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States of Matter
States of Matter
Kinetic Molecular Theory
 Four States of Matter
 Thermal Expansion
A. Kinetic Molecular Theory
 Tiny, constantly moving particles
make up all matter.
 The kinetic energy (motion) of these
particles increases as temperature
B. Four States of Matter
 Solids
 low KE - particles vibrate but
can’t move around
 definite shape & volume
 crystalline - repeating
geometric pattern
 amorphous - no pattern (e.g.
glass, wax)
B. Four States of Matter
 Liquids
 higher KE - particles can
move around but are still
close together
 indefinite shape
 definite volume
B. Four States of Matter
 Properties of liquids
 Viscosity
– a liquid’s resistance to
–Slower than molasses in January
 Surface Tension – uneven forces on
surface particles of liquids causes
them to resist being pulled apart
–Water skippers, droplets
B. Four States of Matter
 Gases
 high KE - particles can
separate and move
throughout container
 indefinite shape & volume
 Vapors – matter in a gaseous
state that is usually a solid or
liquid at room temperature
 Examples?
B. Four States of Matter
 Plasma
 very high KE - particles collide with
enough energy to break into
charged particles (+/-)
 gas-like, indefinite
shape & volume
 stars, fluorescent
light bulbs, TV tubes
C. Thermal Expansion
 Most matter expands when
heated & contracts when
  Temp causes  KE.
Particles collide with more
force & spread out.
 EX: thermostats (bimetallic
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