of all Early Warning System/ Information Service providers in order to harmonize the information available on Disaster Management Production of regular Early Warning Disaster Management bulletins and publications Maintenance of a data base of information and trends on Disaster Management in the country Development of hazard maps and disaster risk profiles based on a baseline year; and continue to update this information for future scenario planning in collaboration with other partners and stakeholders To establish a National Disaster Resource Centre. This Resource Centre will monitor, collect and collate all relevant information and data pertaining to Early Warning Systems and any other information on disasters; maintain the hazard mapping and disaster monitoring database; and keep all evaluation and impact assessment reports on disaster response interventions, on lessons learning and on contributing to best practices. Directorate of Institutional Coordination The responsibilities of this Directorate will be as follows: Facilitation of collaboration and linkages among all relevant stakeholders: such as the response stakeholders and disaster monitoring and Early Warning information service providers, Disaster Risk Profilers and Planners for Disaster Risk Reduction, in order to more strongly link Early Warning to response Promotion of information and experience sharing among stakeholders: Carry out strategic disaster-related needs assessments and provide recommendations to stakeholders involved in response initiatives Monitoring and Regulation of humanitarian and DM agencies c. Directorate of Disaster Response, Relief and Recovery The responsibilities of this Directorate are: Establishment and maintenance of a national disaster response capacity data base; Coordination of all stakeholders in disaster response; Facilitation of the preparation of national, district, and community level disaster response contingency plans; Facilitation of the planning and implementation of Disaster Response Interventions, based on the Disaster Cycle; Separation of the planning and coordination of Rapid-Onset Disasters from Slow-Onset Disasters, and allocation of responsibilities accordingly; Tracking the cost of all Disaster Response interventions by all stakeholders, phase by phase, in order to estimate the cost of a particular disaster, and for better judgement of the management costs of each phase. Directorate of M & E, Research and Planning The responsibilities of this directorate are: • Monitor, Analyse and Evaluate data at different stages of the disaster • • Undertake impact assessments of all disaster management response interventions; • Provide information and reports to the data bank and relevant authorities and stakeholders; • Collate and document lessons and experiences of implementing disaster response interventions by all stakeholders and use these to update data bank and institutional memory; • Undertake applied research related to disaster management; • • Monitor and undertake applied research on the impacts of Climate Change and Environmental Revolution in relation to Disaster Management; • Make appropriate recommendations for action. e. Directorate of DM Education, Training & Capacity Building The responsibilities of this Directorate are: • To establish systematically a structured corps of professional and technical disaster management personnel; • Promote systematic functional education for Disaster Management in formal and public educational systems; • Promote sensitization and public awareness on Disaster Management in liaison with Government and all stakeholders, including the Media, NGOs, CSOs, CBOs, and FBOs; • To implement appropriate training at all levels for practical, technical Disaster Management through structured courses; • Undertake periodic audits of the qualifications for DM technical and professional personnel, with a view to upgrading and sustaining acceptable and effective standards; • To promote and uphold the ethos and ethics of the code of conduct for acceptable procedures and operations in DM; and • To facilitate and eliminate deficiencies in capacity building at all levels, through standardised and officially-approved DM courses and curricula. Directorate of Finance and Administration The responsibilities of this directorate are: Establish administrative procedures and guidelines for the whole of NADIMA; Establish financial procedures and guidelines for NADIMA; Facilitate effective and timely disbursement of funds within all the directorates; Facilitate regular audits of staff’ skills, human resource requirements, equipment as well as financial in order to enhance effectiveness and efficiency of the organisation; Together with the Board of Trustees of the National Disaster Management and Contingency Funds, establish procedures for the management of the funds and financial disbursements to relevant institutions in the disasteraffected areas; Support the management of the National Disaster Contingency Fund as may be required, from time to time. The National Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction The National Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction is a stakeholder’s forum for consultation, negotiation, mediation and consensus building on disaster risk reduction. The Platform will work within the Ministry of State for Special Programmes. The broad objectives of the forum will be to: • Promote and enhance education, public awareness and advocacy of disaster risks. Obtain commitment from the public leadership to disaster risk reduction. Stimulate and strengthen multi-disciplinary and multi-sectoral partnerships and networks for Disaster Risk Reduction at all levels. Improve dissemination and understanding of natural and man-made causes of disasters, and their related effects upon vulnerable communities. Plan dissemination of information on Disaster Risk Reduction Play an advisory role to all the stakeholders on DRR Membership of the National Platform is drawn from all the Line Ministries, NGOs, and CBOs. National Disaster Advisory Council This council will act as an advisory body to the National Coordinating Committee. It will be chaired by the PS MOSSP and will have representation from: • • • • • • Heads of the UN agencies and other development partners, Secretary General KRC, Director of NEMA, NACC, KEPSA, Trade Union Representative (Secretary General of UKCS and COTU); and Vice chancellors of relevant universities. Its functions will include: • Advisory provision to NDCC based on international standards; • Discuss financial resource mobilization strategy for DM; and • Advise on critical policies being developed by the government. NOTE: This is a National Ad hoc Advisory Committee (as and when needed) to the Permanent Secretary, MOSSP. EXISTING DISASTER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTIONS There are various governmental and non-governmental agencies in the country involved in disaster management activities; but largely in an uncoordinated, reactive and sectoral framework. The same is true of line Ministries which have mainstreamed Disaster Management: In the Office of the President there is the National Disaster Operations Centre (NDOC), Arid Lands Resource Management Project (ARLMP); In the Ministry of Northern Kenya Development and Other Arid Lands, and in the Ministry of State for Special Programmes are the Department of Relief and Rehabilitation, National Aids Control Council (NACC) and NEMA in the Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources. It is also acknowledged that, among others, the Ministries responsible for Agriculture, Local Government, Regional Development, Environment and Natural Resources, Labour and Human Resource Development, Trade and Industry, Health, Roads and Public Works, Transport, Information and Communication, Tourism and Wildlife, Energy, Finance, Planning and National Development, Lands and Housing, Education, Science and Technology are involved in disaster management. In addition, IGAD, UN Agencies and other bilateral partners and international NGOs play a significant role in disaster management in Kenya. NDOC The Kenya National Disaster Operation Centre was established in 1998 in response to the El Nino rains to co-ordinate disaster management and response operations in Kenya.The functions of NDOC are: To co-ordinate and control of disaster response efforts, To act as the command centre for all communications and information relating to response operations, and To liaise with responsible ministries on national response efforts. Responsibilities The responsibilities of the NDOC include: Coordination at the national level of all disaster management activities before, during and after the disaster Ensuring that all personnel and volunteer agencies are informed of the activation of disaster contingency plans Translating the decisions of the National Disaster Coordinating Committee (NDCC) into action and/or instructions and ensuring that those instructions are transmitted and carried out by the Ministries/Departments to whom they are directed Preparing all inventories of resources and assets countrywide Developing a prioritised list of needs for donors to meet shortfalls in relief supplies Preparation of evacuation plans, shelter and refugee areas including identification of executing agencies Arranging clearance for aircraft, ships as well as customs and visa clearance for overseas relief personnel and agencies Preparation of media programmes for public information and press briefings at the centre Carrying out an annual review, evaluation and validation of national and sectoral disaster mitigation plans with a view of improving their effectiveness and efficiency Preparing and issuing a daily situation report (SITREP) to the subscribing ministries/departments National Disaster Management Unit (NDMU). The National Disaster Management Unit was established by a Presidential Directive communicated through letter Ref. No. CAB/NSC/14/2/32 dated 8th August, 2013 as an effective and competent disaster management unit with an established command structure, budget and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) based on best practices. The unit together with stakeholders formulated the National Emergency / Disaster Plan and SOPs which were signed on 27th June 2014. The plan and SOPs recognizes the existence of other National and contingency plans. The National plan and SOPs is anchored in the medium term plan phase two of vision 2030 where it promotes safety, security and protecting Kenyan assets from adverse impacts of hazards and disasters. The plan and SOPs is aligned to the strategic objectives of the Ministry of Interior and Coordination of National Government and protects social, economic and political pillars of our country. It also provides a clear leadership, command, control and coordinated approach to disaster mitigation, prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. The SOPs within the plan provides a strategic, operational and tactical guide for National Disaster Management Unit, government agencies and private partners during emergency incidents in the country. Background of national disaster management unit (NDMU) In the past, Kenya has experienced many hazardous and emergency events that have led to loss of lives, displacement of people and property destruction. In most of those incidences there was lack of proper leadership, coordination, command and control. There were existing gaps in disaster risk management and lack of use of best practice in management of emergencies and disaster. It is in this view that H.E The President of The Republic of Kenya, Hon. Uhuru Kenyatta, C.G.H, President and Commander-In-Chief of the Defence Force of the Republic of Kenya, directed the establishment of an inter-agency unit led by the National Police Service collaborating with stakeholders before, during and after emergency and disasters in Kenya.. Roles 1. To coordinate all DRM issues in the country 2. To advice the National and County Governments, private sector and all stakeholders in DRM. 3. To coordinate, collect, review and analyze information relevant to DRM. 4. To establish a National Early warning and emergency community system 5. To promote disaster risk management capacity building, training and education throughout the country including in school. 6. To promote and strengthen linkages with key state department, international organizations, counties, wards and community based disaster management structures. 7. To promote research into all aspects of disaster management. 8. To oversee regular drills and exercises in all public establishments Kenya Red Cross Kenya Red Cross is one of the many International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement societies around the world. The Kenya organisation was established in 1965, The Kenya Red Cross supports and runs a number of projects whilst raising awareness to the Kenyan public about the current issues or problems which may affect them. Some of the projects which are either run by or assisted by the Kenya Red Cross are Famine, blood services, first aid projects, disaster and emergency services and education services. The patron of the Kenya Red Cross is Uhuru Kenyatta, President of Kenya. A council administers and performs a limited number of duties, and is made up of the Secretary General and twelve voting members. All other responsibilities are held by the Board which consists of 16 persons. To supplement its humanitarian efforts, Kenya Red Cross launched a state-of-the art and first of its kind humanitarian app; the KRCS App that offers users real-time emergency alerts and life-saving tips, activities, easy access to Membership and Volunteerism, events and training from Kenya Red Cross, job posts plus different groups such as blood groups, youth groups and volunteer groups where members can connect and share ideas. KDF The mission of the Kenya Defence Forces is to defend and protect the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Republic, assist and cooperate with other authorities in situations of emergency or disaster and restore peace in any part of Kenya affected by unrest or instability as assigned. KDF comprises the armed forces of the country: Army, Navy and Air Force. NDMA The National Drought Management Authority (NDMA) is a public body established by the National Drought Management Authority (NDMA) Act, 2016. It previously operated under the State Corporations Act (Cap 446) of the Laws of Kenya by Legal Notice Number 171 of November 24, 2011. The Act gives the NDMA the mandate to exercise overall coordination over all matters relating to drought risk management and to establish mechanisms, either on its own or with stakeholders, that will end drought emergencies in Kenya. The history of Kenya’s work on drought management goes back to 1985, with the design of a drought contingency planning system in Turkana. In the early 1990s this system was extended to other arid districts with the support of the Netherlands government. It was then expanded further by the Emergency Drought Recovery Project (from 1992) and its successor, the ALRMP, both of them supported by the World Bank. By end of Phase II of the ALRMP, the drought management system was covering 28 arid and semi-arid districts (now 23 counties). This series of short-term, project-based interventions were being carried out at a time when drought periods were becoming increasingly frequent and intense, directly affecting the household food security and livelihoods of more than ten million people. The government therefore recognised the need to strengthen the sustainability and quality of drought management in Kenya by establishing the National Drought Management Authority (NDMA). The NDMA provides a platform for long-term planning and action, as well as a mechanism for solid coordination across Government and with all other stakeholders. The Authority has established offices in 23 ASAL counties considered vulnerable to drought. Drought resilience The government recognises that the key to effective drought management is to reduce risk and build resilience by investing in sustainable development in drought-prone areas and by mainstreaming risk reduction into processes of development planning and resource allocation. NDMA; 1. Mainstreams drought risk reduction and climate adaptation into planning 2. Implements social protection programmes with chronically food insecure populations 3. Implements strategic projects that reduce risk or strengthen preparedness for drought. Drought information The Authority generates, consolidates warning information through; and disseminates drought early 1. Managing and operating the drought early warning system and provides timely and credible early warning information on drought risks. 2. Coordinating and participating in twice-yearly, multi-stakeholder national and county food security assessments. 3. Publishing monthly bulletins that communicate the current drought status (Normal, Alert, Alarm, Emergency, Recovery) 4. Determining livelihood zones and develop drought vulnerability database Drought contingency planning and response Specific activities must be carried out in response to early warning information at different stages of the drought cycle which, in combination with preparations made by communities, can significantly reduce the impact of drought. The Authority; 1. Operationalises the Drought Contingency Fund within the proposed National Drought Contingency Fund 2. Facilitates multi-stakeholder contingency planning in each county 3. Provides contingency finance to counties against their plans 4. Provides guidance and standards for all drought practitioners in Kenya THE IMPORTANCE OF CBO IN EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT Civil Society Organizations CSOs Civil Society Organizations CSOs in Kenya have significant levels of capacities and resources to apply to all phases of the disaster management cycle. Many have decentralized structures, with professional human resources capacities spread across the country up to the sub county and county levels. A few such organizations have well established mandate for DM through Acts of parliament such as the KRCS which under this mandate is auxiliary to the government in disaster management related issues The Role of NGOs in Disaster Risk Reduction The key role which communities play in disaster management and disaster risk reduction is strongly acknowledged by the ISDR secretariat, whose vision is to “enable all communities to become resilient to the effects of natural hazards, technological and environmental disasters.” Experiences show that communitybased approaches offer viable solutions for managing and reducing risks and ensuring sustainable development. Today, an increasingly predominant view is that for risk reduction strategies to be truly effective in protecting lives and livelihoods, they need to be people centred. They need to build on people’s local knowledge and cultural practices, and apply tools and approaches that people can easily understand and integrate into their lives. Conversely, disaster reduction using top-down government and institutional interventions alone are often considered insufficient as they tend to have a lower understanding of community dynamics, perceptions and needs, and ignore the potential of local knowledge and capacities NGOs’ involvement in DRR activities has proved beneficial for a number of reasons, including the following: NGOs can operate at grassroots level with communities and local organizations as partners, and take a participatory approach to development planning. This allows them to respond better to local people’s priorities and build on local capacities. NGOs enjoy higher operational flexibility as they are relatively free from bureaucratic structures and systems, and better able to respond and adapt quickly and easily. NGOs often work with and on behalf of most needy groups: the poorest and the most vulnerable. Overall, the following broad areas of intervention have been identified as being the ones in which NGOs appear to be more actively involved: Policy and advocacy Knowledge and education Community-based risk and vulnerability assessment Community-based mitigation and preparedness Policy & Advocacy A number of NGOs have been very active in advocating for better DRR policies and practices at the international level. Some played a key role in lobbying at the January 2005 World Conference on Disaster Reduction in Kobe, Japan, as well as in the follow-up of and implementation mechanisms for the Conference’s outcomes. As a result of these efforts, there is certainly an increased recognition today of the need to mainstream DRR into development planning Knowledge & Education As the January 2005 World Conference on Disaster Reduction concluded, “disasters can be substantially reduced if people are well informed and motivated towards a culture of disaster prevention and resilience, which in turn requires the collection, compilation and dissemination of relevant knowledge and information on hazards, vulnerabilities and capacities”. There is indeed a strong recommendation that DRR knowledge should be introduced into school curricula and that other formal and informal channels should be used to reach youth and children. Community-Based Vulnerability & Risk Assessment As mentioned earlier, a broad consensus is emerging in favour of communitybased DRR approaches, since it is at community level that physical, social and economic risks can be adequately assessed and managed. Over the last decade, growing recognition of the necessity of enhanced community participation for sustainable disaster reduction has often been translated into some actions to carry out community-based vulnerability and risk assessments Community-Based Mitigation & Preparedness Pioneering initiatives in community-based disaster mitigation (and preparedness) have been developed as of the 1980s to advocate for an alternative approach to disaster management. Good practices in community-based approaches to disaster mitigation and preparedness (DMP) highlight key success factors such as applying best practice methodologies of community development to community-based DMP, respecting traditional organizational structures and mechanisms (including formal and informal community leaders), and undertaking capability building activities with community disaster committees and volunteers In its development, the field of humanitarian issue and disaster risk management begun to take into account religious considerations. It is evident in the way scholars began to think about the role of Christian Church in the development in Africa and began to regard liberation theology as force of change. 2 In December 2009, Center for Community Risk and Security at RMIT University organized a forum in the World’s Parliament of Religions with the theme of Faith, Community and Disaster Risk Reduction’. Here, the speakers highlighted the importance of relation between religion and disaster. The importance lies on religious interpretation on disaster and the role of Faith-Based Organizations in disaster mitigation, anticipation, response, as well as post-disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction. Western Paradigm about disaster places human beings dealing with the nature. Natural disasters like flood and fire are seen as dangers that must be conquered. In contrast, in the ancient spiritualism and many native traditions, human life is inseparable from nature. Instead of being perceived as “the act of God,” natural disaster is regarded as consequence of destruction on nature by the hands of human beings. Here, the earth pays back human’s carelessness, ignorance, and greed with floods and other disasters. In line with that, we often find effective disaster mitigation strategies in the tradition of Native communities. Singas Village in Papua New Guinea for instance, is prone to flood. For generations, their houses were built on an assembly point above the hill to be used during the flood. Now, heavy rains and river flows can be monitored by advanced technology and can be informed to public through a good early warning system. The World perception in looking at water as primary source of life instead of hazards has equipped many people in the village with skill to mitigate disaster.