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Football Management Degree
Video analysis
The difference between strategy and tactic is a common subject when referring to the world of
business. Sawielly G. Tartakower, an outstanding strategist states that “Tactics is knowing what
to do when there is something to do. Strategy is knowing what to do when there is nothing to
Strategy vs Tactics
Reflect on and discuss the difference that exists between tactics and strategy. Can you give us
a example from your own personal or professional experience?
Strategy and Tactics historically originated from a military context. However, these concepts
are now used in the business world and other settings. Strategy relates to the Overall plan,
being the “big picture” and is orientated towards the future. Tactics, however are procedures
to be carried out, in order to fulfil the strategy. Time-wise they would be tasks that need to be
implemented in the present or near future, in contrast to the longer time period of the
In my work with football medical teams, one of our strategies to improve the team success
was to reduce the amount of injuries that players sustained – Our strategy as a medical team
was to ensure as many players as possible were available for selection on match day. Our
tactics were several – a) strength training programs to target players players weaknesses, b)
load management of training to prevent overtraining c) correct nutrition for the players, d)
team injury prevention sessions and exercises based on scientific evidence, e) targetting
reduction of the two most common injuries – hamstring muscle tears, and ankle ligament
VIDEO 2. Strategy vs Operations
What novelty does Mintzberg offer us? Justify whether you agree or disagree with him.
Mintzberg argues that strategy shouldn’t be separate from operations i.e. tactics. He suggests
that important strategies arise from experiments and ideas borne from the operations. I
agree with him, as over time, operations will determine more efficient methods of performing
tasks, which will ultimately change the strategy. Therefore the strategies are “elastic” and
ever changing, not “plastic” and rigid.
Football Management Degree
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VIDEO 3. History of management
We would like to ask you to look for information on the internet or that you consult our
Glossary to determine the contribution that the following people have made to management:
Frederick Taylor; Henry Fayol; Mary Follet; Michael Porter; Robert M. Grant; Adam Smith;
Kenneth R. Andrews; Henry Mintzberg
Frederick Taylor - Started the Scientific management movement, where he and his coworkes studied the work process scientifically. He investigated such things as - specific worker
roles, time and motion studies, reducing employee laziness. Taylor was extremely interested
in efficiency and he concluded that some employees are more efficient than others. This led
to him stating that managers selecting the right people for the right job is of great
Henry Fayol – Theorist who helped build the foundations of modern management theory. He
published the “14 Principals of Management”, with his theories falling under the
administrative management school of thought, opposing the Scientific management theories
of Taylor.
Mary Follet – A pioneer of organizational theory and organizational behavior. Indeed, Follet is
known as the “Mother of modern management”. Her main concerns were on creative
experience, democracy and developing local community organisations. Her pioneering work
in management looked at approaching organisations as group networks rather than
hierarchical structures.
Michael Porter – Is a leading authority on competitive strategy, and is regarded as one of the
founding fathers of strategic management as a discipline. His main contributions to the filed
have been his 5 forces model, value chain analysis, and generic strategies. His 5 forces model
is widely used to identify and determine potential profitability and risk in any industry. His
models are used worldwide to understand the level of competition and how to face the
Robert M Grant – British economic strategy academic, who importantly challenged Michael
Porters views on competitive advantage. He proposed a 5 step RESOURCE based approach to
strategy analysis that helps managers develop effective strategy for managing resources.
Kenneth Andrews – Is regarded as the pioneer of SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses,
Opportunites, and Threats), an analytical tool still used today. He argued his methodology was
a sound approach for the determination of a niche strategy – the best way for a company to
use its strengths to exploit opportunities, and to defend both the companies weaknesses and
strengths against threats.
Henry Mintzberg – in 1973, Mintzberg outlined in his book, “The Nature of Managerial Work”,
that after years of observation and research on the habits and time management of CEOs,
what managers did differed greatly from what most management theories said they should
do. Arising from these studies, he identified 10 roles that he believed made up the content of
a managers job, with these roles falling into 3 main categories – a) Interpersonal contact, b)
information processing, and c) decision making. Basically, Mintzberg re-defined our thinking
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about what it means to be a manager.
VIDEO 4. Edward Jones
Edward Jones is one of the main investment firms in North America. Visit the website of
Edward Jones click here. By means of their website we ask you to investigate the firm and
describe what the following mean to you:
a) its business model;
b) its source of income;
c) its company objectives;
d) its area of action;
e) its competitive advantage and lastly,
e) its differential aspects
a) Business model – Financial services and stock-broking firm committed to helping their
clients reach their long term financial goals. Edward Jones supplies their Investment
representatives with offices, a full time support person, and excellent technology. The
investment representatives then provide financial services to their customers, in multiple
b) Source of Income – Revenue from commissions and fees.
c) Company objectives – Provide máximum help to their clients in achieving their goals related
to retirement and financial security. Maintaim quality in the job they perform and build good
relationships with their customers and employees.
d) Area of action – Private brokerage firm for individual investors and small business owners.
e) Competitive advantage – multi location offices
f) Differential aspects - Local offices, quality of service provided, continued good relationship
and personal relationship with their customers. Close client relationship
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VIDEO 5. Gary Hamel
Garry Hamel, one of the most influential thinkers of the world of business and the author of
“The future of management”, gives us an alternative to the 19th century model that still
prevails today and that is practically designed by theorists like Taylor, Weber and Drucker who
were all born in the 19th century.
1. What does G.Hamel define as management innovation?
Management innovation is defined as the invention and implementation of management
practice, process, structure or technique that is new to state of the art and is intended to
further organizational goals.
2. What are the company's main problems, according to Hamel?
Big leaders appoint Little leaders, the big decisions of the Company are still made by high
management, strategy making is a top down process, no advances in performance reviews.
3. Do you agree with Hamel that companies do not innovate in management? Justify your
From an internet search, it is apparent that there are companie,s such as Google, who
innovate in management. Google appears to have a people-centric approach, with principles
in place based on the belief that people want to be creative, and that the company must
provide them with the setting and tools to be creative. Its culture emphasizes openness and
employee trust. Google removes unneccesary bureaucratic features in order to give
employees more freedom and to facilitate communication.
Indeed, their business model seems to be “unorthodox” and innovative, but highly successful.
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4. Can you summarize your own professional experience in relation to what is known as
management innovation?
In my experience, I have only worked for companies with seemingly poor management
innovation. Decisions and strategies are always from higher management, with an apparent
top-down approach. I have seen very smart and intellectual people move companies (and
their ideas too) due to this. Perhaps higher management perceive management innovation to
be “risky”, and prefer sticking to the older models of strategic management?